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Subtropical and Tropical Fruit Species as Vitamin C Source

Yıl 2020, Cilt 2, Sayı 4, 19 - 29, 27.11.2020

Öz

Vitamins have a vital importance in human nutrition. From these, vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy disease. It was suggested to be consumed between at least 75 mg/person in females and 90 mg/person in males, and the most 2000 mg/person daily. The excess of it does not accumulate, but discarded. The natural form of vitamin C is L-ascorbic acid (hexuronic acid, C6H8O6, M.W.=176.12 g/L). It is a vitamin that water soluble, white, acidic, and sensitive to light. Humans cannot naturally synthesize ascorbic acid in their bodies. Therefore, ascorbic acid has to be taken daily by food sources. There is 70-83 mg in an orange and 88 mg in a grapefruit. Vitamin C has several health benefits as follows: increases body’s resistance against to microorganisms; strengthen blood veins; synthesizes 4-hydroxyproline amino acid required for making collagen in bones, joints, and veins; provides noradrenalin synthesis in the body; provides the synthesis of gall (bile) from cholesterol; is a strong antioxidant; provides the stabilization of vitamin E (tocopherol) and vitamin B9 (folic acid); provides carnitine synthesis, and contributes the transport of fatty acids. The highest amount of vitamin C containing subtropical and tropical fruit crops are relatively grouped in as follows (mg/100g): Group 1 (>600 mg/100g): acerola (Malpighia glabra) 4500, camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) 2280, kiwifruit (Actidinia chinensis) 1008; Group 2 (600-100 mg/100g): guava (Psidium guajava) 600, aonla (Phyllanthus emblica) 600, cashew apple (nut) (Anacardium occidentale) 372, persimmon (Diospyros kaki) 210, tamarind (Tamarindus indica) 202, black sapote (Diospyros nigra) 192, carambola (Averrhoa bilimbi) 183, pineapple (Ananas comosus) 165; Group 3 (100-50 mg/100g): feijoa (Acca sellowiana) 93, longan (Dimocarpus longan) 84, litchi (Litchi chinensis) 72, papaya (Carica papaya) 82, mango (Mangifera indica) 80, pomegranate (Punica granatum) 72, bael (Aegle marmelos) 60, orange (Citrus sinensis) 53, lemon (Citrus limon) 53, jamun (Syzygium cumini) 51, atemoya (Annona squamosa × A.cherimola) 50; Group 4 (<50 mg/100 g): rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) 48, sugarapple (Annona squamosa) 42, banana (Musa spp.) 36, grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) 33, plantain (Musa × paradisiaca) 31, white sapote (Casimiroa edulis) 30, passiflora (Passiflora edulis) 30, pitaya (Hylocerus undatus) 30, graviola (Annona muricata) 30, breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) 29, mandarin (Citrus reticulata) 27, durian (Durio zibethinus) 24, avocado (Persea americana) 21, chempedak (Artocarpus polyphema) 20, woodapple (Feronia elephantum) 18, cherimoya (Annona cherimola) 16, sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) 15, fig (Ficus carica) 15, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) 14, carob (Ceratonia siliqua) 8, coconut (Cocos nucifera) 3, mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) 3, loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) 3, langsat (Lansium parasiticum) 1, olive (Olea europaea) <1.

Kaynakça

  • Aliyu, O.M., Awopetu, J.A. 2007. Chromosome studies in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 6(2): 131-136.
  • Amarante, do C.V.T. Souza, de A.G., Benincá, T.D.T., Steffens, C.A. 2017. Fruit quality of Brazilian genotypes of feijoa at harvest and after storage. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília 52(9):734-742. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2017000900005
  • Anonim, 2000. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Food and Nutrition Board Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. pp. 95-185.
  • Anonim, 2013. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for vitamin C. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products and Nutrition and Allergies [NDA]. EFSA Journal 11(11):3418.
  • Anonim, 2018. FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organisation Database. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC
  • Anonim, 2019. USDA FoodData Central. https://fdc.nal.usda.gov
  • Arellano-Gómez, L.A., Saucedo-Veloz, C., Arévalo-Galarza, L. 2005. Biochemical and physiological changes during ripening of black sapote fruit (Diospyros digyna Jacq.). Agrociencia 39: 173-181.
  • Assis, S.A., Pedro Fernanades, F., Martins, A.B.G., Faria Oliveira, O.M.M. 2008. Acerola: importance, culture conditions, production and biochemical aspects. Fruits 63(2):93-101.
  • Bingöl, G. 1977. Vitaminler ve Enzimler. Ankara Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi Yayınları Ders Kitabı Serisi No:10, Ankara, 88 s.
  • Brandão, T.S.de O., Sena, A.R. de, Teshima, E., David, J.M., Assis, S.A. 2011. Changes in enzymes, phenolic compounds, tannins, and vitamin C in various stages of jambolan (Syzygium cumini Lamark) development. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Campinas 31(4):849-855.
  • Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., Stryer, L. 2002. Biochemistry. 5th Ed. W.H. Freeman, New York, NY, USA.
  • Carr, A.C., Maggini, S. 2017. Vitamin C and immune function. Nutrients 9:1211.
  • Castro, J.C., Madox, J.D., Cobos, M., Imán, S.A. 2018. Myrciaria dubia “Camu Camu” fruit: Health-promoting phytochemicals and functional genomic characteristics. Ch 5, pp. 85-116. In: Breeding and Health Benefits of Fruit and Nut Crops. IntechOpen.
  • Chisnall, M., Macknight, R. 2017. Importance of vitamin C in human health and disease. pp: 491-501. In: Ascorbic Acid in Plant Growth, Development and Stress Tolerance (Eds: M.A. Hossain, S. Munne-Bosch, D.J. Burritt, P. Diaz-Vivancos, M. Fujita, A. Lorence). Springer, 511 p. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74057-7_19
  • Chirinos, R., Galarza, J., Betalleluz-Pallardel, I., Pedreschi, R., Campos, D. 2010. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of Peruvian camu camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh) fruit at different maturity stages. Food Chemistry 120(4):1019-1024.
  • Conklin, P.L., Saracco, S.A., Norris, S.R., Last, R.L. 2000. Identification of ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Genetics 154(2):847-856.
  • Davey, M.W., Van Montagu, M., Inze, D., Sanmartin, M., Kanellis, A., Smirnoff, N., Benzie, I.J.J., Strain, J.J., Favell, D., Fletcher, J. 2000. Plant ʟ-ascorbic acid: chemistry, function, metabolism, bioavailability and effects of processing. J. Sci. Food Agri. 80(7):825-860.
  • Delva, L., Goodrich Schneider, R. 2013. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC): Production, postharvest handling, nutrition, and biological activity. Food Reviews International 29(2):107-126.
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Vitamin C Kaynağı Olarak Subtropik ve Tropik İklim Meyve Türleri

Yıl 2020, Cilt 2, Sayı 4, 19 - 29, 27.11.2020

Öz

Vitaminler insan beslenmesinde hayati öneme sahiptir. Bunlardan vitamin C eksikliği iskorbüt hastalığına neden olur. Kadınların en az 75 mg/kişi ve erkeklerin en az 90 mg/kişi ile en çok 2000 mg/kişi arasında günlük vitamin C alması tavsiye edilmektedir. Fazlası vücutta birikmez, atılır. İnsanlar vücutlarında doğal olarak askorbik asidi sentezleyemezler. Bu nedenle askorbik asit günlük olarak besin kaynaklarından alınmak zorundadır. Orta boy bir portakalda 70-83 mg ve altıntopta 88 mg vitamin C bulunur. Vitamin C mikroorganizmalara karşı vücudun direncini artırır; kan damarlarını sağlamlaştırır; kemikler, eklemler ve damarlardaki kollajen yapımı için gerekli olan 4-hydroxyproline amino asidini sentezler; vücutta noradrenalin sentezlenmesini sağlar; kolestrolden safra sentezlenmesini sağlar; kuvvetli antioksidandır; vitamin E (tokoferol) ve vitamin B9 (folik asit)’un kararlı hâle gelmesini sağlar; karnitin sentezini sağlar ve yağ asitlerinin taşınmasına katkıda bulunur. En fazla vitamin C (mg/100g) içeren subtropik ve tropik meyve türleri göreceli olarak şu şekilde gruplandırılabilir. 1.grup (>600 mg/100g): acerola (Malpighia glabra) 4500, kamu kamu (Myrciaria dubia) 2280, kivi (Actidinia chinensis) 1008; 2.grup (600-100 mg/100g): guava (Psidium guajava) 600, amla (Phyllanthus emblica) 600, kaju (Anacardium occidentale) 372, Trabzon hurması (Diospyros kaki) 210, demirhindi (Tamarindus indica) 202, siyah sapot (Diospyros nigra) 192, yıldız meyvesi (Averrhoa bilimbi) 183, ananas (Ananas comosus) 165; 3.grup (100-50 mg/100g): feijoa (Acca sellowiana) 93, longan (Dimocarpus longan) 84, liçi (Litchi chinensis) 72, papaya (Carica papaya) 82, mango (Mangifera indica) 80, nar (Punica granatum) 72, bel (Aegle marmelos) 60, portakal (Citrus sinensis) 53, limon (Citrus limon) 53, Java eriği (Syzygium cumini) 51, atemoya (Annona squamosa × A.cherimola) 50; 4.grup (<50 mg/100 g): rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) 48, sugarapple (Annona squamosa) 42, muz (Musa spp.) 36, altıntop (Citrus × paradisi) 33, plantain (Musa × paradisiaca) 31, beyaz sapot (Casimiroa edulis) 30, çarkıfelek meyvesi (Passiflora edulis) 30, ejder meyvesi (Hylocerus undatus) 30, graviola (Annona muricata) 30, ekmek meyvesi (Artocarpus altilis) 29, mandarin (Citrus reticulata) 27, durian (Durio zibethinus) 24, avokado (Persea americana) 21, cempedak (Artocarpus polyphema) 20, fil elması (Feronia elephantum) 18, çerimoya (Annona cherimola) 16, sapot (Manilkara zapota) 15, incir (Ficus carica) 15, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) 14, keçiboynuzu (Ceratonia siliqua) 8, Hindistan cevizi (Cocos nucifera) 3, mangostan (Garcinia mangostana) 3, yenidünya (Eriobotrya japonica) 3, langsat (Lansium parasiticum) 1, zeytin (Olea europaea) <1.

Kaynakça

  • Aliyu, O.M., Awopetu, J.A. 2007. Chromosome studies in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 6(2): 131-136.
  • Amarante, do C.V.T. Souza, de A.G., Benincá, T.D.T., Steffens, C.A. 2017. Fruit quality of Brazilian genotypes of feijoa at harvest and after storage. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília 52(9):734-742. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2017000900005
  • Anonim, 2000. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Food and Nutrition Board Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. pp. 95-185.
  • Anonim, 2013. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for vitamin C. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products and Nutrition and Allergies [NDA]. EFSA Journal 11(11):3418.
  • Anonim, 2018. FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organisation Database. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC
  • Anonim, 2019. USDA FoodData Central. https://fdc.nal.usda.gov
  • Arellano-Gómez, L.A., Saucedo-Veloz, C., Arévalo-Galarza, L. 2005. Biochemical and physiological changes during ripening of black sapote fruit (Diospyros digyna Jacq.). Agrociencia 39: 173-181.
  • Assis, S.A., Pedro Fernanades, F., Martins, A.B.G., Faria Oliveira, O.M.M. 2008. Acerola: importance, culture conditions, production and biochemical aspects. Fruits 63(2):93-101.
  • Bingöl, G. 1977. Vitaminler ve Enzimler. Ankara Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi Yayınları Ders Kitabı Serisi No:10, Ankara, 88 s.
  • Brandão, T.S.de O., Sena, A.R. de, Teshima, E., David, J.M., Assis, S.A. 2011. Changes in enzymes, phenolic compounds, tannins, and vitamin C in various stages of jambolan (Syzygium cumini Lamark) development. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Campinas 31(4):849-855.
  • Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., Stryer, L. 2002. Biochemistry. 5th Ed. W.H. Freeman, New York, NY, USA.
  • Carr, A.C., Maggini, S. 2017. Vitamin C and immune function. Nutrients 9:1211.
  • Castro, J.C., Madox, J.D., Cobos, M., Imán, S.A. 2018. Myrciaria dubia “Camu Camu” fruit: Health-promoting phytochemicals and functional genomic characteristics. Ch 5, pp. 85-116. In: Breeding and Health Benefits of Fruit and Nut Crops. IntechOpen.
  • Chisnall, M., Macknight, R. 2017. Importance of vitamin C in human health and disease. pp: 491-501. In: Ascorbic Acid in Plant Growth, Development and Stress Tolerance (Eds: M.A. Hossain, S. Munne-Bosch, D.J. Burritt, P. Diaz-Vivancos, M. Fujita, A. Lorence). Springer, 511 p. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74057-7_19
  • Chirinos, R., Galarza, J., Betalleluz-Pallardel, I., Pedreschi, R., Campos, D. 2010. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of Peruvian camu camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh) fruit at different maturity stages. Food Chemistry 120(4):1019-1024.
  • Conklin, P.L., Saracco, S.A., Norris, S.R., Last, R.L. 2000. Identification of ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Genetics 154(2):847-856.
  • Davey, M.W., Van Montagu, M., Inze, D., Sanmartin, M., Kanellis, A., Smirnoff, N., Benzie, I.J.J., Strain, J.J., Favell, D., Fletcher, J. 2000. Plant ʟ-ascorbic acid: chemistry, function, metabolism, bioavailability and effects of processing. J. Sci. Food Agri. 80(7):825-860.
  • Delva, L., Goodrich Schneider, R. 2013. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC): Production, postharvest handling, nutrition, and biological activity. Food Reviews International 29(2):107-126.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Bahçe Bitkileri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Zeynel DALKILIÇ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Aydın Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi
0000-0002-0946-1036
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Kasım 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 24 Temmuz 2020
Kabul Tarihi 8 Ekim 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 2, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

APA Dalkılıç, Z. (2020). Vitamin C Kaynağı Olarak Subtropik ve Tropik İklim Meyve Türleri . Uluslararası Anadolu Ziraat Mühendisliği Bilimleri Dergisi , 2 (4) , 19-29 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/uazimder/issue/57919/773571