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Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan

Yıl 2021, Cilt 0, Sayı 29, 95 - 110, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005

Öz

The Bronze and Iron periods mark a move towards further deepening of social and cultural complexities, which eventually would culminate in the rise of early states in northwest Iran. The advent in this period of the extramural cemeteries also gives rise to speculations over the types of communities, convictions, and religious orientations of the contemporary populations. In these cemeteries, the structure of the graves and their burial goods convey concepts and symbols that can help shed some light on part of the questions regarding the culture of the associated populations. Architectural data are available from dozens of burial grounds thus far investigated in Iranian Azerbaijan. Excavations at these places have identified a wide range of similarities and dissimilarities in their placement as well as the structure, construction materials, and burial goods of their graves. Drawing on the excavated data, the present paper is an attempt to appraise the mortuary customs with a special focus on the types of structures of graves in the late Bronze-Iron period. The results reveal a great variability in the form and structure of the burials, to the extent that occasionally two or three different grave types occur at a single cemetery. The exact determining factors for these discrepancies and their scope still elude us as no conclusive evidence exist at present to advance any tenable hypothesis, and one can simply offer some conjectures in this regard. Yet, geography, belief systems, social, economic and political statuses of the buried, and ethnicity were in all probability some of the key factors at work in the emergence of such varied grave architectures.

Kaynakça

  • ALAIE T. M. 2009. “Geomorphology of Iran”, Tehran: Publication of Ghomes. (In Persian).
  • BAHŞALIYEV, V. SEYIDOV, A. 1995. "Nahçıvan'in Eski Tarihi", Baku.
  • BASHASH, K. R. BISCIONE, R. NOBARI, H. A. and SALVINI, M. 2001. “Haldlis Garrison – Haldis Protection. The Newly Found Rock Inscription of Argishti II in Shisheh, Near Ahar (East Azerbaijan, Iran)”, Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici, 43/1: 25-37.
  • BАХŞƏLIYЕV, V. 2007. "Azərbaycan Arxeologiyası", Аzərbаycаn Milli Еlmlər Аkаdеmiyаsi: Nахçivаn Bölməsi, I Cild, Bаkı.
  • Bахşəliyеv V, 2008. “Nахçivаnin Аrхеоlоji Аbidələri”, Аzərbаycаn Milli Еlmlər Аkаdеmiyаsi: Nахçivаn Bölməsi, Bаkı.
  • BAXŞƏLIYEV, V. LAUREN, R. HILARY, G. SƏFƏR, A. 2010. “Naxçivanda Arxeoloji Tədqiqatlar”, (II Kultəpə, I Maxta Kultəpəsi, Oğlanqala Və Digər Abidələrdə Aparılan Tədqiqatların Ilkin Nəticələri), Azərbaycan Milli Elmlər Akademiyasi: Nахçivаn Bölməsi, Naxçivan.
  • BELLI, O. KONYAR, E. 2003. “Dogu Anadolu Bolgesinde Erken Demir Cagi Kale ve Nekropolleri”, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari, Istanbul.
  • BOURGEOIS, J. WOUTER, G. 2005. “The Frozen Tombs of the Altai Mountains; Survey and inventory of archaeological sites and permafrost occurrence in the Dzhazator Valley”, Report on the Belgian-Russian expedition in the Altai Republic, Russia.
  • BROWN, B. T. 1951. “Excavations in Azerbaijan”, 1948. London: John Murray.
  • BURNEY, C. A., 1962. “The Excavations at Yanik Tepe, 1961: Second Preliminary Report”. Iraq 24, 134-152.
  • BURNEY, C. A., 1964. “The Excavations at Yanik Tepe, 1962: Third Preliminary Report”. Iraq 26, 54-61.
  • BURNEY, C.A; 1970. “Excavations at Haftavan, 1968, 1st Preliminary Report”, Iran, VIII, PP. 157-171.
  • BURNEY, C.A; 1972. “Excavations at Haftavan, 1969, 2st Preliminary Report”, Iran, X, PP. 127-142.
  • BURNEY. C.A 1973. “Excavation at Haftvan Tepe, 1971: Third preliminary report”, Iran, Vol. XI, pp. 153-172.
  • BURNEY. C.A 1975. “Excavation at Haftvan Tepe, 1973: Fourth preliminary report”, Iran, Vol. XIII, pp. 149-164.
  • CAMPS, C. 1990. “Manuel De Recherch Prehistorique, Deuxieme edition”, Doin editeurs, Paris, pp. 309-334.
  • CRAWFORD, H. 1975. “Geoy Tepe 1903”, Iranica Antiqua, Vol. XI, pp. 1-16.
  • DANTI, M. 2013. “Hasanlu V: The Late Bronze and Iron I Periods”. Philadelphia.
  • DANTI, M. CIFARELLI. M, 2015. “Iron II Warrior Burials at Hasanlu Tepe, Iran”. Iranica Antiqua, Vol. L: 61-157.
  • DARK, K. A. 2000. “Theoretical Archaeology”. Translate: Kamiar Abdi. Tehran University Press. (In Persian).
  • DE MORGAN J. 1905. “Recherches au Talyche Persan en 1901. Nécropoles des Ages du Bronze et du Fer”, MDP 8, 251-342.
  • DYSON, R., MUSCARELLA, O.W., 1989. “Constructing the chronology and historical implications of Hasanlu IV”. Iran, 27(1), pp.1-27.
  • GIMBUTAS, M. 1956. “The Prehistory of Eastern Europe I: Mesolithic, Neolithic and Copper Age Cultures in Russia and the Baltic area”. Cambridge, MA Peabody Museum.
  • GIMBUTAS, M. 1992. “Chronologies of Eastern Europe: Neolithic through Nearly Bronz Age”, in: Robert Ehrich (ed.), Chronologies in Old World, Vol 1 pp. 395-406, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • HAJIZADEH, K. 2014. “Final report of first season excavation in the cemetery of Ghizil Ghaya (Qızıl Qaya) Meshkinshar”. Tehran: Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N.A. 2000. “Excavation at Iron Age Cemetry of Masjed-e Kabud (Göy Məçid/Blue Mosque) Tabriz: Second Preliminary Report”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2001. “Excavation at Iron Age Cemetry of Masjed-e Kabud (Göy Məçid/Blue Mosque) Tabriz: Third Preliminary Report”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2002. “Excavation at Iron Age Cemetry of Masjed-e Kabud (Göy Məçid/Blue Mosque) Tabriz: Fourth Preliminary Report”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2003. “Excavation at Iron Age Cemetry of Masjed-e Kabud (Göy Məçid/Blue Mosque) Tabriz: Fifth Preliminary Report”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2004. “Excavation of the Shahriari Site at the Ardebil Province”. Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2005. “Excavation of the Shahriari Site at the Ardebil Province”. Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2007. “Preliminary Report of the First Season of Excavations at Larican Cemetery in Khodafarin”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2008. “Preliminary Report of the Second Season of Excavations at Larican Cemetery in Khodafarin”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2010. “Preliminary Report of the Third Season of Excavations at Larican Cemetery in Khodafarin”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2017. “Preliminary report on the study of the Late Bronze and Iron Age in Varzaghan (Qara Dagh)”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HESARI, M. AKBARI, H. 2005. “A report of trenching Tapeh Igdir Aslandoz. Gozareshhaye Bastanshenasi”. Tehran: Press of Iranian center for archeological research. (In Persian).
  • HESARI, M. ALI YARI, A. 2012. “Introducing the large Chamber or Kurgans graves of Ardabil Province”', Journal of Archaeological Studies, 4 (1), 113-130. (In Persian).
  • INGRAHAM, M. L. SUMMERS, G. 1979. “Stelae and Settlements in the Meshkinhsahr plain Northeastern Azerbaijan, Iran”. AMI. 25 (2): 67 – 102.
  • IRAVANI, G. F. 2010. “Preliminary Report of the First Season of Excavations in Jafar Abad Kurgans”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • KAZEMPOUR, M. OMRANI, B. and REZALOO, R. 2012. “Large stone graves of Azerbaijan, according to the new result of Zardkhaneh study”, Journal of Archaeological Studies, 4 (1), pp. 155-174. (In Persian).
  • KHALATBARI, M. R. 2003. “Archeological Excavations at Talesh, Marian and Tendevin Cemeteries”. Cultural Heritage Organization of Gilan Province Publications. (In Persian).
  • KHALATBARI, M. R. 2004. “Gilan in the Iron Age”, Tehran: Publication of Gooy. (In Persian).
  • KHAMACHI, B. 1991. “East Azerbaijan Cultural Geography”. Tehran: Soroush. (In Persian).
  • KONYAR, E. 2004. “Doğu Anadolu Erken Demir Çağı Kültürü: Arkeolojik Kazı ve Yüzey Araştırmaları Bulgularının Değerlendirilmesi”, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, İstanbul İstanbul Üniversitesi.
  • LIPPERT, A. 1977. “Kordlar Tepe”, Iran, Vol. 15, pp. 174-177.
  • Medvedskaya, I. N., 1982. “Iran: Iron Age I”. BAR International Series, Oxford.
  • MUSCARELLA, O. W. 1968. “Excavations at Dinkha Tepe”, the Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 187-196.
  • MUSCARELLA, O. W. 1969. “The Tumuli at Sé Girdan: A Preliminary Report”. Metropolitan Museum Journal 2: 5–25.
  • MUSCARELLA, O. W. 1974. “The Iron Age at Dinkha Tepe, Iran”. Metropolitan Museum Journal, 9: 35–90.
  • MUSEYIBLI, N. 2008. “Soyugbulaq Report on Excavations of Soyugbulaq Kurgans at Kilometre Point 432 of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and South Caucasus pipelines Right Of Way”, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Baku – Azerbaijan.
  • NASERI, S. H, MIRZAEE, M. KAZEMI, M. KARIMIKIA, A. 2015. “Environmental study of Azerbaijan in the Bronze Age based on Archaeological data”, Archaeological Science Journal, 1 (1):68-90. (In Persian).
  • NIKNAMI, K. KAZEMPOUR, M. 2011. “A Preliminary Report on the First Season of Excavations at Zardkhaneh Ahar”. Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • ÖZFİRAT, A. 2000. “Dogu Anadolu Yayla Kulturleri”, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari, Istanbul.
  • ÖZFİRAT, A. 2009. “Excavation of the Bozkurt kurgan cemetery, 2007: First preliminary report”, Archaologische Mitteilungen Aus Iran und Turan, Band 41, 233-247.
  • ÖZFİRAT, A. 2018. “The Early Iron Age Cemeteries Of The Lake Van Basin: An Overview Of Burial Tradition Of Pre-Urartians”, TÜBA-AR, Special Issue: 19-33
  • PEARSON, P. M. 1999. “The archaeology of death and burial”. Texas University, press college station.
  • POURFARAJ, A. 2007. “The revision of Iron Age in Northwestern Iran with a case study on Shahar yeri site in Ardabil province and it’s around fortresses”. Ph.D. thesis. Tehran: Tarbiat Modarres University. (In Persian).
  • POURFARAJ, A. 2012. “Explaining Iranian north-west Kurgan's culture based on Nir Boynu Yoghon Castle excavation”, Journal of Archaeological Studies, 4(1): 59-81. (In Persian).
  • REISNIA, E. 1989. “Azerbaijan's history from the beginning to Islam”, Tabriz, Publication of Nima. (In Persian).
  • REZALOO, R. 2007A. “The Emergence of complex society during the late bronze age in Southern region of Aras River: Case study Qala Khosrow”. Ph.D. thesis. Tehran: Tarbiat Modares University (In Persian).
  • REZALOO, R. 2007B. “A Preliminary Report on the First Season of Excavation at Gilavan Cemetery in Ardabil Province”. Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • REZALOO, R. 2013. “A Preliminary Report on the First Season of Excavations at Khoram Abad Cemetery in Ardabil Province”. Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • REZALOO, R. AYRAMLOU, Y. 2018. “The Iron Age I Tombs of the Second Season in Gilavan Khalkhal Cemetery”, Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies, 1 (2), 37-58. (In Persian).
  • ROOSEVELT, C. 2006. "Tumulus survey and museum research in Lydia, western turkey: determining Lydian and Persian period settlement patterns", Journal of field archaeology, 31 (1): 61-76.
  • SAGONA, A. 2004. “Social Boundaries and Ritual Landscapes in Late Prehistoric Trans-Caucasus and Highland Anatolia in a View from the Highlands”, ANES, Supplement, 12, 661- 76.
  • SEYIDOV, A. 2003. “Naxçivan VII-II Minilliklerde”, Baki: Elm.
  • Shaw, I, 1999. “A Dictionary of Archaeology”, Robert Jameson, Oxford University.
  • SMITH, A.T. BADALYAN, R. AVETISYAN, P. and ZARDARYAN, M. 2003. “Early Complex Societies in Southern Caucasia: A Preliminary Report on the Tsakahovit plain”, Republic of Armenia، Forthcoming in American Journal of Archaeology.
  • SMITH, A.T. BADALYAN, R. AVETISYAN, P. 2009. “The foundations of Research and Regional Survey in the Tsaghkahovit Plain, Armenia, Archaeology and Geography of Ancient Transcaucasian Societies 1”. Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
  • TALAI, H. 2010. “The Iron Age of Iran”. Tehran: Publication of Samt. (In Persian).
  • YOUNG, T.C, 1965. “A Comparative Ceramic Chronology for Western Iran 1500 – 500 BC”, Iran 2: 53 – 85.
  • YÜKMEN, B. 2003. “Anadolu Megalitleri, The Megaliths of Anatolia, A New Survey Reveling, the Significance of the Dolmen in Eastern Anatolia”. Istanbul.

Perspektiven zur strukturellen Typologie der spätbronze-eisenzeitlichen Gräber im Iranischen Aserbaidschan

Yıl 2021, Cilt 0, Sayı 29, 95 - 110, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005

Öz

The Bronze and Iron periods mark a move towards further deepening of social and cultural complexities, which eventually would culminate in the rise of early states in northwest Iran. The advent in this period of the extramural cemeteries also gives rise to speculations over the types of communities, convictions, and religious orientations of the contemporary populations. In these cemeteries, the structure of the graves and their burial goods convey concepts and symbols that can help shed some light on part of the questions regarding the culture of the associated populations. Architectural data are available from dozens of burial grounds thus far investigated in Iranian Azerbaijan. Excavations at these places have identified a wide range of similarities and dissimilarities in their placement as well as the structure, construction materials, and burial goods of their graves. Drawing on the excavated data, the present paper is an attempt to appraise the mortuary customs with a special focus on the types of structures of graves in the late Bronze-Iron period. The results reveal a great variability in the form and structure of the burials, to the extent that occasionally two or three different grave types occur at a single cemetery. The exact determining factors for these discrepancies and their scope still elude us as no conclusive evidence exist at present to advance any tenable hypothesis, and one can simply offer some conjectures in this regard. Yet, geography, belief systems, social, economic and political statuses of the buried, and ethnicity were in all probability some of the key factors at work in the emergence of such varied grave architectures.

Kaynakça

  • ALAIE T. M. 2009. “Geomorphology of Iran”, Tehran: Publication of Ghomes. (In Persian).
  • BAHŞALIYEV, V. SEYIDOV, A. 1995. "Nahçıvan'in Eski Tarihi", Baku.
  • BASHASH, K. R. BISCIONE, R. NOBARI, H. A. and SALVINI, M. 2001. “Haldlis Garrison – Haldis Protection. The Newly Found Rock Inscription of Argishti II in Shisheh, Near Ahar (East Azerbaijan, Iran)”, Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici, 43/1: 25-37.
  • BАХŞƏLIYЕV, V. 2007. "Azərbaycan Arxeologiyası", Аzərbаycаn Milli Еlmlər Аkаdеmiyаsi: Nахçivаn Bölməsi, I Cild, Bаkı.
  • Bахşəliyеv V, 2008. “Nахçivаnin Аrхеоlоji Аbidələri”, Аzərbаycаn Milli Еlmlər Аkаdеmiyаsi: Nахçivаn Bölməsi, Bаkı.
  • BAXŞƏLIYEV, V. LAUREN, R. HILARY, G. SƏFƏR, A. 2010. “Naxçivanda Arxeoloji Tədqiqatlar”, (II Kultəpə, I Maxta Kultəpəsi, Oğlanqala Və Digər Abidələrdə Aparılan Tədqiqatların Ilkin Nəticələri), Azərbaycan Milli Elmlər Akademiyasi: Nахçivаn Bölməsi, Naxçivan.
  • BELLI, O. KONYAR, E. 2003. “Dogu Anadolu Bolgesinde Erken Demir Cagi Kale ve Nekropolleri”, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari, Istanbul.
  • BOURGEOIS, J. WOUTER, G. 2005. “The Frozen Tombs of the Altai Mountains; Survey and inventory of archaeological sites and permafrost occurrence in the Dzhazator Valley”, Report on the Belgian-Russian expedition in the Altai Republic, Russia.
  • BROWN, B. T. 1951. “Excavations in Azerbaijan”, 1948. London: John Murray.
  • BURNEY, C. A., 1962. “The Excavations at Yanik Tepe, 1961: Second Preliminary Report”. Iraq 24, 134-152.
  • BURNEY, C. A., 1964. “The Excavations at Yanik Tepe, 1962: Third Preliminary Report”. Iraq 26, 54-61.
  • BURNEY, C.A; 1970. “Excavations at Haftavan, 1968, 1st Preliminary Report”, Iran, VIII, PP. 157-171.
  • BURNEY, C.A; 1972. “Excavations at Haftavan, 1969, 2st Preliminary Report”, Iran, X, PP. 127-142.
  • BURNEY. C.A 1973. “Excavation at Haftvan Tepe, 1971: Third preliminary report”, Iran, Vol. XI, pp. 153-172.
  • BURNEY. C.A 1975. “Excavation at Haftvan Tepe, 1973: Fourth preliminary report”, Iran, Vol. XIII, pp. 149-164.
  • CAMPS, C. 1990. “Manuel De Recherch Prehistorique, Deuxieme edition”, Doin editeurs, Paris, pp. 309-334.
  • CRAWFORD, H. 1975. “Geoy Tepe 1903”, Iranica Antiqua, Vol. XI, pp. 1-16.
  • DANTI, M. 2013. “Hasanlu V: The Late Bronze and Iron I Periods”. Philadelphia.
  • DANTI, M. CIFARELLI. M, 2015. “Iron II Warrior Burials at Hasanlu Tepe, Iran”. Iranica Antiqua, Vol. L: 61-157.
  • DARK, K. A. 2000. “Theoretical Archaeology”. Translate: Kamiar Abdi. Tehran University Press. (In Persian).
  • DE MORGAN J. 1905. “Recherches au Talyche Persan en 1901. Nécropoles des Ages du Bronze et du Fer”, MDP 8, 251-342.
  • DYSON, R., MUSCARELLA, O.W., 1989. “Constructing the chronology and historical implications of Hasanlu IV”. Iran, 27(1), pp.1-27.
  • GIMBUTAS, M. 1956. “The Prehistory of Eastern Europe I: Mesolithic, Neolithic and Copper Age Cultures in Russia and the Baltic area”. Cambridge, MA Peabody Museum.
  • GIMBUTAS, M. 1992. “Chronologies of Eastern Europe: Neolithic through Nearly Bronz Age”, in: Robert Ehrich (ed.), Chronologies in Old World, Vol 1 pp. 395-406, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • HAJIZADEH, K. 2014. “Final report of first season excavation in the cemetery of Ghizil Ghaya (Qızıl Qaya) Meshkinshar”. Tehran: Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N.A. 2000. “Excavation at Iron Age Cemetry of Masjed-e Kabud (Göy Məçid/Blue Mosque) Tabriz: Second Preliminary Report”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2001. “Excavation at Iron Age Cemetry of Masjed-e Kabud (Göy Məçid/Blue Mosque) Tabriz: Third Preliminary Report”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2002. “Excavation at Iron Age Cemetry of Masjed-e Kabud (Göy Məçid/Blue Mosque) Tabriz: Fourth Preliminary Report”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2003. “Excavation at Iron Age Cemetry of Masjed-e Kabud (Göy Məçid/Blue Mosque) Tabriz: Fifth Preliminary Report”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2004. “Excavation of the Shahriari Site at the Ardebil Province”. Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2005. “Excavation of the Shahriari Site at the Ardebil Province”. Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2007. “Preliminary Report of the First Season of Excavations at Larican Cemetery in Khodafarin”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2008. “Preliminary Report of the Second Season of Excavations at Larican Cemetery in Khodafarin”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2010. “Preliminary Report of the Third Season of Excavations at Larican Cemetery in Khodafarin”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HEJEBRI, N. A. 2017. “Preliminary report on the study of the Late Bronze and Iron Age in Varzaghan (Qara Dagh)”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • HESARI, M. AKBARI, H. 2005. “A report of trenching Tapeh Igdir Aslandoz. Gozareshhaye Bastanshenasi”. Tehran: Press of Iranian center for archeological research. (In Persian).
  • HESARI, M. ALI YARI, A. 2012. “Introducing the large Chamber or Kurgans graves of Ardabil Province”', Journal of Archaeological Studies, 4 (1), 113-130. (In Persian).
  • INGRAHAM, M. L. SUMMERS, G. 1979. “Stelae and Settlements in the Meshkinhsahr plain Northeastern Azerbaijan, Iran”. AMI. 25 (2): 67 – 102.
  • IRAVANI, G. F. 2010. “Preliminary Report of the First Season of Excavations in Jafar Abad Kurgans”, Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • KAZEMPOUR, M. OMRANI, B. and REZALOO, R. 2012. “Large stone graves of Azerbaijan, according to the new result of Zardkhaneh study”, Journal of Archaeological Studies, 4 (1), pp. 155-174. (In Persian).
  • KHALATBARI, M. R. 2003. “Archeological Excavations at Talesh, Marian and Tendevin Cemeteries”. Cultural Heritage Organization of Gilan Province Publications. (In Persian).
  • KHALATBARI, M. R. 2004. “Gilan in the Iron Age”, Tehran: Publication of Gooy. (In Persian).
  • KHAMACHI, B. 1991. “East Azerbaijan Cultural Geography”. Tehran: Soroush. (In Persian).
  • KONYAR, E. 2004. “Doğu Anadolu Erken Demir Çağı Kültürü: Arkeolojik Kazı ve Yüzey Araştırmaları Bulgularının Değerlendirilmesi”, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, İstanbul İstanbul Üniversitesi.
  • LIPPERT, A. 1977. “Kordlar Tepe”, Iran, Vol. 15, pp. 174-177.
  • Medvedskaya, I. N., 1982. “Iran: Iron Age I”. BAR International Series, Oxford.
  • MUSCARELLA, O. W. 1968. “Excavations at Dinkha Tepe”, the Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 187-196.
  • MUSCARELLA, O. W. 1969. “The Tumuli at Sé Girdan: A Preliminary Report”. Metropolitan Museum Journal 2: 5–25.
  • MUSCARELLA, O. W. 1974. “The Iron Age at Dinkha Tepe, Iran”. Metropolitan Museum Journal, 9: 35–90.
  • MUSEYIBLI, N. 2008. “Soyugbulaq Report on Excavations of Soyugbulaq Kurgans at Kilometre Point 432 of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and South Caucasus pipelines Right Of Way”, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Baku – Azerbaijan.
  • NASERI, S. H, MIRZAEE, M. KAZEMI, M. KARIMIKIA, A. 2015. “Environmental study of Azerbaijan in the Bronze Age based on Archaeological data”, Archaeological Science Journal, 1 (1):68-90. (In Persian).
  • NIKNAMI, K. KAZEMPOUR, M. 2011. “A Preliminary Report on the First Season of Excavations at Zardkhaneh Ahar”. Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • ÖZFİRAT, A. 2000. “Dogu Anadolu Yayla Kulturleri”, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari, Istanbul.
  • ÖZFİRAT, A. 2009. “Excavation of the Bozkurt kurgan cemetery, 2007: First preliminary report”, Archaologische Mitteilungen Aus Iran und Turan, Band 41, 233-247.
  • ÖZFİRAT, A. 2018. “The Early Iron Age Cemeteries Of The Lake Van Basin: An Overview Of Burial Tradition Of Pre-Urartians”, TÜBA-AR, Special Issue: 19-33
  • PEARSON, P. M. 1999. “The archaeology of death and burial”. Texas University, press college station.
  • POURFARAJ, A. 2007. “The revision of Iron Age in Northwestern Iran with a case study on Shahar yeri site in Ardabil province and it’s around fortresses”. Ph.D. thesis. Tehran: Tarbiat Modarres University. (In Persian).
  • POURFARAJ, A. 2012. “Explaining Iranian north-west Kurgan's culture based on Nir Boynu Yoghon Castle excavation”, Journal of Archaeological Studies, 4(1): 59-81. (In Persian).
  • REISNIA, E. 1989. “Azerbaijan's history from the beginning to Islam”, Tabriz, Publication of Nima. (In Persian).
  • REZALOO, R. 2007A. “The Emergence of complex society during the late bronze age in Southern region of Aras River: Case study Qala Khosrow”. Ph.D. thesis. Tehran: Tarbiat Modares University (In Persian).
  • REZALOO, R. 2007B. “A Preliminary Report on the First Season of Excavation at Gilavan Cemetery in Ardabil Province”. Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • REZALOO, R. 2013. “A Preliminary Report on the First Season of Excavations at Khoram Abad Cemetery in Ardabil Province”. Unpublished report prepared for ICHHTO. (In Persian).
  • REZALOO, R. AYRAMLOU, Y. 2018. “The Iron Age I Tombs of the Second Season in Gilavan Khalkhal Cemetery”, Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies, 1 (2), 37-58. (In Persian).
  • ROOSEVELT, C. 2006. "Tumulus survey and museum research in Lydia, western turkey: determining Lydian and Persian period settlement patterns", Journal of field archaeology, 31 (1): 61-76.
  • SAGONA, A. 2004. “Social Boundaries and Ritual Landscapes in Late Prehistoric Trans-Caucasus and Highland Anatolia in a View from the Highlands”, ANES, Supplement, 12, 661- 76.
  • SEYIDOV, A. 2003. “Naxçivan VII-II Minilliklerde”, Baki: Elm.
  • Shaw, I, 1999. “A Dictionary of Archaeology”, Robert Jameson, Oxford University.
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Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan

Yıl 2021, Cilt 0, Sayı 29, 95 - 110, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005

Öz

The Bronze and Iron periods mark a move towards further deepening of social and cultural complexities, which eventually would culminate in the rise of early states in northwest Iran. The advent in this period of the extramural cemeteries also gives rise to speculations over the types of communities, convictions, and religious orientations of the contemporary populations. In these cemeteries, the structure of the graves and their burial goods convey concepts and symbols that can help shed some light on part of the questions regarding the culture of the associated populations. Architectural data are available from dozens of burial grounds thus far investigated in Iranian Azerbaijan. Excavations at these places have identified a wide range of similarities and dissimilarities in their placement as well as the structure, construction materials, and burial goods of their graves. Drawing on the excavated data, the present paper is an attempt to appraise the mortuary customs with a special focus on the types of structures of graves in the late Bronze-Iron period. The results reveal a great variability in the form and structure of the burials, to the extent that occasionally two or three different grave types occur at a single cemetery. The exact determining factors for these discrepancies and their scope still elude us as no conclusive evidence exist at present to advance any tenable hypothesis, and one can simply offer some conjectures in this regard. Yet, geography, belief systems, social, economic and political statuses of the buried, and ethnicity were in all probability some of the key factors at work in the emergence of such varied grave architectures.

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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Arkeoloji
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Hossein NASERİ SOMEEH (Sorumlu Yazar)
tarbiat modares unuversity
0000-0002-6345-7150
Iran


Alireza HEJEBRİ NOBARİ Bu kişi benim
Tarbiat Modares University
0000-0002-5698-8535
Iran


Kamaleddin NİKNAMİ Bu kişi benim
University of Tehran
0000-0001-5273-8179
Iran

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 29 Aralık 2021
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 9 Nisan 2021
Kabul Tarihi 9 Kasım 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 0, Sayı 29

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tubaar880414, journal = {TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi}, issn = {1301-8566}, eissn = {2667-5005}, address = {TÜBA - TÜRKİYE BİLİMLER AKADEMİSİ Piyade Sokak No: 27 Çankaya 06690 ANKARA}, publisher = {Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi}, year = {2021}, volume = {0}, pages = {95 - 110}, doi = {10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005}, title = {Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan}, key = {cite}, author = {Naseri Someeh, Hossein and Hejebri Nobari, Alireza and Niknami, Kamaleddin} }
APA Naseri Someeh, H. , Hejebri Nobari, A. & Niknami, K. (2021). Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi , 0 (29) , 95-110 . DOI: 10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005
MLA Naseri Someeh, H. , Hejebri Nobari, A. , Niknami, K. "Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan" . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 0 (2021 ): 95-110 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tubaar/issue/67902/880414>
Chicago Naseri Someeh, H. , Hejebri Nobari, A. , Niknami, K. "Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 0 (2021 ): 95-110
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan AU - Hossein Naseri Someeh , Alireza Hejebri Nobari , Kamaleddin Niknami Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005 DO - 10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005 T2 - TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 95 EP - 110 VL - 0 IS - 29 SN - 1301-8566-2667-5005 M3 - doi: 10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005 UR - https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan %A Hossein Naseri Someeh , Alireza Hejebri Nobari , Kamaleddin Niknami %T Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan %D 2021 %J TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi %P 1301-8566-2667-5005 %V 0 %N 29 %R doi: 10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005 %U 10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005
ISNAD Naseri Someeh, Hossein , Hejebri Nobari, Alireza , Niknami, Kamaleddin . "Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 0 / 29 (Aralık 2021): 95-110 . https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005
AMA Naseri Someeh H. , Hejebri Nobari A. , Niknami K. Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan. TÜBA-AR. 2021; 0(29): 95-110.
Vancouver Naseri Someeh H. , Hejebri Nobari A. , Niknami K. Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan. TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi. 2021; 0(29): 95-110.
IEEE H. Naseri Someeh , A. Hejebri Nobari ve K. Niknami , "Perspectives on the Structural Typology of The Late Bronze-Iron age Graves in Iranian Azerbaijan", TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi, c. 0, sayı. 29, ss. 95-110, Ara. 2021, doi:10.22520/tubaar2021.29.005

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