Araştırma Makalesi
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Gastronomik Deneyimin Marka Sadakatine Yansımaları

Yıl 2022, Sayı 40, 17 - 39, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.17829/turcom.1050108

Öz

Gastronomik deneyim, salt bir yemek yeme aktivitesinin ötesinde, sosyal, duygusal, düşünsel, hayali ve teknik benzeri durumları bünyesinde barındıran, özellikle yüksek mutfakta ortaya çıkan tüm süreçlerin etkileşiminin sonucu olarak tanımlanabilir. İnsanlara bu tarz deneyimleri sunmayı misyon edinen işletmeler günümüzde giderek önem kazanmaktadır. Bu durumda, markalar arası rekabeti arttırması doğrultusunda işletmeler sadık müşterilerini kaybetmemek adına yeni arayışlara girmişlerdir. Ayrıca gastronomik deneyiminin sonucunda yemeği bilinçli bir şekilde yorumlayarak görüşlerini çevresi ile paylaşan diğer bir deyişle yüksek mutfağa yönelik bilinçli ve farkındalık sahibi insan sayısı artmaktadır. Bilgiye ulaşımın kolaylaşması doğrultusunda bireylerin bilgi yelpazesinin gelişim göstermesi günümüzün temel olgularındandır. Bu doğrultuda özellikle yüksek mutfağa hitap eden yiyecek-içecek işletmeleri, gastronomik deneyimi önemli bir pazarlama silahı olarak kullanmaktadır. Bu bağlamda çalışma, gastronomik deneyim sunmaya çalışan yiyecek-içecek işletmelerinin, insanların beklentileri göz önüne alındığında marka sadakati yaratma hususunda etkili olan deneyim unsurlarını nicel olarak sorgulamayı ve bu yönde bilimsel veriler üretmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda hazırlanan anket; yemek kültürü gelişkin, sosyal ekonomik statü olarak A ve B gruplarında yer alan 335 katılımcıya uygulanmıştır. Katılımcıların gittikleri lüks restoranlarda (fine dining) yaşadıkları gastronomik deneyimin marka sadakatine yansımasını irdeleyen araştırma neticesinde, gastronomik deneyimin tutumsal marka sadakati üzerinde pozitif etkileri olduğu fakat davranışsal marka sadakatiyle arasında anlamlı bir ilişki kurulamayacağı sonucuna varılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Aaker, D. A., Stahl, F. & Stöckle, F. (2015). Marken erfolgreich gestalten. Wiesbaden:Springer Gabler.
  • Altunışık, R., Coşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S. & Yıldırım, E. (2007). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri SPSS uygulamaları. Sakarya: Sakarya Kitabevi.
  • Arnold, M. J., & Reynolds, K. E. (2003). Hedonic shopping motivations. Journal of Retailing, 79(2), 77-95.
  • Barsky, J. D., & Labagh, R. (1992). A strategy for customer satisfaction. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 33(5), 32-40.
  • Baudrillard, J. (1998). Simülakrlar ve simülasyon. İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Yayınları.
  • Beer, S. (2008). Authenticity and food experience. Journal of Foodservice, 19(3), 153-163.
  • Bell, R. & Marshall, D. (2003). The construct of food involvement in behavioral research: Scale development and validation. Appetite, 40(3), 235-244.
  • Berbel, P., Juan, M., Palacios, F., Hurtado, B. R., Jose, M., & Luna, S. L. (2019). Gastronomic experience as a factor of motivation in the tourist movements. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 18, 1-10.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1984). A social critique of the judgement of taste. London: Routledge.
  • Bryce, D., Curran, R., O’Gorman, K., & Taheri, B. (2015). Visitors’ engagement and authenticity: Japanese heritage consumption. Tourism Management, 46, 571–581.
  • Carmody, P. C. (2013). Understanding meaning and existence: Toward the developlment of a measure of existential authenticity. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi. Tennessee: University of Tennessee.
  • Cedric, H-J. W. & Rong, D. L. (2009). Effect of experiential value on customer satisfaction with service encounters in luxury-hotel restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management, (28), 586–593.
  • Chang, R. C. Y., Kivela, J. & Mak, A. (2011). Attributes that influence the evaluation of travel dining experience: When east meets west. Tourism Management, 32, 307-316.
  • Chaudhuri, A. (2000). A macro analysis of the relationship of product involvement and information search: The role of risk. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 8, 1–14.
  • Cohen, E. (1979). A phenomenology of tourist experiences. Sociology, 13, 179-201.
  • Cohen, E. & Avieli, N. (2004). Food in tourism: Attraction and impediment. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 755-778.
  • Coulter, A. R., Price, L. L. & Feick, L. (2003). Rethinking the origins of involvement and brand commitment: Insights from postsocialist central europe. Journal of Consumer Research, 30(2),151-169.
  • Çetintürk, İ. (2010). Konaklama işletmelerinde marka sadakati: Antalya örneği. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Isparta: Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • De Albeniz, M. I. (2018). Foundations for an analysis of the gastronomic experience: From product to process. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 13, 108-116.
  • De Kervenoael, R. & Ozturkcan, S. (2008). Grey market e-shopping and trust building practices in China: Trust and new technologies. Teemu Kautonen & Heikki Karjaluoto (Ed.), Marketing and management on the internet and mobile media içinde (ss. 56-73). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Demir, M. Ö. (2011). Risk algısının marka sadakatine etkisi: Cep telefonları kategorisinde bir uygulama. Ege Akademik Bakış, 11(2), 267-276.
  • Devrani, T. K. (2009). Marka sadakati öncülleri: Çalışan kadınların kozmetik ürün tüketimi üzerine bir çalışma. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 14(3), 407-421.
  • Dholakia, U. M. (1997). An investigation of the relationship between perceived risk and product involvement. Advances in Consumer Research, 24, 159-167.
  • Dick, A. S. & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22, 99-113.
  • Dodd, T. H., Laverie, D. A., Wilcox, J. F. & Duhan, D. F. (2005). Differential effects of experience, subjective knowledge, and objective knowledge on sources of information used in consumer wine purchasing. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 29(1), 3-19.
  • Dodd, T. H. (1998). Influences on search behavior of ındustrial tourists. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 5(2-3),77-94.
  • Fournier, S. & Yao, L. (1997). Reviving brand loyalty: A reconceptualization within the framework of consumer- brand relationships. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14, 451-472.
  • Fransisca, A. (2007). Experiential marketing: A marketing approach. Journal Management Marketing, 2(1), 11- 18.
  • Gegez, A. E. (2007). Pazarlama araştırmaları. İstanbul: Beta Yayınevi.
  • Gibson, S. (2007). Food mobilities: Travelling, dwelling, and eating cultures. Space and Culture, 10, 4–21. Gilmore, J. H. & Pine, B. J. (2007). Authenticity: What consumers really want. Brighton- Massachusetts:Harvard Business Press Books.
  • Gottlieb, A. (1982). Americans’ vacations. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 165-187.
  • Gounaris, S. & Stathakopoulos, V. (2004). Antecedents and consequences of brand loyalty: An empirical study. Journal of Brand Management, 11(4), 283-306.
  • Greenwald, A. G. & Leavitt, C. (1984). Audience involvement in advertising: Four levels. The Journal of Consumer Research,11 (1), 581-592.
  • Gross, M. & Brown, G. (2008). An empirical structural model of tourists and places: Progressing involvement and place attachment into tourism. Tourism Management, 29(6), 1141-1151.
  • Hall, C. M. & Sharples, L. (2003). The consumption of experiences or the experience of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste. C. Michael Hall, Liz Sharples, Richard Mitchell, Niki Macionis & Brock Cambourne (Ed.), Food tourism around the world: Development, management and markets içinde (ss. 1-25). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
  • Hanefors, M. & Mossberg, L. (2003). Searching for the extraordinary meal experience. Journal of Business and Management, 9(3), 249-270.
  • Hargrove, C. M. (2002). Heritage tourism. The Journal of CRM (Cultural Resource Management)-Washington, 25(1), 10-11.
  • Havitz, M. E. & Dimanche, F. (1999). Leisure involvement revisited: Drive properties and paradoxes. Journal of Leisure Research, 31(2), 122-149.
  • Hernandez-Rojas, R. D., Fernandez, J. A. F. & Palos-Sanchez, P. R. (2021). Influence of the restaurant brand and gastronomy on tourist loyalty: A study in Córdoba (Spain). International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 23, 1-10.
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The Reflections of Gastronomic Experience on Brand Loyalty

Yıl 2022, Sayı 40, 17 - 39, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.17829/turcom.1050108

Öz

Gastronomic experience can be defined as the result of the interaction of all processes, especially in the high cuisine, which includes social, emotional, intellectual, imaginary and technical situations beyond a mere eating activity. The number of establishments that have made it their mission to offer such experiences to people has also increased significantly compared to the past. In this case , in line with the increase with the competition between brands, businesses have entered into new searches in order not to lose their loyal customers In addition, the number of people who are conscious and aware of high cuisine continues to increase day by day. As a result of people’s gastronomic experience, the number of knowledgeable people who interpret/understand the food consciously and share it with the people around has increased significantly. In line with the facilitation of access to information, the development of the information spectrum of individuals is one of the basic phenomena of today. In this direction, especially the food and beverage businesses that appeal to high cuisine use gastronomic experience as an important marketing weapon. In this context, the study aims to quantitatively question the experience elements that are effective in creating brand loyalty and to produce scientific data in this direction, considering the expectations of the people of the food and beverage businesses that try to offer gastronomic experience. The questionnaire developed for this goal was applied to 335 foodie (moderate version of gourmet) participants in groups relatively high in social economic status, and the reflection of the gastronomic experience they had in the luxury restaurants (fine dining) on brand loyalty was analyzed quantitatively. As a result of the research, it has been determined that gastronomic experience has positive effects on attitudinal brand loyalty, but there is no consequential relationship between behavioral brand loyalty.

Kaynakça

  • Aaker, D. A., Stahl, F. & Stöckle, F. (2015). Marken erfolgreich gestalten. Wiesbaden:Springer Gabler.
  • Altunışık, R., Coşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S. & Yıldırım, E. (2007). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri SPSS uygulamaları. Sakarya: Sakarya Kitabevi.
  • Arnold, M. J., & Reynolds, K. E. (2003). Hedonic shopping motivations. Journal of Retailing, 79(2), 77-95.
  • Barsky, J. D., & Labagh, R. (1992). A strategy for customer satisfaction. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 33(5), 32-40.
  • Baudrillard, J. (1998). Simülakrlar ve simülasyon. İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Yayınları.
  • Beer, S. (2008). Authenticity and food experience. Journal of Foodservice, 19(3), 153-163.
  • Bell, R. & Marshall, D. (2003). The construct of food involvement in behavioral research: Scale development and validation. Appetite, 40(3), 235-244.
  • Berbel, P., Juan, M., Palacios, F., Hurtado, B. R., Jose, M., & Luna, S. L. (2019). Gastronomic experience as a factor of motivation in the tourist movements. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 18, 1-10.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1984). A social critique of the judgement of taste. London: Routledge.
  • Bryce, D., Curran, R., O’Gorman, K., & Taheri, B. (2015). Visitors’ engagement and authenticity: Japanese heritage consumption. Tourism Management, 46, 571–581.
  • Carmody, P. C. (2013). Understanding meaning and existence: Toward the developlment of a measure of existential authenticity. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi. Tennessee: University of Tennessee.
  • Cedric, H-J. W. & Rong, D. L. (2009). Effect of experiential value on customer satisfaction with service encounters in luxury-hotel restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management, (28), 586–593.
  • Chang, R. C. Y., Kivela, J. & Mak, A. (2011). Attributes that influence the evaluation of travel dining experience: When east meets west. Tourism Management, 32, 307-316.
  • Chaudhuri, A. (2000). A macro analysis of the relationship of product involvement and information search: The role of risk. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 8, 1–14.
  • Cohen, E. (1979). A phenomenology of tourist experiences. Sociology, 13, 179-201.
  • Cohen, E. & Avieli, N. (2004). Food in tourism: Attraction and impediment. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 755-778.
  • Coulter, A. R., Price, L. L. & Feick, L. (2003). Rethinking the origins of involvement and brand commitment: Insights from postsocialist central europe. Journal of Consumer Research, 30(2),151-169.
  • Çetintürk, İ. (2010). Konaklama işletmelerinde marka sadakati: Antalya örneği. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Isparta: Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • De Albeniz, M. I. (2018). Foundations for an analysis of the gastronomic experience: From product to process. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 13, 108-116.
  • De Kervenoael, R. & Ozturkcan, S. (2008). Grey market e-shopping and trust building practices in China: Trust and new technologies. Teemu Kautonen & Heikki Karjaluoto (Ed.), Marketing and management on the internet and mobile media içinde (ss. 56-73). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Demir, M. Ö. (2011). Risk algısının marka sadakatine etkisi: Cep telefonları kategorisinde bir uygulama. Ege Akademik Bakış, 11(2), 267-276.
  • Devrani, T. K. (2009). Marka sadakati öncülleri: Çalışan kadınların kozmetik ürün tüketimi üzerine bir çalışma. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 14(3), 407-421.
  • Dholakia, U. M. (1997). An investigation of the relationship between perceived risk and product involvement. Advances in Consumer Research, 24, 159-167.
  • Dick, A. S. & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22, 99-113.
  • Dodd, T. H., Laverie, D. A., Wilcox, J. F. & Duhan, D. F. (2005). Differential effects of experience, subjective knowledge, and objective knowledge on sources of information used in consumer wine purchasing. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 29(1), 3-19.
  • Dodd, T. H. (1998). Influences on search behavior of ındustrial tourists. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 5(2-3),77-94.
  • Fournier, S. & Yao, L. (1997). Reviving brand loyalty: A reconceptualization within the framework of consumer- brand relationships. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14, 451-472.
  • Fransisca, A. (2007). Experiential marketing: A marketing approach. Journal Management Marketing, 2(1), 11- 18.
  • Gegez, A. E. (2007). Pazarlama araştırmaları. İstanbul: Beta Yayınevi.
  • Gibson, S. (2007). Food mobilities: Travelling, dwelling, and eating cultures. Space and Culture, 10, 4–21. Gilmore, J. H. & Pine, B. J. (2007). Authenticity: What consumers really want. Brighton- Massachusetts:Harvard Business Press Books.
  • Gottlieb, A. (1982). Americans’ vacations. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 165-187.
  • Gounaris, S. & Stathakopoulos, V. (2004). Antecedents and consequences of brand loyalty: An empirical study. Journal of Brand Management, 11(4), 283-306.
  • Greenwald, A. G. & Leavitt, C. (1984). Audience involvement in advertising: Four levels. The Journal of Consumer Research,11 (1), 581-592.
  • Gross, M. & Brown, G. (2008). An empirical structural model of tourists and places: Progressing involvement and place attachment into tourism. Tourism Management, 29(6), 1141-1151.
  • Hall, C. M. & Sharples, L. (2003). The consumption of experiences or the experience of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste. C. Michael Hall, Liz Sharples, Richard Mitchell, Niki Macionis & Brock Cambourne (Ed.), Food tourism around the world: Development, management and markets içinde (ss. 1-25). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
  • Hanefors, M. & Mossberg, L. (2003). Searching for the extraordinary meal experience. Journal of Business and Management, 9(3), 249-270.
  • Hargrove, C. M. (2002). Heritage tourism. The Journal of CRM (Cultural Resource Management)-Washington, 25(1), 10-11.
  • Havitz, M. E. & Dimanche, F. (1999). Leisure involvement revisited: Drive properties and paradoxes. Journal of Leisure Research, 31(2), 122-149.
  • Hernandez-Rojas, R. D., Fernandez, J. A. F. & Palos-Sanchez, P. R. (2021). Influence of the restaurant brand and gastronomy on tourist loyalty: A study in Córdoba (Spain). International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 23, 1-10.
  • Hirschman, E. & Holbrook, M. B. (1982). Hedonic consumption: Emerging concepts, methods and propositions. Journal of Marketing, 48(3), 92–101.
  • Hoch, S. J. & Deighton, J. (1989). Managing what consumers learn from experience. Journal of Marketing, 53(2), 1-20.
  • Hoyer, W. D. & Ridgway, N. M. (1984). Variety seeking as an explanation for exploratory purchase behaviour: A theoratical model. Advances in Consumer Research, 11, 114-119.
  • Huang, J. & Zhang, D. (2008). Customer value and brand loyalty: Multi-dimensional empirical test. International Seminar on Future Information Technology and Management Engineering, 50, 102-106.
  • Hughes, G. (1995). Authenticity in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(4), 781-803.
  • Jacoby, J. & Kyner, D. B. (1973). Brand loyalty vs. repeat purchasing behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 10(1), 1-9.
  • Junjun, M. (2010). Customer brand loyalty. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(7), 213-217.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İletişim
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Uğur KAÇAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
PİRİ REİS ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8532-5618
Türkiye


Nurhan Zeynep TOSUN>
FENERBAHÇE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0234-9647
Türkiye

Teşekkür Bu çalışma, Marmara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Halkla İlişkiler ve Tanıtım Ana Bilim Dalı, Reklamcılık ve Tanıtın bölümü bünyesinde hazırlanan “Gastronomik Deneyimin Marka Sadakatine Yansımaları” isimli doktora tezinden türetilmiştir. Çalışmanın hazırlanmasında büyük katkıları ve emeği olan değerli danışmanım Prof. Dr. Nurhan BABÜR TOSUN’ a sonsuz teşekkür ederim
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 28 Aralık 2021
Kabul Tarihi 7 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt , Sayı 40

Kaynak Göster

APA Kaçan, U. & Tosun, N. Z. (2022). Gastronomik Deneyimin Marka Sadakatine Yansımaları . Türkiye İletişim Araştırmaları Dergisi , (40) , 17-39 . DOI: 10.17829/turcom.1050108