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Ergogenic Supplements: A Special Group "Master Athletes"

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 104 - 121, 30.06.2021

Öz

In recent years, the number of elderly people who do sports for competition, as well as healthy life, has started to increase. This group is defined as master athletes; they are generally healthy people aged> 40 years who train regularly throughout their lives and try to maintain their performance level as long as possible. The interest in nutrition among athletes is increasing day by day. Maximum efficiency during exercise depends on dietary factors; ergogenic supplements are frequently used with the idea that they will help to achieve the targeted performance faster, increase strength and endurance and help recovery after exercise by reducing the risk of injury. This review aims to evaluate the effects of ergogenic supplements on exercise performance in master athletes. In total 60 articles were included in this literature review, 19 of which included international research articles on this subject. The review showed that studies are very limited, and that creatine was the most studied ergogenic supplement. Although it is the most studied ergogenic supplement, there were studies showing the side effects of creatine supplementation in master athletes. In addition, studies have been found on citrulline malate, beta-alanine, protein, beta hydroxy beta methyl butyrate, vitamin-mineral and omega-3 supplements; although the results conclude that ergogenic supplements may improve exercise performance in master athletes, the results were conflicting. Additionally, there are also ergogenic supplements that have never been studied on master athletes but are widely used among young athletes. Therefore, more studies are needed to enlighten this subject in master athletes.

Kaynakça

  • Aguiar, A.F., Januário, R.S.B., Junior, R.P., Gerage, A.M., Pina, F.L.C., do Nascimento, M.A., Padovani, C.R. & Cyrino, E.S. (2013). Long-term creatine supplementation improves muscular performance during resistance training in older women. European Journal of Applied Physiology,113(4), 987–96. Doi: 10.1007/s00421-012-2514-6.
  • Bagley, L., McPhee, J.S., Ganse, B., Müller, K., Korhonen, M.T., Rittweger, J. & Dengens, H. (2019). Similar relative decline in aerobic and anaerobic power with age in endurance and power master athletes of both sexes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 29(6), 791–9. Doi: 10.1111/sms.13404.
  • Bailey, S.J., Vanhatalo, A., Winyard, P.G. & Jones, A.M. (2012). The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway: Its role in human exercise physiology. European Journal of Sport Science, 12(4), 309–20. Doi: 10.1080/17461391.2011.635705.
  • Bayram, H.M. ve Güneş, F.E. (2020). Sarkopeni ve beslenme yaklaşımı. Geriatrik Bilimler Dergisi, 3(1), 27-36.
  • Bayram, H.M. ve Öztürkcan, S.A. (2020). Sporcularda ergojenik destekler. Türkiye Klinikleri Journal of Health Sciences, 5(3), 641–52. Doi: 10.5336/healthsci.2019-72030.
  • Bemben, M.G., Witten, M.S., Carter, J.M., Eliot, K.A., Knehans, A.W. & Bemben, D.A. (2010). The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, 14(2), 155–59. Doi: 10.1007/s12603-009-0124-8.
  • Bermon, S., Venembre, P., Sachet, C., Valour, S. & Dolisi, C. (1998). Effects of creatine monohydrate ingestion in sedentary and weight-trained older adults. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 164(2), 147–55. Doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201X.1998.00427.x.
  • Bernard, T., Sultana, F., Lepers, R., Hausswirth, C. & Brisswalter, J. (2010). Age-related decline in olympic triathlon performance: Effect of locomotion mode. Experimental Aging Research, 36(1), 64–78. Doi: 10.1080/03610730903418620.
  • Bescós, R., Sureda, A., Tur, J.A. & Pons, A. (2012). The effect of nitric-oxide-related supplements on human performance. Sport Medicine, 42(2), 99–117. Doi: 10.2165/11596860-000000000-00000.
  • Bex, T., Chung, W., Baguet, A., Achten, E. & Derave, W. (2015). Exercise training and beta-alanine-induced muscle carnosine loading. Frontiers in Nutrition, 7(2), 13. Doi: 10.3389/fnut.2015.00013.
  • Bex, T., Chung, W., Baguet, A., Stegen, S., Stautemas, J., Achten, E. & Derave, W. (2014). Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles. Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(2), 204-9. Doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01033.2013.
  • Brose, A., Parise, G. & Tarnopolsky, M.A. (2003). Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and the Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 58(1), 11-9. Doi: 10.1093/gerona/58.1.b11.
  • Candow, D.G., Forbes, S.C., Chilibeck, P.D., Cornish, S.M., Antonio, J. & Kreider, R.B. (2019). Effectiveness of creatine supplementation on aging muscle and bone: focus on falls prevention and inflammation. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(4), 488. Doi: 10.3390/jcm8040488.
  • Candow, D.G., Little, J.P., Chilibeck, P.D., Abeysekara, S., Zello, G.A., Kazachkov, M., Cornish, S.M. & Yu, P.H. (2008). Low-dose creatine combined with protein during resistance training in older men. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(9), 1645–52. Doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318176b310.
  • Cermak, N.M., Res, P.T., De Groot, L.C.P.G.M., Saris, W.H.M. & van Loon, L.J.C. (2012). Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(6), 1454–64. Doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.037556.
  • Chilibeck, P.D., Candow, D.G., Landeryou, T., Kaviani, M. & Paus-Jenssen, L. (2015). Effects of creatine and resistance training on bone health in postmenopausal women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(8), 1587–95. Doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000571.
  • Chrusch, M.J., Chilibeck, P.D., Chad, K.E., Davison, K.S. & Burke, D.G. (2001). Resistance training in older men. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(12), 2111-7. Doi: 10.1097/00005768-200112000-00021.
  • Doering, T.M., Reaburn, P.R., Cox, G. & Jenkins, D.G. (2016). Comparison of postexercise nutrition knowledge and postexercise carbohydrate and protein Intake between Australian masters and Younger Triathletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 26(4), 338–46. Doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0289.
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Ergojenik Destekler: Özel Bir Grup "Veteran Sporcular"

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 104 - 121, 30.06.2021

Öz

Son yıllarda, yaşlı bireylerde sporu sağlıklı yaşam için yapmanın yanı sıra, müsabaka düzeyinde yapanların sayısı artış göstermeye başlamıştır. Veteran sporcular olarak tanımlanan bu grup; genel olarak >40 yaş olup, yaşamları boyunca düzenli olarak antrenman yapan ve performans seviyelerini olabildiğince uzun süre korumaya çalışan sağlıklı kişilerdir. Sporcularda beslenmeye olan ilgi gün geçtikçe artış göstermektedir. Egzersiz sırasında maksimum verimin alınması diyet faktörlerine bağlı olup; hedeflenen performansa daha hızlı ulaşılması, güç ve dayanıklılığı artırması ve yaralanma riskini azaltarak egzersiz sonrası toparlanmaya yardımcı olacağı düşüncesi ile ergojenik destekler sıklıkla kullanılmaktadır. Bu derlemenin amacı veteran sporcularda ergojenik desteklerin egzersiz performansı üzerine etkilerini değerlendirmektir. Yapılan literatür taraması sonunda 60 makale derlemeye dahil edilmiş olup, bunların 19 tanesi bu konuda yapılan uluslararası araştırma makalelerini içermektedir. Yapılan çalışmalar oldukça sınırlı olup, kreatin en çok çalışılan ergojenik destek ürünüdür. En çok çalışılan ergojenik destek ürünü olmasına rağmen kreatin takviyesinin veteran sporcularda yan etkilerini gösterilen çalışmalar mevcuttur. Bunun yanı sıra sitrülin malat, beta alanin, protein, beta hidroksi beta metil bütirat, vitamin-mineral ile omega-3 takviyeleri ile ilgili de çalışmalara rastlanmış olup; çalışma sonuçları ergojenik desteklerin veteran sporcularda egzersiz performansını geliştirici etki gösterebilecekleri sonucuna varsa da çelişkili sonuçlarda mevcuttur. Ayrıca veteran sporcular üzerinde hiç çalışma yapılmamış ama genç sporcular arasında yaygın olarak kullanılan ergojenik destekler de mevcuttur. Bu nedenle veteran sporcularda bu konunun aydınlatılabilmesi adına daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç vardır.

Kaynakça

  • Aguiar, A.F., Januário, R.S.B., Junior, R.P., Gerage, A.M., Pina, F.L.C., do Nascimento, M.A., Padovani, C.R. & Cyrino, E.S. (2013). Long-term creatine supplementation improves muscular performance during resistance training in older women. European Journal of Applied Physiology,113(4), 987–96. Doi: 10.1007/s00421-012-2514-6.
  • Bagley, L., McPhee, J.S., Ganse, B., Müller, K., Korhonen, M.T., Rittweger, J. & Dengens, H. (2019). Similar relative decline in aerobic and anaerobic power with age in endurance and power master athletes of both sexes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 29(6), 791–9. Doi: 10.1111/sms.13404.
  • Bailey, S.J., Vanhatalo, A., Winyard, P.G. & Jones, A.M. (2012). The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway: Its role in human exercise physiology. European Journal of Sport Science, 12(4), 309–20. Doi: 10.1080/17461391.2011.635705.
  • Bayram, H.M. ve Güneş, F.E. (2020). Sarkopeni ve beslenme yaklaşımı. Geriatrik Bilimler Dergisi, 3(1), 27-36.
  • Bayram, H.M. ve Öztürkcan, S.A. (2020). Sporcularda ergojenik destekler. Türkiye Klinikleri Journal of Health Sciences, 5(3), 641–52. Doi: 10.5336/healthsci.2019-72030.
  • Bemben, M.G., Witten, M.S., Carter, J.M., Eliot, K.A., Knehans, A.W. & Bemben, D.A. (2010). The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, 14(2), 155–59. Doi: 10.1007/s12603-009-0124-8.
  • Bermon, S., Venembre, P., Sachet, C., Valour, S. & Dolisi, C. (1998). Effects of creatine monohydrate ingestion in sedentary and weight-trained older adults. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 164(2), 147–55. Doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201X.1998.00427.x.
  • Bernard, T., Sultana, F., Lepers, R., Hausswirth, C. & Brisswalter, J. (2010). Age-related decline in olympic triathlon performance: Effect of locomotion mode. Experimental Aging Research, 36(1), 64–78. Doi: 10.1080/03610730903418620.
  • Bescós, R., Sureda, A., Tur, J.A. & Pons, A. (2012). The effect of nitric-oxide-related supplements on human performance. Sport Medicine, 42(2), 99–117. Doi: 10.2165/11596860-000000000-00000.
  • Bex, T., Chung, W., Baguet, A., Achten, E. & Derave, W. (2015). Exercise training and beta-alanine-induced muscle carnosine loading. Frontiers in Nutrition, 7(2), 13. Doi: 10.3389/fnut.2015.00013.
  • Bex, T., Chung, W., Baguet, A., Stegen, S., Stautemas, J., Achten, E. & Derave, W. (2014). Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles. Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(2), 204-9. Doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01033.2013.
  • Brose, A., Parise, G. & Tarnopolsky, M.A. (2003). Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and the Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 58(1), 11-9. Doi: 10.1093/gerona/58.1.b11.
  • Candow, D.G., Forbes, S.C., Chilibeck, P.D., Cornish, S.M., Antonio, J. & Kreider, R.B. (2019). Effectiveness of creatine supplementation on aging muscle and bone: focus on falls prevention and inflammation. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(4), 488. Doi: 10.3390/jcm8040488.
  • Candow, D.G., Little, J.P., Chilibeck, P.D., Abeysekara, S., Zello, G.A., Kazachkov, M., Cornish, S.M. & Yu, P.H. (2008). Low-dose creatine combined with protein during resistance training in older men. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(9), 1645–52. Doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318176b310.
  • Cermak, N.M., Res, P.T., De Groot, L.C.P.G.M., Saris, W.H.M. & van Loon, L.J.C. (2012). Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(6), 1454–64. Doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.037556.
  • Chilibeck, P.D., Candow, D.G., Landeryou, T., Kaviani, M. & Paus-Jenssen, L. (2015). Effects of creatine and resistance training on bone health in postmenopausal women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(8), 1587–95. Doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000571.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Yayınlanma Tarihi Yaz
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Gökhan ÇELİK
Galatasaray Sportif A.Ş., Ali Sami Yen Spor Kompleksi, TT Arena İstanbul
0000-0002-2239-7374
Türkiye


Hatice Merve BAYRAM
İSTANBUL GELİŞİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7073-2907
Türkiye


Arda OZTURKCAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL GELİŞİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7982-6988
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 9 Nisan 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Çelik, G. , Bayram, H. M. & Ozturkcan, A. (2021). Ergojenik Destekler: Özel Bir Grup "Veteran Sporcular" . Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 5 (1) , 104-121 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/usbd/issue/62293/911867