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İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ

Yıl 2021, Cilt 28, Sayı 28, 211 - 224, 14.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011

Öz

Sasani dönemi şehirlerinin mekansal organizasyonu, kohandej (kale kent), şehristan (açık kent) ve rabaz (dış odaklı büyüme) bölümlerini içerir ki önemli siyasi, dini ve sosyal alanlar kohandej kısmında yer alır. İslami dönemde de kentsel mekân organizasyonu eski çağlarda olduğu gibi kohandej, şehristan ve rabaz bölümlerinden oluşmakla birlikte, tarihi metinlere göre, bazı nedenlerle kohandej'in gücü azalmış ve rabaz ve şehristan şehrin siyasi, dini, ekonomik ve sosyal merkezi haline gelmiştir. Bu araştırmanın amacı, Selçuklu dönemi boyunca Rey’in tarihi dokusunun, şehrin mekânsal organizasyonu ve tarihi metinler ile arkeolojik verilere dayalı toplumsal düzey değişiklikleri yardımıyla anlaşılmasıdır. Bu saptamalar sonucunda ortaya bazı önemli sorular çıkmaktadır: Selçuklu dönemindeki Rey kentinin mekân organizasyonunda kohandej, rabaz ve şehristanın rolü nedir? Bu mekân organizasyonu ile önceki dönemler arasındaki fark nedir? Sonuç olarak Rey şehrinin Selçuklu dönemindeki tarihi dokusunun, önceki dönemlerin kentleşme tarzına göre yeni bir şekle sahip olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Arkeolojik kanıtlar, İslam döneminin başlarında, özellikle Selçuklu döneminde, rabaz ve şehristan bölümlerinin geliştiğini ve büyüdüğünü göstermektedir.

Kaynakça

  • ANONYMOUS. 1996. History of the Seljuk Dynasty in Anatolia, Introduc- tion and edition by Jalali, N. Publishing Office of Written Heritage, Tehran.
  • ASHRAF, A. 1974. “Historical Characteristics of Urbanization in Iran du- ring the Islamic Period”, Journal of Social Sciences, 1, 4.
  • BONDARI, I. M. 1918. The history of the Seljuk dynasty (Zobdah al-Nusra and Nokhbah al- Asra), translated by Mohammad Ja- lili, H. Foundation of Iranian Culture Publishing House, Tehran.
  • BOSWORTH, C. E. 2016. Political and Dynastical History of Iran (390-614 AH / 1000-1217 AD), Cambridge University Research, Vol. 5, Compiled by Boyle, J. A, Persian translation by Anous- heh, H. Twelfth Edition, Amir Kabir Publishing Institute, Tehran.
  • CASTELLO, F. V. 1989. Urbanization in the Middle East, translated by Piran, P. and Rezaei, A., Nashr-e Ney, Tehran.
  • FARAHBAKHSH, M. / SAFA MANSOURI, H. 2016. “Recognition of the Defensive Fortifications of Bam Ci- tadel”, Iranian Journal of Archeology, 10, 231-211.
  • FARSHAD, M. 1983. Engineering History in Iran, Gouyesh Publishing Hou- se, Tehran
  • HABIBI, H. 1999. From Shar to City; A Historical Analysis of the Con- cept of the City and its Physical Appearance, Thought and Influence, Tehran University Press, Tehran
  • HAMAVI, Y. 1986. Mojam al-Boldan, translated by Monzavi, A. N. Cultu- ral Heritage Publishing House, Tehran.
  • IBN ATHIR, 1991. Tarikh al-Kamel, Vol. 8, Persian translation by Hamid Reza Azhir, Asatir Publication Inc. Tehran.
  • IBN HAWQAL, M. 1987. Ibn Hawqal’s travelogue (Iran in the image of the world), Translation and explanation by Dr. Jafar Shoar, Amir Kabir Publishing Institute, Tehran.
  • IBN RASTEH, A. O. 1986. Alaegh al-Nafsiyah, Persian translation by Ghareh Chanlou, H. Amir Kabir Publishing Institute, Tehran.
  • KARIMAN, H. 1976. The Ancient Rey. Volume I and II, National Iranian Uni- versity Press, Tehran.
  • KARIMIAN, H. / SEYEDIN, S. 2009. “Recovering Ancient Cities based on Historical Texts; Case study of Darabghird”, Bagh-e Nazar, 6, 11, 82-69.
  • KARIMIAN, H. / SEYEDIN, S. 2010. “Darabghird in Transition from Sassanian to Islamic Pe- riod based on archaeological documents”, Bagh-e Na- zar, 13, 88-73.
  • KARIMIAN, H. / SEYEDIN, S. 2016. “Recovering the Spatial Structure of the Historic City of Saveh, Relying on Architectural and Archaeological Evi- dence”, Journal of Iranian Islamic Studies, 25, 42-29.
  • KARIMIAN, H.2010. “Cities and Social Order in Sasanian Iran-the Archae- ological Potential”, Antiquity, Antiquity Publication Ltd, June 2010, Volume 84, Issue 324, pp. 453-466.
  • KEALL, E.J. 1979. “The Topography and Architecture of Medieval Rayy”, in Akten des VII. Internationalen Kongresses fur Ira- nische Kunst und Archaologie Munchen, 1976, Berlin: Pp. 537-43.
  • KHALEDIAN, S. /KARIMIAN, H. /AHMADPUR, A. / MAZAHERIAN, H. 2014. “Explaining the Position of Islam in Urbanization and Urban Space Organization of Iran”, Quarterly Journal of Iranian Islamic Studies, 17, 18-5.
  • KOWSARI, H. / RAHIMNEJAD, M. 1996. “Research on Gabri Castle of the Ancient Rey”, Proce- edings of the Congress on the History of Architecture and Urbanism of Iran, Publications of the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran, Tehran.
  • LABBAF, K. R. and KERVRAN, M. 2007 “An Overview of the Archaeological Excavations and Re- search of the Joint Board of Iran and France in Kohandej of Neyshabur”, in Archaeological Reports 6, Research Center of Archaeology, Tehran, 35-21.
  • LATIFI, G. /KHANI, H. / KHAKSARI, R. A. 2015. Urban Space, Social Life, Negarestan Andisheh Publis- hing House, Tehran. MOHAJERNEJAD, A. R. /KARIMIAN, H. / SAGHA- EI, S. 2017. “The Spatial Organization and Chronology of the city of Natel, Relying on Historical Sources and Archaeological Evidence”, Iranian Journal of Archeology, No. 12, se- venth volume, pp. 259-245.
  • MORTEZAEI, M. 2007. “Study of Natural and Cultural Infrastructure in the For- mation of the City of Gorgan (A Case Study of the Jorjan Islamic Site)”, Asar Journal, 43-42, 146-129.
  • MORTEZAEI, M. / SADRAEI, A. 2014. “The Results of Archaeological Excavations in the city of Rey on Imam Ali Highway”. Asar Journal, 64, 113-120.
  • NEIYSHABURI, Z. 1953. Saljuk Namah, Compiled and edited by Khan Afshar E. Kolaleh Khavar Publishing Inc. Tehran.
  • POPE, A. U. 1956. “Persian Architecture”, London.
  • QAZVINI, R. A. J. 1979. Naghz (Baaz Mesal al-Navaseb fi Naghz Baaz Faza- neh al-Ravafez) compiled and edited by the Publishing House of Mir Jalaluddin Mohadeth, National Association of Iranian Works.
  • SAADATI, M. / NEYESTANI, J / HEJEBRI NOBARI, A. 2020. “The Inner City Seljuk Fortification of Rey: Case Study of Rashkan Fortress”, the International Iournal of Hu- manities, IQBQ. 2020; 27(3): 1-19
  • SCHMIDT, E.F. 1935. “Excavation at Rayy”, in Ars Islamica II, part. I, pp. 139-141.
  • SCHMIDT, E.F. 1936. “The Excavation on the Citadel Hill”, in University Mu- seum Bulletin 1-2, pp. 79-87, 133-135.
  • SCHMIDT, E.F. 1940. Flights over Ancient Cities of Iran, University of Chi- cago Press, Chicago.
  • SOLTANZADEH, H. 2011. A Brief History of Urbanization in Iran from the Ancient Period until the year 1976, Chahartagh Publication Inc., Tehran.
  • -TAGHAVI NEJAD, D. M. R. 1984. Architecture, Urbanism and Urbanization of Iran over Time, Nasr-e Yasaveli Publishing Inc., Tehran.
  • YOUSEFI FAR, S. 2006. “Pattern of Physical Expansion of Cities in the Midd- le Centuries of Iran”, Journal of Humanities, No. 52, 350-319.
  • YOUSEFI FAR, S. / MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN, M. 2008. “The Effect of Social Relations on the Physical Forma- tion of the Iranian-Islamic City Based on a Sample-like Approach to Rey city in Seljuk era”, Journal of Iranian Society of History, First year, 1, 205-175.
  • WILLIAMS, T. 2011. “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photography: Exploring the Medieval City of Merv, on the Silk Roads of Central Asia”, Archaeology International, No. 15, 2011-2012, 54-68.

REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF SELJUK CITIES IN IRAN, CASE STUDY: CITY OF REY

Yıl 2021, Cilt 28, Sayı 28, 211 - 224, 14.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011

Öz

The spatial organization of cities during the Sassanid period includes three parts called Kohandezh, Shārestan, and Rabaz that the important political, religious and social sectors were located in Kohandezh. In the Islamic period, although the organization of urban space, has the same three parts of Kohandezh, Shārestan and Rabaz like the ancient era, according to historical texts, during this period the power of Kohandezh diminished due to some reasons, and Rabaz and Shārestan became the political, religious, economic and social center of the city. The purpose of the present research is to recognize the historical texture of Rey during the Seljuk period by spatial organization of the city and social level changes based on historical texts and archaeological data. Accordingly, some important questions are raised here: What is the role of Kohandezh, Rabaz, and Shārestan in the organization of urban space during the Seljuk period of Rey? How did this structure differ from the previous periods? As a result, it was revealed that the historical texture of Rey during the Seljuk period took a new form compared to the urbanization style of the previous eras. Archaeological data indicate that during the early Islamic era, especially the Seljuk period, the Rabaz and Shārestan sections boomed and expanded.

Kaynakça

  • ANONYMOUS. 1996. History of the Seljuk Dynasty in Anatolia, Introduc- tion and edition by Jalali, N. Publishing Office of Written Heritage, Tehran.
  • ASHRAF, A. 1974. “Historical Characteristics of Urbanization in Iran du- ring the Islamic Period”, Journal of Social Sciences, 1, 4.
  • BONDARI, I. M. 1918. The history of the Seljuk dynasty (Zobdah al-Nusra and Nokhbah al- Asra), translated by Mohammad Ja- lili, H. Foundation of Iranian Culture Publishing House, Tehran.
  • BOSWORTH, C. E. 2016. Political and Dynastical History of Iran (390-614 AH / 1000-1217 AD), Cambridge University Research, Vol. 5, Compiled by Boyle, J. A, Persian translation by Anous- heh, H. Twelfth Edition, Amir Kabir Publishing Institute, Tehran.
  • CASTELLO, F. V. 1989. Urbanization in the Middle East, translated by Piran, P. and Rezaei, A., Nashr-e Ney, Tehran.
  • FARAHBAKHSH, M. / SAFA MANSOURI, H. 2016. “Recognition of the Defensive Fortifications of Bam Ci- tadel”, Iranian Journal of Archeology, 10, 231-211.
  • FARSHAD, M. 1983. Engineering History in Iran, Gouyesh Publishing Hou- se, Tehran
  • HABIBI, H. 1999. From Shar to City; A Historical Analysis of the Con- cept of the City and its Physical Appearance, Thought and Influence, Tehran University Press, Tehran
  • HAMAVI, Y. 1986. Mojam al-Boldan, translated by Monzavi, A. N. Cultu- ral Heritage Publishing House, Tehran.
  • IBN ATHIR, 1991. Tarikh al-Kamel, Vol. 8, Persian translation by Hamid Reza Azhir, Asatir Publication Inc. Tehran.
  • IBN HAWQAL, M. 1987. Ibn Hawqal’s travelogue (Iran in the image of the world), Translation and explanation by Dr. Jafar Shoar, Amir Kabir Publishing Institute, Tehran.
  • IBN RASTEH, A. O. 1986. Alaegh al-Nafsiyah, Persian translation by Ghareh Chanlou, H. Amir Kabir Publishing Institute, Tehran.
  • KARIMAN, H. 1976. The Ancient Rey. Volume I and II, National Iranian Uni- versity Press, Tehran.
  • KARIMIAN, H. / SEYEDIN, S. 2009. “Recovering Ancient Cities based on Historical Texts; Case study of Darabghird”, Bagh-e Nazar, 6, 11, 82-69.
  • KARIMIAN, H. / SEYEDIN, S. 2010. “Darabghird in Transition from Sassanian to Islamic Pe- riod based on archaeological documents”, Bagh-e Na- zar, 13, 88-73.
  • KARIMIAN, H. / SEYEDIN, S. 2016. “Recovering the Spatial Structure of the Historic City of Saveh, Relying on Architectural and Archaeological Evi- dence”, Journal of Iranian Islamic Studies, 25, 42-29.
  • KARIMIAN, H.2010. “Cities and Social Order in Sasanian Iran-the Archae- ological Potential”, Antiquity, Antiquity Publication Ltd, June 2010, Volume 84, Issue 324, pp. 453-466.
  • KEALL, E.J. 1979. “The Topography and Architecture of Medieval Rayy”, in Akten des VII. Internationalen Kongresses fur Ira- nische Kunst und Archaologie Munchen, 1976, Berlin: Pp. 537-43.
  • KHALEDIAN, S. /KARIMIAN, H. /AHMADPUR, A. / MAZAHERIAN, H. 2014. “Explaining the Position of Islam in Urbanization and Urban Space Organization of Iran”, Quarterly Journal of Iranian Islamic Studies, 17, 18-5.
  • KOWSARI, H. / RAHIMNEJAD, M. 1996. “Research on Gabri Castle of the Ancient Rey”, Proce- edings of the Congress on the History of Architecture and Urbanism of Iran, Publications of the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran, Tehran.
  • LABBAF, K. R. and KERVRAN, M. 2007 “An Overview of the Archaeological Excavations and Re- search of the Joint Board of Iran and France in Kohandej of Neyshabur”, in Archaeological Reports 6, Research Center of Archaeology, Tehran, 35-21.
  • LATIFI, G. /KHANI, H. / KHAKSARI, R. A. 2015. Urban Space, Social Life, Negarestan Andisheh Publis- hing House, Tehran. MOHAJERNEJAD, A. R. /KARIMIAN, H. / SAGHA- EI, S. 2017. “The Spatial Organization and Chronology of the city of Natel, Relying on Historical Sources and Archaeological Evidence”, Iranian Journal of Archeology, No. 12, se- venth volume, pp. 259-245.
  • MORTEZAEI, M. 2007. “Study of Natural and Cultural Infrastructure in the For- mation of the City of Gorgan (A Case Study of the Jorjan Islamic Site)”, Asar Journal, 43-42, 146-129.
  • MORTEZAEI, M. / SADRAEI, A. 2014. “The Results of Archaeological Excavations in the city of Rey on Imam Ali Highway”. Asar Journal, 64, 113-120.
  • NEIYSHABURI, Z. 1953. Saljuk Namah, Compiled and edited by Khan Afshar E. Kolaleh Khavar Publishing Inc. Tehran.
  • POPE, A. U. 1956. “Persian Architecture”, London.
  • QAZVINI, R. A. J. 1979. Naghz (Baaz Mesal al-Navaseb fi Naghz Baaz Faza- neh al-Ravafez) compiled and edited by the Publishing House of Mir Jalaluddin Mohadeth, National Association of Iranian Works.
  • SAADATI, M. / NEYESTANI, J / HEJEBRI NOBARI, A. 2020. “The Inner City Seljuk Fortification of Rey: Case Study of Rashkan Fortress”, the International Iournal of Hu- manities, IQBQ. 2020; 27(3): 1-19
  • SCHMIDT, E.F. 1935. “Excavation at Rayy”, in Ars Islamica II, part. I, pp. 139-141.
  • SCHMIDT, E.F. 1936. “The Excavation on the Citadel Hill”, in University Mu- seum Bulletin 1-2, pp. 79-87, 133-135.
  • SCHMIDT, E.F. 1940. Flights over Ancient Cities of Iran, University of Chi- cago Press, Chicago.
  • SOLTANZADEH, H. 2011. A Brief History of Urbanization in Iran from the Ancient Period until the year 1976, Chahartagh Publication Inc., Tehran.
  • -TAGHAVI NEJAD, D. M. R. 1984. Architecture, Urbanism and Urbanization of Iran over Time, Nasr-e Yasaveli Publishing Inc., Tehran.
  • YOUSEFI FAR, S. 2006. “Pattern of Physical Expansion of Cities in the Midd- le Centuries of Iran”, Journal of Humanities, No. 52, 350-319.
  • YOUSEFI FAR, S. / MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN, M. 2008. “The Effect of Social Relations on the Physical Forma- tion of the Iranian-Islamic City Based on a Sample-like Approach to Rey city in Seljuk era”, Journal of Iranian Society of History, First year, 1, 205-175.
  • WILLIAMS, T. 2011. “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photography: Exploring the Medieval City of Merv, on the Silk Roads of Central Asia”, Archaeology International, No. 15, 2011-2012, 54-68.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Arkeoloji
Bölüm Articles
Yazarlar

Mohsen SAADATI Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
Modares University
0000-0001-7364-0357
Türkiye


Javad NEYESTANI Bu kişi benim
0000-0002-4237-3660
Türkiye


Seyed Mehdi MOUSAVI KOUHPAR Bu kişi benim
0000-0001-9532-3002
Türkiye


Alireza HEJEBTI NOBARI Bu kişi benim
0000-0002-5698-8535
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 14 Eylül 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 30 Kasım 2019
Kabul Tarihi 10 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 28, Sayı 28

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tubaar995499, journal = {TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi}, issn = {1301-8566}, eissn = {2667-5005}, address = {TÜBA - TÜRKİYE BİLİMLER AKADEMİSİ Piyade Sokak No: 27 Çankaya 06690 ANKARA}, publisher = {Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi}, year = {2021}, volume = {28}, pages = {211 - 224}, doi = {10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011}, title = {İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ}, key = {cite}, author = {Saadatı, Mohsen and Neyestanı, Javad and Mousavı Kouhpar, Seyed Mehdi and Hejebtı Nobarı, Alireza} }
APA Saadatı, M. , Neyestanı, J. , Mousavı Kouhpar, S. M. & Hejebtı Nobarı, A. (2021). İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi , 28 (28) , 211-224 . DOI: 10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011
MLA Saadatı, M. , Neyestanı, J. , Mousavı Kouhpar, S. M. , Hejebtı Nobarı, A. "İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ" . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 28 (2021 ): 211-224 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tubaar/issue/64893/995499>
Chicago Saadatı, M. , Neyestanı, J. , Mousavı Kouhpar, S. M. , Hejebtı Nobarı, A. "İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 28 (2021 ): 211-224
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ AU - Mohsen Saadatı , Javad Neyestanı , Seyed Mehdi Mousavı Kouhpar , Alireza Hejebtı Nobarı Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011 DO - 10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011 T2 - TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 211 EP - 224 VL - 28 IS - 28 SN - 1301-8566-2667-5005 M3 - doi: 10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011 UR - https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ %A Mohsen Saadatı , Javad Neyestanı , Seyed Mehdi Mousavı Kouhpar , Alireza Hejebtı Nobarı %T İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ %D 2021 %J TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi %P 1301-8566-2667-5005 %V 28 %N 28 %R doi: 10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011 %U 10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011
ISNAD Saadatı, Mohsen , Neyestanı, Javad , Mousavı Kouhpar, Seyed Mehdi , Hejebtı Nobarı, Alireza . "İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 28 / 28 (Eylül 2021): 211-224 . https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011
AMA Saadatı M. , Neyestanı J. , Mousavı Kouhpar S. M. , Hejebtı Nobarı A. İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ. TÜBA-AR. 2021; 28(28): 211-224.
Vancouver Saadatı M. , Neyestanı J. , Mousavı Kouhpar S. M. , Hejebtı Nobarı A. İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ. TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi. 2021; 28(28): 211-224.
IEEE M. Saadatı , J. Neyestanı , S. M. Mousavı Kouhpar ve A. Hejebtı Nobarı , "İRAN’DAKİ SELÇUKLU ŞEHİRLERİNİN MEKANSAL YAPISININ İNCELENMESİ VE ANALİZİ, ÖRNEK: REY ŞEHRİ", TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi, c. 28, sayı. 28, ss. 211-224, Eyl. 2021, doi:10.22520/tubaar.2021.28.011

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