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An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges

Yıl 2022, Cilt 0, Sayı 14, 41 - 67, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101

Öz

Nigeria's biodiversity richness is one of the most debated topics because of the dangers against it. Nigeria's oil spills are the most known problem regarding environmental policies. However, it is not the sole reason why Nigeria experiences biodiversity loss. It is a complex matter composed of conflictual needs, interests and desires of actors from state agencies, market stakeholders and civil society members. There is a necessity of investigating the governance aspect of Nigeria's biodiversity loss, which is not state-oriented work. There should be an orientation towards dynamics beyond regime effectiveness and regime interaction, because how civil society is positioned during the governance process cannot be ignored. This study investigates to what extent Nigeria has "good governance" of biodiversity conservation. It has been found that although the attempts have been unsuccessful, Nigerian governments are aware that governance approach is needed to solve biodiversity loss. However, lack of local authority and disconnection between civil society and governments prevent healthy working governance process.

Kaynakça

  • AFDB, 2018. African Development Bank Group: Programme for Integrated Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Niger Basin. [Online] Available at: https://www.afdb.org/en/documents/document/multinational-programme-for-integrated-development- and-adaptation-to-climate-change-in-the-niger-basin-pidacc-appraisal-report-109273 [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Alkon, M. & Wong, A., 2020. Authoritarian energy transitions undermined? Environmental governance cycles in China’s power sector. Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 68, pp. 1-13.
  • Allison, T. D., Root, T. L. & Frumhoff, P. C., 2014. Thinking globally and siting locally – renewable energy and biodiversity in a rapidly warming world. Climate Change, Volume 126, pp. 1-6.
  • Amokaye, O. G., 2014 . Environmental Law and Practice in Nigeria. 7th ed. Lagos: MIJ Professional Publishers Ltd.
  • Anejionu, O. C., Ahiarammunnah, P.-A. & Nri-ezedi, C. J., 2015. Hydrocarbon pollution in the Niger Delta: Geographies of impacts and appraisal of lapses in extant legal framework. Resources Policy, Volume 45, pp. 65-77.
  • Anwadike, B., 2020. Biodiversity Conservation in Nigeria: Perception, Challenges and Possible Remedies. Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research, 8(4), pp. 1109-1115.
  • Article 2 CBD, 2006. Article 2. Use of Terms. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/convention/articles/?a=cbd-02 [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • Azevedo-Santos, V. M. et al., 2016. Amazon aquatic biodiversity imperiled by oil spills. Biodiversity and Conservation, 25(3), pp. 1-4.
  • Bello, A. T. & Amadi, J., 2019. Oil Pollution and Bio-Diversity Conservation in Nigeria: An Assessment of Legal Framework. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 7, pp. 354-371.
  • Biodiversity Governance: Fulfilling Governance Functions through Interaction. Sustainable Development, Volume 20, pp. 264-275.
  • Borokini, T. I., 2011. Invasive Alien Plant Species in Nigeria and their Effects on Biodiversity Conservation. Tropical Conservation Science, 4(1), pp. 103-110.
  • CBD, 2002. 2010 Biodiversity Target. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/2010-target/ [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • CBD, 2010. Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including Aichi Biodiversity Targets. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/sp/ [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • CBD, 2020. Aichi Biodiversity Targets. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/sp/targets/ [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • CBD, 2022. Nigeria - Main Details Biodiversity Facts. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/countries/profile/?country=ng#facts [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Chang, S. E., Stone, J., Demes, K. & Piscitelli, M., 2014. Consequences of oil spills: a review and framework for informing planning. Ecology and Society, 19(2).
  • Codato, D. et al., 2019. Oil production, biodiversity conservation and indigenous territories: Towards geographical criteria for unburnable carbon areas in the Amazon rainforest. Applied Geography, Volume 102, pp. 28-38.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999. Constitution. [Online] Available at: http://www.nigeria-law.org/ConstitutionOfTheFederalRepublicOfNigeria.htm#Chapter_2 [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Cowell, R. et al., 2017. Rescaling the Governance of Renewable Energy: Lessons from the UK Devolution Experience. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 19(5), pp. 480-502.
  • EIA, 2022. Nigeria. [Online] Available at: https://www.eia.gov/international/overview/country/nga [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • FAO, 2016. FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture: Country Profile – Nigeria. [Online] Available at: www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/NGA/index.stm. [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • FREL, 2019. Federal Republic of Nigeria National Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL) for the Federal Republic of Nigeria, s.l.: Federal Department of Forestry Federal Ministry of Environment Federal Republic of Nigeria .
  • Guzman, H. M., Jackson, J. B. C. & Well, E., 1991. Short-term ecological consequences of a major oil spill on Panamanian subtidal reef corals. Coral Reefs, Volume 10, pp. 1-12.
  • Haas, P., Keohane, R. & Levy M, A., 1995. Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Harvey, D. A., 2005. Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • ICG, 2018. International Crisis Group: Stopping Nigeria’s Spiraling Farmer-Herder Violence. [Online] Available at: https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/262-stopping-nigerias-spiralling-farmer-herder-violence.pdf [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Imtiyaz, B. B., Sweta, P. D. & Prakash, K. K., 2011. THREATS TO MARINE BIODIVERSITY. In: P. Santhanam & P. Perumal, eds. Marine Biodiversity: Present Status and Prospects. Delhi: Narendra Publishing House, pp. 21-26.
  • Imarhiagbe, O., Egboduku, W. O. & Nwankwo, B. J., 2020. A review of the biodiversity conservation status of Nigeria. Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity, 4(1), pp. 73-83.
  • IUCN Red List, 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013. [Online] Available at: www.iucnredlist.org [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • Jiren, T. S. et al., 2018. Integrating food security and biodiversity governance: A multi-level social network analysis in Ethiopia. Land Use Policy, Volume 78, pp. 420-429.
  • Langholz, J. A. & Krug, W., 2004. NEW FORMS OF BIODIVERSITY GOVERNANCE: NON-STATE ACTORS AND THE PRIVATE PROTECTED AREA ACTION PLAN. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy, 7(1-2), pp. 9-29.
  • Lemos, M. C. & Agrawal, A., 2006. ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., Volume 31, p. 297–325.
  • Luiselli, L. & Akani, G. C., 2002. An indirect assessment of the effects of oil pollution on the diversity and functioning of turtle communities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 26(1), pp. 57-65.
  • MacPherson, R., 2019. Final report of the Land Degradation Neutrality Target Setting Programme. [Online] Available at: https://www.unccd.int/sites/default/files/relevant-links/2019-04/LDNTSP-EvalReport%20final.pdf. [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • NBSAP, 2015. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN 2016-2020, s.l.: FEDERAL MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT.
  • NCGRB, 2008. State of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Nigeria. [Online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/pgrfa-gpa-archive/nga/Nigeria2.pdf [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • NDES,1998. Niger Delta Environmental Survey, Phase 2 Report. Hydrology and Hydrodynamics, s.l.: s.n.
  • NFNBR, 2001. Nigeria FIRST NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY REPORT, s.l.: s.n.
  • NFNBR, 2010. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA FOURTH NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY REPORT, Abuja: s.n.
  • NFNBR, 2015. NIGERIA: FIFTH NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY REPORT, s.l.: s.n.
  • NSNC, 2014. NIGERIA’S SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION UNDER THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE. [Online] Available at: https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/nganc2.pdf [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Nwaichi, E. O. & Osuoha, J. O., 2021. Has the National policy on environmental pollution control in Nigeria been neglected in the Niger Delta region? An update. Environment, Development and Sustainability, pp. 1-24.
  • Okiwelu, S. N. & Anyanwu, D. I., 2003. Dictionary of Ecology, Conservation and Environmental Sciences, p.16. Lagos: Niyi Faniran..
  • Paloniemi, R. et al., 2015. Public Participation and Environmental Justice in Biodiversity Governance in Finland, Greece, Poland and the UK. Environmental Policy and Governance, Volume 25, pp. 330-342.
  • Protected Planet, 2022. Nigeria. [Online] Available at: https://www.protectedplanet.net/country/NGA [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Quental, N., Lourenço, J. & Numes da Silva, F., 2011. Sustainable development policy: goals, targets and political cycles. Sustainable Development, 19(1), pp. 15-29.
  • Rosenau, J. & Czempiel, E. (., 1992. Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Suskevics, M., 2012. Legitimacy Analysis of Multi-Level Governance of Biodiversity: Evidence from 11 Case Studies across the EU. Environmental Policy and Governance, Volume 22, pp. 217-237.
  • The Rio Conventions, 1992. The Rio Conventions. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/rio/ [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • TICPI, 2018. Transparency International, Corruption Perception Index: Nigeria. [Online] Available at: https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/cpi2018-subsaharan-africa-regional-analysis [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Ugochukwu, C. N. C. & Ertel, D. J., 2008. Negative impacts of oil exploration on biodiversity management in the Niger De area of Nigeria. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 26(2), pp. 139-147.
  • UNDP, 2012. Niger Delta Biodiversity Project, s.l.: Lead Agency: Federal Ministry of Environment Additional partners: Ministry of Niger Delta; Niger Delta Development Commission Ministry of Petroleum Resources; Oil Production Trade Sector, Lagos Chamber of Commerce.
  • UNEP, 2018a. 6th National Report for the Convention on Biological Diversity: Nigeria, s.l.: UNEP Clearing House Mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
  • UNEP, 2018b. Interim National Report on the Implementation of the Nagoya Protocol, s.l.: UNEP The Access and Benefit-Sharing Clearing-House.
  • USAID, 2008. NIGERIA BIODIVERSITY AND TROPICAL FORESTRY ASSESSMENT MAXIMIZING AGRICULTURAL REVENUE IN KEY ENTERPRISES FOR TARGETED SITES (MARKETS) , s.l.: the United States Agency for International Development.
  • USAID, 2013. NIGERIA BIODIVERSITY AND TROPICAL FORESTS 118/119 ASSESSMENT, s.l.: the United States Agency for International Development.
  • USAID, 2020. US AID/NIGERI A FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT 118/119 TROPICAL FOREST AND BIODIVERSITY ANAL YSIS , s.l.: the United States Agency for International Development.
  • Visseren-Hamakers, I. J., Leroy, P. & Glasbergen, P., 2012. Conservation Partnerships and van Zeijl-Rosema, A., Cörvers, R., Kemp, R. & Martens, P., 2008. Governance for sustainable development: a framework. Sustainable Development, Volume 16, pp. 410-421.
  • Visseren-Hamakers, I. J., 2013. Partnerships and Sustainable Development: the Lessons Learned from International Biodiversity Governance. Environmental Policy and Governance, Volume 23, pp. 145-160.
  • World Bank, 2018. Nigeria Biannual Economic Update. [Online] Available at: http: //documents. worldbank. org/curated/en/769551524576691390/pdf/ WP-NigeriaBiannualEconomicUpdateAprilFinalVersionPUBLIC.pdf [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • Young, J. et al., 2013. Does stakeholder involvement really benefit biodiversity conservation?. Biological Conservation, Volume 158, pp. 359-370.

Nijerya'nın Biyoçeşitlilik Yönetimi Üzerine Bir Analiz: Politikalar, Kurumlar ve Zorluklar

Yıl 2022, Cilt 0, Sayı 14, 41 - 67, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101

Öz

Nijerya'nın biyoçeşitlilik zenginliği, karşı karşıya olduğu tehlikeler nedeniyle en çok tartışılan konulardan biridir. Nijerya'daki petrol sızıntıları çevre politikalarıyla ilgili en bilinen sorundur. Ancak Nijerya'nın biyolojik çeşitlilik kaybı yaşamasının tek nedeni bu değil. Devlet kurumları, piyasa paydaşları ve sivil toplum üyelerinden aktörlerinin çatışan ihtiyaç, çıkar ve arzularından oluşan çok daha kompleks bir konudur. Devlet odaklı bir çalışma olmayan, Nijerya'nın biyoçeşitlilik kaybının yönetim yönünün araştırılması ihtiyacı bulunmaktadır. Rejimin etkinliği ve rejim etkileşiminin ötesindeki dinamiklere yönelik bir araştırma gerekmektedir, çünkü sivil toplumun yönetim sürecinde nasıl konumlandığı göz ardı edilemez. Bu çalışma, Nijerya'nın biyoçeşitliliğin korunmasında ne ölçüde "iyi yönetime" sahip olduğunu araştırmaktadır. Çalışma sonucunda, her ne kadar girişimler başarısız olsa da, Nijerya hükümetlerinin biyoçeşitlilik kaybını çözmek için yönetim yaklaşımına ihtiyaç duyulduğunun farkında oldukları tespit edilmiştir. Bulgulara göre; yerel otorite eksikliği ve sivil toplum ile hükümetler arasındaki kopukluk sağlıklı işleyen yönetim sürecini engellemektedir.

Kaynakça

  • AFDB, 2018. African Development Bank Group: Programme for Integrated Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Niger Basin. [Online] Available at: https://www.afdb.org/en/documents/document/multinational-programme-for-integrated-development- and-adaptation-to-climate-change-in-the-niger-basin-pidacc-appraisal-report-109273 [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Alkon, M. & Wong, A., 2020. Authoritarian energy transitions undermined? Environmental governance cycles in China’s power sector. Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 68, pp. 1-13.
  • Allison, T. D., Root, T. L. & Frumhoff, P. C., 2014. Thinking globally and siting locally – renewable energy and biodiversity in a rapidly warming world. Climate Change, Volume 126, pp. 1-6.
  • Amokaye, O. G., 2014 . Environmental Law and Practice in Nigeria. 7th ed. Lagos: MIJ Professional Publishers Ltd.
  • Anejionu, O. C., Ahiarammunnah, P.-A. & Nri-ezedi, C. J., 2015. Hydrocarbon pollution in the Niger Delta: Geographies of impacts and appraisal of lapses in extant legal framework. Resources Policy, Volume 45, pp. 65-77.
  • Anwadike, B., 2020. Biodiversity Conservation in Nigeria: Perception, Challenges and Possible Remedies. Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research, 8(4), pp. 1109-1115.
  • Article 2 CBD, 2006. Article 2. Use of Terms. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/convention/articles/?a=cbd-02 [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • Azevedo-Santos, V. M. et al., 2016. Amazon aquatic biodiversity imperiled by oil spills. Biodiversity and Conservation, 25(3), pp. 1-4.
  • Bello, A. T. & Amadi, J., 2019. Oil Pollution and Bio-Diversity Conservation in Nigeria: An Assessment of Legal Framework. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 7, pp. 354-371.
  • Biodiversity Governance: Fulfilling Governance Functions through Interaction. Sustainable Development, Volume 20, pp. 264-275.
  • Borokini, T. I., 2011. Invasive Alien Plant Species in Nigeria and their Effects on Biodiversity Conservation. Tropical Conservation Science, 4(1), pp. 103-110.
  • CBD, 2002. 2010 Biodiversity Target. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/2010-target/ [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • CBD, 2010. Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including Aichi Biodiversity Targets. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/sp/ [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • CBD, 2020. Aichi Biodiversity Targets. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/sp/targets/ [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • CBD, 2022. Nigeria - Main Details Biodiversity Facts. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/countries/profile/?country=ng#facts [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Chang, S. E., Stone, J., Demes, K. & Piscitelli, M., 2014. Consequences of oil spills: a review and framework for informing planning. Ecology and Society, 19(2).
  • Codato, D. et al., 2019. Oil production, biodiversity conservation and indigenous territories: Towards geographical criteria for unburnable carbon areas in the Amazon rainforest. Applied Geography, Volume 102, pp. 28-38.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999. Constitution. [Online] Available at: http://www.nigeria-law.org/ConstitutionOfTheFederalRepublicOfNigeria.htm#Chapter_2 [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Cowell, R. et al., 2017. Rescaling the Governance of Renewable Energy: Lessons from the UK Devolution Experience. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 19(5), pp. 480-502.
  • EIA, 2022. Nigeria. [Online] Available at: https://www.eia.gov/international/overview/country/nga [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • FAO, 2016. FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture: Country Profile – Nigeria. [Online] Available at: www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/NGA/index.stm. [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • FREL, 2019. Federal Republic of Nigeria National Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL) for the Federal Republic of Nigeria, s.l.: Federal Department of Forestry Federal Ministry of Environment Federal Republic of Nigeria .
  • Guzman, H. M., Jackson, J. B. C. & Well, E., 1991. Short-term ecological consequences of a major oil spill on Panamanian subtidal reef corals. Coral Reefs, Volume 10, pp. 1-12.
  • Haas, P., Keohane, R. & Levy M, A., 1995. Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Harvey, D. A., 2005. Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • ICG, 2018. International Crisis Group: Stopping Nigeria’s Spiraling Farmer-Herder Violence. [Online] Available at: https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/262-stopping-nigerias-spiralling-farmer-herder-violence.pdf [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Imtiyaz, B. B., Sweta, P. D. & Prakash, K. K., 2011. THREATS TO MARINE BIODIVERSITY. In: P. Santhanam & P. Perumal, eds. Marine Biodiversity: Present Status and Prospects. Delhi: Narendra Publishing House, pp. 21-26.
  • Imarhiagbe, O., Egboduku, W. O. & Nwankwo, B. J., 2020. A review of the biodiversity conservation status of Nigeria. Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity, 4(1), pp. 73-83.
  • IUCN Red List, 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013. [Online] Available at: www.iucnredlist.org [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • Jiren, T. S. et al., 2018. Integrating food security and biodiversity governance: A multi-level social network analysis in Ethiopia. Land Use Policy, Volume 78, pp. 420-429.
  • Langholz, J. A. & Krug, W., 2004. NEW FORMS OF BIODIVERSITY GOVERNANCE: NON-STATE ACTORS AND THE PRIVATE PROTECTED AREA ACTION PLAN. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy, 7(1-2), pp. 9-29.
  • Lemos, M. C. & Agrawal, A., 2006. ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., Volume 31, p. 297–325.
  • Luiselli, L. & Akani, G. C., 2002. An indirect assessment of the effects of oil pollution on the diversity and functioning of turtle communities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 26(1), pp. 57-65.
  • MacPherson, R., 2019. Final report of the Land Degradation Neutrality Target Setting Programme. [Online] Available at: https://www.unccd.int/sites/default/files/relevant-links/2019-04/LDNTSP-EvalReport%20final.pdf. [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • NBSAP, 2015. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN 2016-2020, s.l.: FEDERAL MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT.
  • NCGRB, 2008. State of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Nigeria. [Online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/pgrfa-gpa-archive/nga/Nigeria2.pdf [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • NDES,1998. Niger Delta Environmental Survey, Phase 2 Report. Hydrology and Hydrodynamics, s.l.: s.n.
  • NFNBR, 2001. Nigeria FIRST NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY REPORT, s.l.: s.n.
  • NFNBR, 2010. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA FOURTH NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY REPORT, Abuja: s.n.
  • NFNBR, 2015. NIGERIA: FIFTH NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY REPORT, s.l.: s.n.
  • NSNC, 2014. NIGERIA’S SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION UNDER THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE. [Online] Available at: https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/nganc2.pdf [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Nwaichi, E. O. & Osuoha, J. O., 2021. Has the National policy on environmental pollution control in Nigeria been neglected in the Niger Delta region? An update. Environment, Development and Sustainability, pp. 1-24.
  • Okiwelu, S. N. & Anyanwu, D. I., 2003. Dictionary of Ecology, Conservation and Environmental Sciences, p.16. Lagos: Niyi Faniran..
  • Paloniemi, R. et al., 2015. Public Participation and Environmental Justice in Biodiversity Governance in Finland, Greece, Poland and the UK. Environmental Policy and Governance, Volume 25, pp. 330-342.
  • Protected Planet, 2022. Nigeria. [Online] Available at: https://www.protectedplanet.net/country/NGA [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Quental, N., Lourenço, J. & Numes da Silva, F., 2011. Sustainable development policy: goals, targets and political cycles. Sustainable Development, 19(1), pp. 15-29.
  • Rosenau, J. & Czempiel, E. (., 1992. Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Suskevics, M., 2012. Legitimacy Analysis of Multi-Level Governance of Biodiversity: Evidence from 11 Case Studies across the EU. Environmental Policy and Governance, Volume 22, pp. 217-237.
  • The Rio Conventions, 1992. The Rio Conventions. [Online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/rio/ [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • TICPI, 2018. Transparency International, Corruption Perception Index: Nigeria. [Online] Available at: https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/cpi2018-subsaharan-africa-regional-analysis [Accessed 11 February 2022].
  • Ugochukwu, C. N. C. & Ertel, D. J., 2008. Negative impacts of oil exploration on biodiversity management in the Niger De area of Nigeria. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 26(2), pp. 139-147.
  • UNDP, 2012. Niger Delta Biodiversity Project, s.l.: Lead Agency: Federal Ministry of Environment Additional partners: Ministry of Niger Delta; Niger Delta Development Commission Ministry of Petroleum Resources; Oil Production Trade Sector, Lagos Chamber of Commerce.
  • UNEP, 2018a. 6th National Report for the Convention on Biological Diversity: Nigeria, s.l.: UNEP Clearing House Mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
  • UNEP, 2018b. Interim National Report on the Implementation of the Nagoya Protocol, s.l.: UNEP The Access and Benefit-Sharing Clearing-House.
  • USAID, 2008. NIGERIA BIODIVERSITY AND TROPICAL FORESTRY ASSESSMENT MAXIMIZING AGRICULTURAL REVENUE IN KEY ENTERPRISES FOR TARGETED SITES (MARKETS) , s.l.: the United States Agency for International Development.
  • USAID, 2013. NIGERIA BIODIVERSITY AND TROPICAL FORESTS 118/119 ASSESSMENT, s.l.: the United States Agency for International Development.
  • USAID, 2020. US AID/NIGERI A FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT 118/119 TROPICAL FOREST AND BIODIVERSITY ANAL YSIS , s.l.: the United States Agency for International Development.
  • Visseren-Hamakers, I. J., Leroy, P. & Glasbergen, P., 2012. Conservation Partnerships and van Zeijl-Rosema, A., Cörvers, R., Kemp, R. & Martens, P., 2008. Governance for sustainable development: a framework. Sustainable Development, Volume 16, pp. 410-421.
  • Visseren-Hamakers, I. J., 2013. Partnerships and Sustainable Development: the Lessons Learned from International Biodiversity Governance. Environmental Policy and Governance, Volume 23, pp. 145-160.
  • World Bank, 2018. Nigeria Biannual Economic Update. [Online] Available at: http: //documents. worldbank. org/curated/en/769551524576691390/pdf/ WP-NigeriaBiannualEconomicUpdateAprilFinalVersionPUBLIC.pdf [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  • Young, J. et al., 2013. Does stakeholder involvement really benefit biodiversity conservation?. Biological Conservation, Volume 158, pp. 359-370.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Siyasi Bilimler, Uluslararası İlişkiler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Suleyman Orhun ALTİPARMAK> (Sorumlu Yazar)
SOCIAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF ANKARA
0000-0002-4774-1426
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 0, Sayı 14

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { uskudarsbd1082094, journal = {Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi}, issn = {2459-0223}, eissn = {2717-7769}, address = {Üsküdar Üniversitesi Merkez Yerleşke Altunizade Mah. Haluk Türksoy Sk. No: 14, PK. 34662 Üsküdar/İstanbul/Türkiye}, publisher = {Üsküdar Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {0}, number = {14}, pages = {41 - 67}, doi = {10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101}, title = {An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges}, key = {cite}, author = {Altiparmak, Suleyman Orhun} }
APA Altiparmak, S. O. (2022). An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges . Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 0 (14) , 41-67 . DOI: 10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101
MLA Altiparmak, S. O. "An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges" . Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 0 (2022 ): 41-67 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/uskudarsbd/issue/70963/1082094>
Chicago Altiparmak, S. O. "An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges". Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 0 (2022 ): 41-67
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Nijerya'nın Biyoçeşitlilik Yönetimi Üzerine Bir Analiz: Politikalar, Kurumlar ve Zorluklar AU - Suleyman OrhunAltiparmak Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101 DO - 10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101 T2 - Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 41 EP - 67 VL - 0 IS - 14 SN - 2459-0223-2717-7769 M3 - doi: 10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101 UR - https://doi.org/10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges %A Suleyman Orhun Altiparmak %T An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges %D 2022 %J Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi %P 2459-0223-2717-7769 %V 0 %N 14 %R doi: 10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101 %U 10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101
ISNAD Altiparmak, Suleyman Orhun . "An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges". Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 0 / 14 (Haziran 2022): 41-67 . https://doi.org/10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101
AMA Altiparmak S. O. An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges. ÜSBİD. 2022; 0(14): 41-67.
Vancouver Altiparmak S. O. An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges. Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 2022; 0(14): 41-67.
IEEE S. O. Altiparmak , "An Analysis of Nigeria’s Biodiversity Governance: Policies, Institutions and Challenges", Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, c. 0, sayı. 14, ss. 41-67, Haz. 2022, doi:10.32739/uskudarsbd.8.14.101

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