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FEMALE LABOR FORCE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A CAUSAL LINKAGES INVESTIGATION FOR TURKEY

Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 29, 45 - 60, 10.10.2020
https://doi.org/10.18092/ulikidince.687690

Öz

This study explores the causal relationship between female employment and economic development in Turkey. Female labor force participation rate, female employment rate in agriculture, industry, and services sectors are used as variables representing female employment and GDP per capita is the variable representing economic development. First, ARDL bound testing approach is used to determine whether the U-hypothesis is valid. Then, the traditional Toda-Yamamoto causality test, which does not take into account structural shifts and Fourier Toda-Yamamoto tests that take into account gradual structural shifts is applied. As a result, it is found that (i) there is U-shaped relationship for all four models, (ii) traditional Toda-Yamamoto and Fourier Toda-Yamamoto tests show a robust Granger causality from economic development to female employment in agricultural sector, (iii) Fourier Toda-Yamamoto test finds a Granger causality from female employment to economic development. However, this is not a robust finding, (iv) the causality linkages between economic development and female employment are not sensitive to gradual structural shifts. 

Kaynakça

  • Bhalotra, S. ve Umana-Aponte, M. (2010). The Dynamics of Women’s Labour Supply in Developing Countries. IZA Discussion Paper Series, No. 4879.
  • Chapman, K. A. (2015). Economic Development and Female Labor Force Participation in The Middle East and North Africa: A Test of The U-Shape Hypothesis. Gettysburg Economic Review, 8, Article 3.
  • Choudhry, M. T. ve Elhorst P. (2018). Female Labour Force Participation and Economic Development. International Journal of Manpower, 39(7), 896-912.
  • Çağatay, N. ve Özler Ş. (1995). Feminization of The Labor Force: The Effects of Long-Term Development and Structural Adjustment. World Development, 23, 1883-1894.
  • Dickey, D.A. ve Fuller W. A. (1979). Distribution of The Estimators for Autoregressive Timeseries with A Unit Root. Journal of The American Statistical Society, 75, 427–431.
  • Elliott, G., Rothenberg, T. J. ve Stockj. H. (1996). Efficient Tests for An Autoregressive Unitroot. Econometrica, 64,813–836.
  • Enders, W. ve Lee, J. (2012a). A Unit Root Test Using A Fourier Series to Approximate Smooth Breaks. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 74(4), 574-599.
  • Enders, W. ve Lee J. (2012b). The Flexible Fourier Form and Dickey-Fuller Type Unit Root Tests. Economics Letters, 117, 196-199.
  • Er, Ş. (2012). Women Indicators of Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach. Economic Research Guardian, 2(1), 27-42.
  • Esteve-Volart, B. (2004). Gender Discrimination and Growth: Theory and Evidence from India. Sticerd Discussion Papers, DEDPS42, London School of Economics and Political Science.
  • Gaddis, I. ve Klasen S. (2014) Economic Development, Structural Change, and Women’s Labor Force Participation: A Reexamination Of The Feminization U Hypothesis. J. Popul. Econ., 27(3), 639–681.
  • Galor, O. ve Weil D. N. (1993). The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth. IMF Working Paper, No. 4550.
  • Goldin, C. (1995). The U-Shaped Female Labor Force Function in Economic Development and Economic History. NBER Working Paper, No. W4707.
  • Gormus, A., Nazlioglu, S. ve Soytas, U. (2017). High-Yield Bond and Energy Markets. Energy Economics, 69, 101-110.
  • Kinoshita, Y. ve Guo, F. (2015). What Can Boost Female Labor Force Participation in Asia?. IMF Working Paper, No. WP/15/56.
  • Klasen, S. ve Lamanna, F. (2003). The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth in The Middle East and North Africa. Background Paper for Gender and Development in The Middle East And North Afric, World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Klasen, S. ve Lamanna, F. (2009). The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth: New Evidence for A Panel Of Countries. Feminist Economics 15 (3), 91–132.
  • Klasen, S. ve Pieters, J. (2012). Push or Pull? Drivers of Female Labor Force Participation During India's Economic Boom. IZA Discussion Paper, No. 6395, Institute For The Study Of Labor, Bonn.
  • Klasen, S. ve Pieters, J. (2015). What Explains The Stagnation of Female Labor Force Participation in Urban India?. Policy Research Working Paper, 7222. World Bank Group, Washington, D.C.
  • Korkmaz, M. ve Alacahan, N. D. (2013). Türkiye’de Formel Piyasaya Yönelmede Kadın İşgücü Arzı ve GSYH Etkileri: Ampirik Bir Çalışma. Turkish Studies, 8(7), 887-900.
  • Lahoti, R. ve Swaminathan, H.(2016). Economic Development and Women’s Labor Force Participation in India. Fem. Econ., 22(2), 168–195.
  • Luci, A. (2009). Female Labor Market Participation and Economic Growth. International Journal Of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 4(2/3), 97–108.
  • Nazlioglu, S., Gormus, N. A. ve Soytas, U. (2016). Oil Prices and Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs): Gradual-Shift Causality and Volatility Transmission Analysis. Energy Econ. 60, 168–175.
  • Nazlioglu, S., Gormus, N. A. ve Soytas, U. (2018): Oil Prices and Monetary Policy in Emerging Markets: Structural Shifts in Causal Linkages. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 55(1), 105-117.
  • Ngai, L. R. ve Olivetti, C. (2015). Structural Transformation and The U-Shaped Female Labor Supply. 2015 Meeting Papers 1501, Society For Economic Dynamics.
  • Pata, U. K. (2018). Türkiye’de Kadın İstihdamı ve Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisi: Simetrik Ve Asimetrik Nedensellik Testleri İle Sektörel Bir Analiz. Uluslararası İktisadi ve İdari İncelemeler Dergisi, 21: 135-150.
  • Psacharopoulos, G. ve Tzannatos, Z. (1989). Female Labor Force Participation: An İnternational Perspective. World Bank Res. Obs., 4(2), 187–201.
  • Rodrigues, P. M. M. ve Taylor, A. M. R. (2012). The Flexible Fourier Form and Local Generalised Least Squares De-Trended Unit Root Tests. Oxford Bulletin Of Economics and Statistics, 74(5), 736–759.
  • Su, C. W., Li, Z. Z., Tao, R. ve Lobonţ, O. R.(2019). Can Economic Development Boost The Active Female Labor Force?. Quality And Quantity, 53(2), 1021–1036.
  • Suh, M. G. (2017). Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation in South Korea: Tracing Out The U-Shaped Curve By Economic Growth. Soc. Indic. Res., 131, 255–269.
  • Tansel, A. (2002). Economic Development and Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey: Time Series Evidence and Cross-Province Estimates. Economic Research Center ERC. Working Papers in Economics, 01/05.
  • Thévenon, O., Ali, N., Adema, W. ve Del Pero, A. S. (2012). Effects of Reducing Gender Gaps in Education and Labor Force Participation on Economic Growth in The OECD. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No 138.
  • Toda, H. Y. ve Yamamoto, T. (1995). Statistical Inference in Vector Autoregression with Possibly Integrated Processes. Journal of Econometrics 66,225–250.
  • Tsani, S., Paroussos, L., Fragiadakis, C., Charalambidis, I. ve Capros, P. (2013). Female Labour Force Participation And Economic Growth in The South Mediterranean Countries. Econ. Lett., 120(2), 323–328.
  • Verick, S. (2014) Female Labor Force Participation in Developing Countries. Erişim Adresi https://wol.iza.org/uploads/articles/87/pdfs/female-labor-force-participation-in-developing-countries.pdf?v=1

EKONOMİK GELİŞME VE KADIN İŞ GÜCÜ İSTİHDAMI: TÜRKİYE İÇİN NEDENSELLİK İLİŞKİSİ İNCELENMESİ

Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 29, 45 - 60, 10.10.2020
https://doi.org/10.18092/ulikidince.687690

Öz

Bu çalışma Türkiye’de kadın istihdamı ve ekonomik gelişme arasındaki nedensellik ilişkisini araştırmaktadır. Kadın iş gücüne katılım oranı, kadınların tarım, sanayi ve hizmet sektörlerindeki istihdam oranı kadın istihdamını temsil eden değişkenler ve kişi başına GSYH ekonomik gelişmeyi temsil eden değişken olarak kullanılmaktadır. Nedensellik ilişkisinin tespiti için ilk olarak yapısal kırılmaları dikkate almayan geleneksel Toda-Yamamoto nedensellik testi, daha sonra kademeli yapısal kırılmaları dikkate alan Fourier Toda-Yamamoto nedensellik testi kullanılmaktadır. Yapılan testlerin sonucunda: (i) geleneksel Toda-Yamamoto ve Fourier Toda-Yamamoto testleri sonuçlarına göre, ekonomik gelişmenin kadınların tarım sektöründeki istihdamının Granger nedeni olduğu ve bu nedensellik ilişkisinin güçlü ve güvenilir olduğu, (ii) Fourier Toda-Yamamoto testi sonucuna göre, kadınların sanayi sektöründeki istihdamının ekonomik gelişmenin Granger nedeni olduğu, ancak bu sonucun güçlü olmadığı, (iii) ekonomik gelişme ile kadın istihdamı arasındaki nedensellik ilişkisinin kademeli yapısal kırılmaların dikkate alınmasına karşı duyarlı olmadığı tespiti yapılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Bhalotra, S. ve Umana-Aponte, M. (2010). The Dynamics of Women’s Labour Supply in Developing Countries. IZA Discussion Paper Series, No. 4879.
  • Chapman, K. A. (2015). Economic Development and Female Labor Force Participation in The Middle East and North Africa: A Test of The U-Shape Hypothesis. Gettysburg Economic Review, 8, Article 3.
  • Choudhry, M. T. ve Elhorst P. (2018). Female Labour Force Participation and Economic Development. International Journal of Manpower, 39(7), 896-912.
  • Çağatay, N. ve Özler Ş. (1995). Feminization of The Labor Force: The Effects of Long-Term Development and Structural Adjustment. World Development, 23, 1883-1894.
  • Dickey, D.A. ve Fuller W. A. (1979). Distribution of The Estimators for Autoregressive Timeseries with A Unit Root. Journal of The American Statistical Society, 75, 427–431.
  • Elliott, G., Rothenberg, T. J. ve Stockj. H. (1996). Efficient Tests for An Autoregressive Unitroot. Econometrica, 64,813–836.
  • Enders, W. ve Lee, J. (2012a). A Unit Root Test Using A Fourier Series to Approximate Smooth Breaks. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 74(4), 574-599.
  • Enders, W. ve Lee J. (2012b). The Flexible Fourier Form and Dickey-Fuller Type Unit Root Tests. Economics Letters, 117, 196-199.
  • Er, Ş. (2012). Women Indicators of Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach. Economic Research Guardian, 2(1), 27-42.
  • Esteve-Volart, B. (2004). Gender Discrimination and Growth: Theory and Evidence from India. Sticerd Discussion Papers, DEDPS42, London School of Economics and Political Science.
  • Gaddis, I. ve Klasen S. (2014) Economic Development, Structural Change, and Women’s Labor Force Participation: A Reexamination Of The Feminization U Hypothesis. J. Popul. Econ., 27(3), 639–681.
  • Galor, O. ve Weil D. N. (1993). The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth. IMF Working Paper, No. 4550.
  • Goldin, C. (1995). The U-Shaped Female Labor Force Function in Economic Development and Economic History. NBER Working Paper, No. W4707.
  • Gormus, A., Nazlioglu, S. ve Soytas, U. (2017). High-Yield Bond and Energy Markets. Energy Economics, 69, 101-110.
  • Kinoshita, Y. ve Guo, F. (2015). What Can Boost Female Labor Force Participation in Asia?. IMF Working Paper, No. WP/15/56.
  • Klasen, S. ve Lamanna, F. (2003). The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth in The Middle East and North Africa. Background Paper for Gender and Development in The Middle East And North Afric, World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Klasen, S. ve Lamanna, F. (2009). The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth: New Evidence for A Panel Of Countries. Feminist Economics 15 (3), 91–132.
  • Klasen, S. ve Pieters, J. (2012). Push or Pull? Drivers of Female Labor Force Participation During India's Economic Boom. IZA Discussion Paper, No. 6395, Institute For The Study Of Labor, Bonn.
  • Klasen, S. ve Pieters, J. (2015). What Explains The Stagnation of Female Labor Force Participation in Urban India?. Policy Research Working Paper, 7222. World Bank Group, Washington, D.C.
  • Korkmaz, M. ve Alacahan, N. D. (2013). Türkiye’de Formel Piyasaya Yönelmede Kadın İşgücü Arzı ve GSYH Etkileri: Ampirik Bir Çalışma. Turkish Studies, 8(7), 887-900.
  • Lahoti, R. ve Swaminathan, H.(2016). Economic Development and Women’s Labor Force Participation in India. Fem. Econ., 22(2), 168–195.
  • Luci, A. (2009). Female Labor Market Participation and Economic Growth. International Journal Of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 4(2/3), 97–108.
  • Nazlioglu, S., Gormus, N. A. ve Soytas, U. (2016). Oil Prices and Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs): Gradual-Shift Causality and Volatility Transmission Analysis. Energy Econ. 60, 168–175.
  • Nazlioglu, S., Gormus, N. A. ve Soytas, U. (2018): Oil Prices and Monetary Policy in Emerging Markets: Structural Shifts in Causal Linkages. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 55(1), 105-117.
  • Ngai, L. R. ve Olivetti, C. (2015). Structural Transformation and The U-Shaped Female Labor Supply. 2015 Meeting Papers 1501, Society For Economic Dynamics.
  • Pata, U. K. (2018). Türkiye’de Kadın İstihdamı ve Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisi: Simetrik Ve Asimetrik Nedensellik Testleri İle Sektörel Bir Analiz. Uluslararası İktisadi ve İdari İncelemeler Dergisi, 21: 135-150.
  • Psacharopoulos, G. ve Tzannatos, Z. (1989). Female Labor Force Participation: An İnternational Perspective. World Bank Res. Obs., 4(2), 187–201.
  • Rodrigues, P. M. M. ve Taylor, A. M. R. (2012). The Flexible Fourier Form and Local Generalised Least Squares De-Trended Unit Root Tests. Oxford Bulletin Of Economics and Statistics, 74(5), 736–759.
  • Su, C. W., Li, Z. Z., Tao, R. ve Lobonţ, O. R.(2019). Can Economic Development Boost The Active Female Labor Force?. Quality And Quantity, 53(2), 1021–1036.
  • Suh, M. G. (2017). Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation in South Korea: Tracing Out The U-Shaped Curve By Economic Growth. Soc. Indic. Res., 131, 255–269.
  • Tansel, A. (2002). Economic Development and Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey: Time Series Evidence and Cross-Province Estimates. Economic Research Center ERC. Working Papers in Economics, 01/05.
  • Thévenon, O., Ali, N., Adema, W. ve Del Pero, A. S. (2012). Effects of Reducing Gender Gaps in Education and Labor Force Participation on Economic Growth in The OECD. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No 138.
  • Toda, H. Y. ve Yamamoto, T. (1995). Statistical Inference in Vector Autoregression with Possibly Integrated Processes. Journal of Econometrics 66,225–250.
  • Tsani, S., Paroussos, L., Fragiadakis, C., Charalambidis, I. ve Capros, P. (2013). Female Labour Force Participation And Economic Growth in The South Mediterranean Countries. Econ. Lett., 120(2), 323–328.
  • Verick, S. (2014) Female Labor Force Participation in Developing Countries. Erişim Adresi https://wol.iza.org/uploads/articles/87/pdfs/female-labor-force-participation-in-developing-countries.pdf?v=1

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm MAKALELER
Yazarlar

Serdar GÖCEN (Sorumlu Yazar)
OSMANİYE KORKUT ATA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5742-191X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 10 Ekim 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 29

Kaynak Göster

APA Göcen, S. (2020). EKONOMİK GELİŞME VE KADIN İŞ GÜCÜ İSTİHDAMI: TÜRKİYE İÇİN NEDENSELLİK İLİŞKİSİ İNCELENMESİ . Uluslararası İktisadi ve İdari İncelemeler Dergisi , (29) , 45-60 . DOI: 10.18092/ulikidince.687690


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