Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 39, Sayfalar 1 - 14 2020-05-12

Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions
Türkçe ve İngilizcede Cinsiyete Duyarlı Dil: Değişen Algılar

Ozan Deniz YALÇINKAYA [1]


Despite the prejudiced perception from the past, culturally and politically the world today is evolving to form a more neutral perception towards people. Today, in spite of this positive change, the stereotyped perception of prejudices and discriminatory behavior continues to exist directly or implicitly in the communication process. Alternatives are offered to minimize these discourses that come as the legacy of the past in our social life and language use. Although the current perception accepts that these discourses are false, the words and expressions used in language and communication could not be detached from the ongoing perception.

This paper aims to examine the various forms of gender-based inequality that exist within languages, attempting to portray such differences in Turkish and English. Accordingly, examples of gender associative expressions and terms that are frequently used in Turkish and English in daily life were identified. Subsequently, an alternative terminology has been proposed to sexist discourses that existed explicitly or implicitly in these statements.

Kültürel ve politik açıdan, geçmişten süregelen önyargılı algıya karşın bugün dünya, insanlara karşı daha tarafsız bir algı oluşturmaya evirilmektedir. Bu olumlu değişime rağmen, önyargıların ve ayrımcı davranışların kalıplaşmış algısı, günümüzde iletişim sürecinde varlığını doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak devam ettirmektedir. Sosyal hayatımızda ve dil kullanımında geçmişin mirası olarak gelen bu söylemleri asgariye indirmek için alternatifler teklif edilmektedir. Her ne kadar mevcut algı, bu söylemlerin yanlış olduğunu kabul etse de dilde ve iletişimde kullanılan söz ve ifadeler, süregelen algıdan kopamamıştır.


Bu çalışmada, Türkçe ve İngilizcede mevcut olan cinsiyete dayalı çeşitli söylemler üzerine bir inceleme yapılacaktır. Bu doğrultuda öncelikle günlük hayatta Türkce ve İngilizcede sık kullanılan cinsiyet çağrışımlı ifade ve terimlerden örnekler tespit edilmiştir. Sonra da bu ifadelerde doğrudan ya da 

  • ALPTEKİN, Duygu, (2014), “Çelişik Duygularda Toplumsal Cinsiyet Ayrımcılığı Sorgusu: Üniversite Gençliğinin Cinsiyet Algısına Dair Bir Araştırma”, Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 32: 203-211.
  • ARIES, Elizabeth, (1996), Men and women in interaction: Reconsidering the difference, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • BEARE, Kenneth, (2020), “Gender-Inclusive Language for English Learners”, www.thoughtco.com, Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/gender-inclusive-language-for-english-learners-4048873 (Access Date: 10/02/2020).
  • BENOKRAITIS, Nijole V. and JOE R. Feagin, (2000), “Women of color: fighting sexism and racism”, Structured Inequality in the United States: Discussions on the Continuing Significance of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender (Eds. Adalberto Aguirre, Jr. and David V. Baker) New York: Prentice Hall.
  • BIGLER, Rebecca S. and LYNN, S. Liben, (2007), “Developmental intergroup theory: Explaining and reducing children’s social stereotyping and prejudice”, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16: 162-166.
  • BRAUN, Friederike, (2000), “Gender In the Turkish Language System”, Turkic Languages, 4: 3- 21.
  • BRAUN, Friederike, (2001), “Turkish. The Communication of Gender in Turkish”, Gender Across Languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men, 1: 283- 310.
  • BOXER, Christie Fitzgerald and FORD, Thomas E., (2010), “Sexist humor in the workplace: a case of subtle harassment”, Insidious workplace behavior (Ed. J. Greenberg), New York: Routledge/Taylor and Francis.
  • CASTAGNETO, M. and D’Amora, R., (2006), “A world of difference: Gender disparity in the Turkish word thesaurus”. Gender Language and New Literacy (Eds., E.M. Thüne, S. Leonardi, C. Bazzanella), New York: The Continuum Publishing Company.
  • CRAWFORD, Mary E., STARK, Amy C. and RENNER, Catherine H., (1998), “The meaning of Ms.: Social assimilation of a gender concept”, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22: 197-208.
  • EIGE, (2019), Gender Equality Index, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  • EU, (2019), Toolkit on Gender-sensitive Communication, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  • FOUCAULT, Michael, (1972), The Archeology of Knowledge, London: Tavistock.
  • FOUCAULT, Michael, (1980), Power/Knowledge, Brighton, UK: Harvester.
  • GRADDOL, David and SWANN Joan, (1989), Gender voices, Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
  • HALL, Stuart, (1997), Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, London: Sage Publications.
  • KARLBERG, Michael, (2005), “The power of discourse and the discourse of power: Pursuing peace through discourse intervention”, International Journal of Peace Studies, 10 (1): 1-25.
  • KREITLER, Shulamith, (2014), “The Oxford Handbook of Language and Social Psychology”, Psychology Learning & Teaching (Ed.Thomas M. Holtgraves), New York: Oxford University Press.
  • LEAPER, Campbell, (1995), “The use of masculine and feminine to describe women’s and men’s behavior”, Journal of Social Psychology, 135: 359-369.
  • LEAPER, Campell and BIGLER, Rebecca S. (2004), “Gendered language and sexist thought. Monographs of the Society for Research”, Child Development, 69, (1): 128-142.
  • LOTT, Bernice, (1981), “A feminist critique of androgyny: Toward the elimination of gender attributions for learned behavior”, Gender and nonverbal behavior (Ed. C. Mayo and N. M. Henley), New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • MACKAY, Donald G. , (1980), “Psychology, perspective grammar, and the pronoun problem”, American Psychologist, 35: 444-449.
  • OECD, (2017), The Pursuit of Gender Equality: An Uphill Battle, Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • PARKS, B. Janet and ROBERTON, Mary Ann, (1998), “Influence of Age, Gender, and Context on Attitudes Toward Sexist/Nonsexist Language? Is Sport a Special Case”, Sex Roles, 38, (6): 474-494
  • PHILLIPS, Nelson, and CYNTHIA Hardy, (2002), Discourse Analysis: Investigating Processes of Social Construction, London: Sage
  • SWIM, Janet K. and Robyn Mallet K., (2009), “Sex Roles”. A Journal of Research, 51: 117-128.
  • TANNEN, Deborah, (1994), Gender and Discourse, New York: Oxford.
  • UN, (2017), Women Gender Equality Glossary, https://trainingcentre.unwomen.org/mod/glossary/ view. php?id=36. (Access Date: 05/02/2020).
  • UNESCO, (2015). SDG4-Education 2030, Incheon Declaration (ID) and Framework for Action. For the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 4, Ensure Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education and Promote Lifelong Learning Opportunities for All, ED-2016/WS/28, https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000245656 (Access Date: 05/02/2020)
  • URL 1: http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=33705 www.tuik.gov.tr (27-43) (Access Date: 10/02/2020)
  • WEST, Candace and ZIMMERMAN, Don H., (1991), The social construction of gender, Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.
  • YIGITOGLU, Mustafa and YALCINKAYA, Zana. (2016). “An Analysis on Sexist Proverbs and Idioms in Turkish”. Idil, 5: 1659-1669.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Dil ve Dil Bilim
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0003-4150-913X
Yazar: Ozan Deniz YALÇINKAYA (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: DİCLE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Başvuru Tarihi : 23 Ekim 2019
Kabul Tarihi : 20 Nisan 2020
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 12 Mayıs 2020

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { turkbilig736225, journal = {Türkbilig}, issn = {1302-6011}, address = {Hitit Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Bölümü Merkez/ÇORUM}, publisher = {Hacettepe Üniversitesi}, year = {2020}, volume = {}, pages = {1 - 14}, doi = {}, title = {Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions}, key = {cite}, author = {YALÇINKAYA, Ozan Deniz} }
APA YALÇINKAYA, O . (2020). Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions. Türkbilig , (39) , 1-14 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/turkbilig/issue/54278/736225
MLA YALÇINKAYA, O . "Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions". Türkbilig (2020 ): 1-14 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/turkbilig/issue/54278/736225>
Chicago YALÇINKAYA, O . "Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions". Türkbilig (2020 ): 1-14
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions AU - Ozan Deniz YALÇINKAYA Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - DO - T2 - Türkbilig JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 14 VL - IS - 39 SN - 1302-6011- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Türkbilig Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions %A Ozan Deniz YALÇINKAYA %T Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions %D 2020 %J Türkbilig %P 1302-6011- %V %N 39 %R %U
ISNAD YALÇINKAYA, Ozan Deniz . "Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions". Türkbilig / 39 (Mayıs 2020): 1-14 .
AMA YALÇINKAYA O . Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions. Türkbilig. 2020; (39): 1-14.
Vancouver YALÇINKAYA O . Gender-Sensitive Language in Turkish and English: Changing Perceptions. Türkbilig. 2020; (39): 14-1.