Yıl 2017, Cilt 1 , Sayı 2, Sayfalar 106 - 129 2017-10-31

THE SYRIA CRISIS AS A PROXY WAR AND THE RETURN OF THE REALIST GREAT POWER POLITICS
Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü

Muharrem EKŞİ [1]


This study analyzes the implications of the Syria policies of the United States, Russia and China with regard to the international system within the framework of the great power politics. In this context, the main research question of the study is as follows: What are the Syria Crisis’ implications and transformative effects for the international system? The study has two fundamental arguments: First, the geopolitical struggle involving the United States, Russia and China begun after the Syria crisis turned to a proxy war between great powers. Second, this struggle also transforms the international system. The Sino-Russian dual campaign to protect the principle of state sovereignty and the principle of non-intervention of the Westphalian system against the unilateral development of intervention law of the United States in the international system.


Bu makalenin temel araştırma sorusu, Suriye krizinin uluslararası sisteme yönelik yansımaları ve dönüştürücü etkileri nelerdir olarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırmada iki temel argüman geliştirilmiştir: Birincisi, Suriye krizinin büyük güçler arasında vekalet savaşına dönüşmesiyle ABD, Rusya ve Çin arasında yürütülen bir jeopolitik mücadele başlamıştır. Suriye krizi üzerinden büyük güçlerin küresel nüfuz mücadelesi realist büyük güç politikasını tekrar ortaya çıkarmıştır. Suriye krizi üzerinden Ortadoğu’da ABD, Rusya ve Çin, nüfuz alanlarını yeniden belirlemeye başlamışlardır. Böylece Suriye, 21. yüzyılın yeni satranç tahtası olmuştur. İkincisi, bu mücadelenin uluslararası sistemi dönüştürmesidir. ABD’nin tek taraflı uluslararası sistemde müdahale hukukunu geliştirmesine karşı Rusya ve Çin ikilisi Vestfalyan sistemin egemenlik ve diğer devletlerin iç işlerine müdahale etmeme ilkelerini koruma yönünde mücadele vermektedir.


  • ALLISON Roy, “Russia and Syria: explaining alignment with a regime in crisis”, International Affairs, Vol: 89, Issue: 4, July 2013, p. 795-823. BAEV Pavel K., “Russia’s policy in the Middle East imperilled by the Syrian intervention”, The Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre, Policy Brief November 2015, http://noref.no/var/ezflow_site/storage/original/application/46688c6618b09802a81738ebd990c538.pdf, (Accessed on 02.01.2017). CARPENTER Ted Galen, “The Syrian Civil War’s Global Implications”, Cato Institute, 10 September 2012, https://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/syrian-civil-wars-global-implications, (Accessed on 02.03.2016). CHESTERMAN Simon, “‘Leading from Behind’: The Responsibility to Protect, the Obama Doctrine, and Humanitarian Intervention after Libya”, Ethics & International Affairs, Vol: 25, Issue: 3, October 2011, p. 279-285. CLAWSON Patrick (ed.), Syrian Kurds as a U.S. Ally: Cooperation & Complications, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2016. CRONOGUE Graham, “Responsibility to Protect: Syria The Law, Politics, and Future of Humanitarian Intervention Post-Libya”, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, Vol: 3, Issue: 1, p. 124-159. DAL Emel Parlar, “Turkey after Astana, Syria and global interplay”, Anadolu Ajansı, 26.01.2017, http://aa.com.tr/en/analysis-news/turkey-after-astana-syria-and-global-interplay/735532, (Accessed on 27.01.2017). DALACOURA Katerina, “US democracy promotion in the Arab Middle East since 11 September 2001: a critique”, International Affairs, Vol: 81, Issue: 5, October 2005, p. 963-979. DAVIS Lynn E. et al., “A Strategy to Counter ISIL as a Transregional Threat”, Rand Perspective, 2017, p. 1-24. DEYERMOND Ruth, “The Uses of Sovereignty in Twenty-first Century Russian Foreign Policy”, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol: 68, Issue: 6, 2016, p. 957-984. DUECK Colin, Obama Doctrine: American Grand Strategy Today, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2015. EROL Mehmet Seyfettin - Çiğdem Tunç, “11 Eylül Sonrası ABD'nin Küresel Güç Mücadelesinde Orta Asya”, Avrasya Dosyası, Vol: 9, Issue: 3, Autumn 2003, p. 5-28. EROL Mehmet Seyfettin, “Türkiye’nin Orta Asya politikasına Rusya Federasyonu ve Bölge ülkelerinden genel bir bakış”, Türk Dünyası İncelemeleri Dergisi/Journal of Turkish World Studies, 12/1 (Summer 2012), p. 1-20. EROL Mehmet Seyfettin, “Türk-Rus İlişkilerinde Soğuk Savaş Sonrası Dönemde Rusya’nın Dış Politikasında Yakın Çevre ve Orta Asya”, Türk Dünyası İncelemeleri Dergisi/Journal of Turkish World Studies, 14/1 (Summer 2014), p. 155-178. EVRON Yoram, “Chinese Involvement in the Middle East: The Libyan and Syrian Crises”, Strategic Assessment, Vol: 16, No: 3, October 2013, p. 79-81. GANDER Kashmira-Olivia Blair, “Russia launches missiles at 'Isis targets’ in Syria from Caspian Sea”, The Independent, 7 October 2015, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/russia-in-syria-russia-launches-missiles-against-isis-from-caspian-sea-a6684631.html, (Accessed on 20.12.2016). GAUSE III F. Gregory, “Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability”, Foreign Affairs, Vol: 90, No. 4, July/August 2011, p. 81-90. GOLDENBERG Ilan, Julie Smith, “U.S.-Russia Competition in the Middle East Is Back”, Foreign Policy, 7 March 2017, http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/03/07/u-s-russia-competition-in-the-middle-east-is-back/, (Accessed on 09.03.2017). GORDON Michael R., “White House Accepts ‘Political Reality’ of Assad’s Grip on Power in Syria”, The New York Times, 31 March 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/31/us/politics/trump-bashar-assad-syria.html?_r=0, (Accessed on 31.03.2017). IBISH Hussein, “What’s at Stake for the Gulf Arab States in Syria?”, Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington, Issue Paper 6, 30 June 2016, p. 1-23, http://www.agsiw.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Ibish_GCCSyria_Web.pdf, (Accessed on 12.11.2016). IGNATIUS David, “The United States’ surprise allies in Syria”, The Washington Post, 15 October 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-us-hastily-reevaluates-its-syria-strategy/2015/10/15/92d62c54-735c-11e5-9cbb-790369643cf9_story.html?utm_term=.3c24c14f2881, (Accessed on 04.01.2017). JACKSON Richard, “Culture, identity and hegemony: Continuity and (the lack of) change in US counterterrorism policy from Bush to Obama”, International Politics, Vol: 48, Issue: 2, 2011, p. 390-411. JENKIS Brian Michael, “The Dynamics of Syria’s Civil War”, Rand Perspective, 2014, p. 3, http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE100/PE115/RAND_PE115.pdf, (Accessed on 04.01.2017). KACZMARSKI Marcin, cooperation Jakub Jakóbowski, “China on Russia’s intervention in Syria”, OSW Centre for Eastern Studies, Commentary, Number 193, 19.01.2016, p. 1-6, https://www.osw.waw.pl/sites/default/files/commentary_193_0.pdf, (Accessed on 23.09.2016). KADI Ghassan, “Russian Brokered High Level Syria-Saudi Arabia Discussions: Al Assad’s Security Adviser meets Saudi Deputy Crown Prince”, Global Research, August 01, 2015, http://www.globalresearch.ca/russian-brokered-high-level-syria-saudi-arabia-discussions-al-assads-security-adviser-ali-mamlouk-meets-saudi-deputy-crown-prince-mohamad-bin-salman/5466149, (Accessed on 15.05.2016). KAM Ephraim, “To Iraq and Back: The Withdrawal of the US Forces”, Strategic Assessment, Vol: 14, No: 4, January 2012, p. 87-101. KATZ Mark N., “Russia and the Conflict in Syria: Four Myths”, Middle East Policy, Vol: 20, No.2, Summer 2013, p. 38-46. KATZ Mark N., “U.S. Policy toward Syria: Making the Best of a Bad Situation?”, Wilson Center Viewpoints, No. 41, October 2013, p. 1-5, p. 3. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/us_policy_toward_syria_making_best_of_bad_situation.pdf, (Accessed on 24.01.2017). KHASHANAH Khaldoun, “The Syrian Crisis: a systemic framework”, Contemporary Arab Affairs, 7:1, 1-21. KOROLEV Alexander, “Theories of Non-Balancing and Russia’s Foreign Policy”, The Journal of Strategic Studies, 2017, p. 1-26. KOUNALAKIS Markos, “China’s position on international intervention: A media and journalism critical discourse analysis of its case for “Sovereignty” versus “Responsibility to Protect” principles in Syria”, Global Media and China, Vol: 1, Issue: 3, September 2016, p. 149-167. KRAUTHAMMER Charles, “The Obama doctrine: Leading from behind”, The Washington Post, April 28, 2011, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-obama-doctrine-leading-from-behind/2011/04/28/AFBCy18E_story.html?utm_term=.5b9426286171, (Accessed on 01.01.20179. LYNCH March et al., “Syria in the Arab Spring: The integration of Syria’s conflict with the Arab uprisings, 2011–2013”, Research and Politics, October-December 2014, p. 1-7. MOZES N. - Dr. M. Terdiman, “Russian Efforts To Exclude U.S., Europe From Political Solution In Syria and Create A Framework For Bypassing Geneva I”, The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), Inquiry & Analysis Series No. 1292, December 23, 2016, https://www.memri.org/reports/russian-efforts-exclude-us-europe-political-solution-syria-and-create-framework-bypassing, (Accessed on 12.01.2017). NICHOLS Michelle, “US no longer focused on removing Assad from power in Syria, ambassador to the UN Nikki Haley says”, The Independent, 31 March 2017, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/us-assad-syria-ambassador-un-nikki-haley-a7659266.html, (Accessed on 31.03.2017). PAPE Robert A., “Soft Balancing against the United States”, International Security, Vol: 30, No.1, Summer 2005, pp.7-45, p.7; T.V. Paul, “Soft Balancing in the Age of U.S. Primacy”, International Security, Vol: 30, No.1, Summer 2005, p. 46-71. REN Mu, “Interpreting China’s (Non-)Intervention Policy to The Syrian Crisis: A Neoclassical Realist Analysis”, Ritsumei 立命館国際研究, Bulletin, Vol: 27-1, p. 259-282. SHANE Scott, “Weren’t Syria’s Chemical Weapons Destroyed? It’s Complicated”, The New York Times, April 7, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/07/world/middleeast/werent-syrias-chemical-weapons-destroyed-its-complicated.html?_r=0, (Accessed on 10.04.2017). SIMS Alexandra, “US and Russia could 'start Third World War over Syria conflict', says Turkey”, The Independent, 17 October 2016, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/us-russia-third-world-war-syria-conflict-aleppo-turkey-deputy-prime-minister-numan-kurtulmus-a7366571.html, (Accessed on 04.01.2017). SORENSON David S., “Dilemmas for US Strategy: US Options in Syria”, Parameters, 43 (3), Autumn 2013, p. 5-15. SUN Yun, “Syria: What China Has Learned From its Libya Experience”, East-West Center, Asia Pacific Bulletin, No. 152, February 27, 2012, http://www.eastwestcenter.org/sites/default/files/private/apb152_1.pdf, (Accessed on 26.12.2016). TAKAN Ahmet, “ABD Suriye kuzeyinde 9 hava üssü kurdu”, Yeni Çağ Gazetesi, 23.03. 2017, http://www.yenicaggazetesi.com.tr/abd-suriye-kuzeyinde-9-hava-ussu-kurdu-42128yy.htm, (Accessed on 24. 03. 2017). TRENIN Dmitri, “The Mythical Alliance Russia’s Syria Policy”, The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Moscow Center, The Carnegie Papers, February 2013, p.1-30, p. 21, http://carnegieendowment.org/files/mythical_alliance.pdf, (Accessed on 11.12.2016). UZGEL İlhan, “AÜ SBF'den İlhan Uzgel: ‘Sıkışınca ordu öne sürülüyor’”, BirGün, 01.11.2016, http://www.birgun.net/haber-detay/au-sbf-den-ilhan-uzgel-sikisinca-ordu-one-suruluyor-133749.html, (Accessed on 17.12.2016). WANG Fei-Ling, “From Tianxia to Westphalia: The Evolving Chinese Conception of Sovereignty and World Order”, in G. John Ikenberry, Wang Jisi, Zhu Feng (Eds.), America, China, and the Struggle for World Order: Ideas, Traditions, Historical Legacies, and Global Visions, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2015. WILLIAMS Brian Glyn - Robert Souza, “Operation ‘Retribution’: Putin’s Military Campaign in Syria, 2015-16”, Middle East Policy, Vol: XXIII, No. 4, Winter 2016, p. 42-60. “2017 Index of U.S. Military Strength”, The Heritage, 2017, http://index.heritage.org/military/2017/assessments/operating-environment/middle-east/, (Accessed on 12.02.2017). “Aleppo: US ambassador Samantha Power blasts Assad regime, Russia, Iran at UN Security Council meeting”, ABC News, 14 December 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-12-14/un-exchange-samantha-power-blasts-russia-assad-over-aleppo/8119236, Accessed on 20.12.2016). “‘Are you incapable of shame?’: Samantha Power criticises Syria, Iran and Russia over Aleppo – video”, The Guardian, 14 December 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2016/dec/14/are-you-incapable-of-shame-samantha-power-criticises-syria-iran-and-russia-video, (Accessed on 24.12.2016). “Full text of China’s Arab Policy Paper”, January 2016, Xinhuanet, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2016-01/13/c_135006619.htm, Accessed on 01.02.2017). “Russia Promoting Syrian Government-Kurds Dialogue Establishment”, Sputnik News, 10.02.2017, https://sputniknews.com/middleeast/201702101050525645-russia-promoting-syrian-kurdish-dialogue/, (Accessed on 11.02.2017). “Russian Media Claims U.S. is Pushing for Third World War”, Breitbart, 12 October 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/national-security/2016/10/12/russian-tv-warns-u-s-pushing-nuclear-war/, (Accessed on 16.01.2017). “The US is building a military airfield in northern Syria as part of its ongoing campaign against Daesh, a representative of the Syrian Democratic Forces command told Sputnik on condition of anonymity”, Sputnik News, 04.10.2016, https://sputniknews.com/middleeast/201610041045991523-syria-us-airbase/, (Accessed on 28.12.2016). “Trump says Clinton's Syria policy would lead to third world war”, Middle East Eye, 2016, http://www.middleeasteye.net/fr/news/trump-says-clintons-syria-policy-would-lead-world-war-three-1131870947. (Accessed on 04.01.2017). “Türkiye-Rusya ilişkilerinde yeni sayfa açılıyor”, Deutsche Welle Türkçe, 09.08.2016, http://www.dw.com/tr/t%C3%BCrkiye-rusya-ili%C5%9Fkilerinde-yeni-sayfa-a%C3%A7%C4%B1l%C4%B1yor/a-19461034, (Accessed on 23.12.2016). “UN: Russia and China’s abusive use of veto ‘shameful’, Amnesty International, 28 February 2017, https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/02/un-russia-and-chinas-abusive-use-of-veto-shameful/, (Accessed on 01.03.2017). “US Army report confirms direct PKK, YPG links in Syria”, Daily Sabah, 27 March 2017, https://www.dailysabah.com/war-on-terror/2017/03/28/us-army-report-confirms-direct-pkk-ypg-links-in-syria, (Accessed on 30.03.2017).
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Muharrem EKŞİ

Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 31 Ekim 2017

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { uksad371239, journal = {Uluslararası Kriz ve Siyaset Araştırmaları Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2587-1269}, address = {Ehlibeyt Mah. Tekstilciler Cad. Sümer İş Merkezi 15/17 Balgat Çankaya – Ankara/Türkiye}, publisher = {Mehmet Seyfettin EROL}, year = {2017}, volume = {1}, pages = {106 - 129}, doi = {}, title = {Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü}, key = {cite}, author = {EKŞİ, Muharrem} }
APA EKŞİ, M . (2017). Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü. Uluslararası Kriz ve Siyaset Araştırmaları Dergisi , 1 (2) , 106-129 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/uksad/issue/33355/371239
MLA EKŞİ, M . "Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü". Uluslararası Kriz ve Siyaset Araştırmaları Dergisi 1 (2017 ): 106-129 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/uksad/issue/33355/371239>
Chicago EKŞİ, M . "Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü". Uluslararası Kriz ve Siyaset Araştırmaları Dergisi 1 (2017 ): 106-129
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü AU - Muharrem EKŞİ Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - Uluslararası Kriz ve Siyaset Araştırmaları Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 106 EP - 129 VL - 1 IS - 2 SN - -2587-1269 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Uluslararası Kriz ve Siyaset Araştırmaları Dergisi Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü %A Muharrem EKŞİ %T Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü %D 2017 %J Uluslararası Kriz ve Siyaset Araştırmaları Dergisi %P -2587-1269 %V 1 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD EKŞİ, Muharrem . "Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü". Uluslararası Kriz ve Siyaset Araştırmaları Dergisi 1 / 2 (Ekim 2017): 106-129 .
AMA EKŞİ M . Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü. UKSAD. 2017; 1(2): 106-129.
Vancouver EKŞİ M . Bir Vekalet Savaşı Olarak Suriye Krizi ve Büyük Güç Politikalarının Realizme Dönüşü. Uluslararası Kriz ve Siyaset Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2017; 1(2): 129-106.