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Sıçanlarda deneysel uyku yoksunluğunun kardiyovasküler sisteme etkilerinin araştırılması

Yıl 2020, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 1 - 8, 01.03.2020

Öz

Amaç: Bu çalışmada, deneysel olarak uyku yoksunluğu oluşturulan sıçanlarda, uyku yoksunluğunun kardiyovasküler sisteme olan etkileri araştırıldı. Materyal ve Metod: Sıçanlar randomize olarak kontrol ve uyku yoksunluğu olarak 2 gruba ayrıldı. Grup A: kontrol grubu; deney süresince yem ve suya serbest ulaşımları sağlanarak kafeslerinde fizyolojik uykuyu uyumalarına izin verildi. Grup B: uyku yoksunluğu grubu; normal kafes içerisinde su ve yeme her zaman ulaşmalarına izin verilirken, özel bir düzenek ile 15 dakikada bir 5 dakika süresince uyaran verilip, günde 8 saat uyanık bırakıldılar. Yedi gün boyunca uyku yoksunluğu oluşturuldu. Hayvanların günlük ağırlık tartımları yapıldı ve istatistiksel olarak bir fark bulunmadı (p>0.05). Deney sonunda hayvanlar sakrifiye edilerek, tam kan sayımı, kalp dokusundan histopatolojik inceleme ve malondialdehid (MDA), süperoksid dismutaz (SOD), glutatyon peroksidaz (GPx) ve katalaz (CAT) düzeylerine bakıldı. İstatiksel değerlendirmeler, SPSS 17.0 programında, grupların homojenliğine Kolmogorov Smirnov testi ile bakıldı. Homojen dağılım gösteren gruplar, tekrarlı ölçümler, Ki-kare, bağımsız t testi ve Mann Whitney U testleri ile değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular: Katalaz, GPx, SOD ve MDA trombosit sayısı ve ortalama trombosit hacmi (OTH), değerleri açısından her iki grup arasında farklılık yoktur (p>0.05). Histopatolojik incelemede; her iki grup arasında myokardit (p<0.012) ve myokardiyal liflerde dejenerasyon (p<0.028) özelliği bakımından fark saptandı. Tartışma ve Sonuç: Bu bulgular çerçevesinde, uyku yoksunluğu oluşturulan sıçanlarda oksidatif stres artmakta, bağışıklık sistemi etkilenmekte ve kardiyovasküler sistemde enflamasyona dair bulgular oluşmaktadır. Bu bağlamda, uyku yoksunluğunun uzun dönemde kardiyovasküler riskleri artırabileceğini düşünmekteyiz.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Guyton AC. Hall JE. 2013. Tibbi Fizyoloji çev. ed. Berrak Ç. Yegen, Zeynep Solakoğlu, İnci Alican. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabevi Ltd Sti. s. 721-727. 2. Angus RG, Heslegrave RJ, Myles WS. Effect of prolonged sleep deprivation with and without chronic physical exercise, on mood and performance. Psychophysiology 1985; 22(3): 276-282. 3. Hung CS, Sarasso S, Ferrarelli F, Riedner B, Ghilardi MF, Cirelli C, Tononi G. Local experience-dependent changes in the wake EEG after prolonged wakefulness. Sleep. 2013 Jan 1;36(1):59-72. doi: 10.5665/sleep.2302. 4. Johnson LC, Naitoh P, Moses JM, Lubin A. Interaction of REM deprivation and stage 4 deprivation with total sleep loss: experiment 2. Psychophysiology, 1974; 11(2): 147-159.
  • 5. Copper KR and Philips BA. Effect of short term sleep loss on breathing. J. Appl. Physiol. 1982; 53(4): 855-858.
  • 6. Schiffman PL, Trontel MC, Mazar MF, Edelman NH. Sleep deprivation decreases ventilatory response to CO2 but not load compensation. Chest 1983; 84(6): 695-668.
  • 7. White DP, Douglas NJ, Pickett CK. Sleep deprivation and the control of ventilation. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1983; 128(6): 984-986.
  • 8. Ayas NT, White DP, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE, Malhotra A et al. A prospective study of sleep duration and coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163(2): 205-209.
  • 9. Carrington MJ, Barbieri R, Colrain I M, Crowley K E, Kim Y, Trinder J. Changes in cardiovascular function during the sleep onset period in young adults. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98(2): 468-476.
  • 10. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilising the principle of protein dye binding. Anal biochem. 1976;72:248-254. 11. Drapper HH, Hadley M. Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1990; 186: 421–431. 12. Aebi H. Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol. 1984;105:121–26. 13. Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med. 1967; 70: 158–69. 14. Woolliams JA, Wiener G, Anderson PH, McMurray CH. Variation in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and in the concentration of copper in the blood various breed crosses of sheep. Res Vet Sci. 1983; 34: 69–77. 15. Abdel-Wahhab MA, Nada SA, Arbid MS. Ochratoxicosis: Preventation of Developmental Toxicity by L-Methionine in Rats. J Applied Toxicol. 1999; 19: 7-12 16. Reimund E. The free radical flux theory of sleep. Med Hypotheses 1994; 43(4): 231-233.
  • 17. Inoue S, Honda K, Komoda Y. Sleep as neuronal detoxification and restitution. Behav Brain Res 1995; 69(1-2): 91-96.
  • 18. D'Almeida V, Lobo LL, Hipólide DC, de Oliveira AC, Nobrega JN, Tufik S. Sleep deprivation induces brain region-specific decreases in glutathione levels. Neuroreport 1998; 9(12): 2853-2856.
  • 19. D'Almeida V, Hipólide DC, Lobo LL, de Oliveira AC, Nobrega JN, Tufik S. Melatonin treatment does not prevent decreases in brain glutathione levels induced by sleep deprivation. Eur J Pharmacol 2000; 390(3): 299-302. 20. Ramanathan L, Gulyani S, Nienhuis R, Siegel JM. Sleep deprivation decreases superoxide dismutase activity in rat hippocampus and brainstem. Neuroreport 2002; 13(11): 1387-1390.
  • 21. Poon HF, Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Butterfield DA. Free radicals and brain aging. Clin Geriatr Med 2004; 20(2): 329-359.
  • 22. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. The definition and measurement of antioxidants in biological systems. Free Radical Biol Med 1995; 18(1): 125-126.
  • 23. Bonnet MH, Berry RB, Arand DL. Metabolism during normal, fragmented, and recovery sleep. J Appl Physiol 1991; 71(3): 1112-1118
  • 24. Bettendorff L, Sallanon-Moulin M, Touret M, Wins P, Margineanu I, Schoffeniels E. Paradoxical sleep deprivation increases the content of glutamate and glutamine in rat cerebral cortex. Sleep 1996; 19:65-71
  • 25. Maquet P. Functional neuroimaging of normal human sleep by positron emission tomography. J Sleep Res 2000; 9(3): 207-231.
  • 26. Maquet P. Current status of brain imaging in sleep medicine. Sleep Med Rev 2005; 9(3): 155-156.
  • 27. D'Almeida V, Hipólide DC, Azzalis LA, Lobo LL, Junqueira VB, Tufik S. Absence of oxidative stress following paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats. Neurosci Lett 1997; 235(1-2): 25-28.
  • 28. Gopalakrishnan A, Ji LL, Cirelli C. Sleep deprivation and cellular responses to oxidative stress. Sleep 2004; 27(1): 27-35. 29. Tsiara S, Elisaf M, Jagroop IA, Mikhailidis DP. Platelets as predictors of vascular risk: Is there a practical index of platelet activity? Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2003; 9:177–190 30. Varol E, Ozturk O, Gonca T, Has M, Ozaydin M, Erdogan D, Akkaya A. Mean platelet volume is increased in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2010; 70(7):497-502. 31. Staessen JA, Bieniaszewski L, O'Brien E, Gosse P, Hayashi H, Imai Y, Kawasaki T, Otsuka K, Palatini P, Thijs L, Fagard R. Nocturnal blood pressure fall on ambulatory monitoring in a large international database. The "Ad Hoc' Working Group. Hypertension. 1997; 29(1 Pt 1): 30-39. 32. Somers VK, Dyken ME, Mark AL, Abboud FM. Sympathetic-nerve activity during sleep in normal subjects. N Engl J Med. 19934; 328(5):303-7. 33. Verrier RL, Muller JE, Hobson JA. Sleep, dreams, and sudden death: the case for sleep as an autonomic stress test for the heart. Cardiovasc Res. 1996; 31(2):181-211. Review. 34. Chasen C, Muller JE. Cardiovascular triggers and morning events. Blood Press Monit. 1998; 3(1):35-42. 35. Cannon CP, McCabe CH, Stone PH, Schactman M, Thompson B, Theroux P, Gibson RS, Feldman T, Kleiman NS, Tofler GH, Muller JE, Chaitman BR, Braunwald E. Circadian variation in the onset of unstable angina and non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction (the TIMI III Registry and TIMI IIIB). Am J Cardiol. 1997; 1;79(3):253-8. 36. Cohen MC, Rohtla KM, Lavery CE, Muller JE, Mittleman MA. Meta-analysis of the morning excess of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Jun 1;79(11):1512-6. Erratum in: Am J Cardiol 1998; 15;81(2):260.

Investigations of the effects of sleep deprivation on the cardiovascular system in rats

Yıl 2020, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 1 - 8, 01.03.2020

Öz

Objective: In this study, the effects of sleep deprivation on the cardiovascular system were investigated in experimentally sleep deprivation rats.
Material and method: The rats were randomly divided into 2 groups as control and sleep deprivation. Group A: control group; ensuring free
access to food and water and physiological sleep were allowed to sleep in cages throughout the experiment. Group B: sleep deprivation group;
was always permitted to reach food and water in a cage normally whether 8 hours per day were being awake through stimulus for 5 minutes
with an interval of 15 minutes by a special arrangement. Sleep deprivation was generated throughout seven days. The daily weight of the animals was weighted and there was no statistical difference between groups ( p> 0.05). At the end of the experiment the animals were sacrificed,
complete blood counts and histopathological examination of cardiac tissue, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ) and catalase levels were measured. Statistical evaluations were performed by the SPSS 17.0 program and homogeneity
of the groups was analyzed with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Groups which showed homogeneous distribution were evaluated by repeated
measures, chi-square, independent t-test, and Mann-Whitney U tests
Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups (p> 0.05) in terms of Catalase, GPx, SOD and MDA platelet count and
mean platelet volume (MPV) values. In histopathological examination, the difference was detected in terms of the property of myocarditis (p
<0.012) and degeneration (p <0.028) in myocardial fibers between the two groups
Discussion: Within the framework of these findings, sleep deprivation increased oxidative stress, alterations in the immune system and inflammation in the cardiovascular system. In this context, we predict that the long term sleep deprivation may increase cardiovascular risks.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Guyton AC. Hall JE. 2013. Tibbi Fizyoloji çev. ed. Berrak Ç. Yegen, Zeynep Solakoğlu, İnci Alican. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabevi Ltd Sti. s. 721-727. 2. Angus RG, Heslegrave RJ, Myles WS. Effect of prolonged sleep deprivation with and without chronic physical exercise, on mood and performance. Psychophysiology 1985; 22(3): 276-282. 3. Hung CS, Sarasso S, Ferrarelli F, Riedner B, Ghilardi MF, Cirelli C, Tononi G. Local experience-dependent changes in the wake EEG after prolonged wakefulness. Sleep. 2013 Jan 1;36(1):59-72. doi: 10.5665/sleep.2302. 4. Johnson LC, Naitoh P, Moses JM, Lubin A. Interaction of REM deprivation and stage 4 deprivation with total sleep loss: experiment 2. Psychophysiology, 1974; 11(2): 147-159.
  • 5. Copper KR and Philips BA. Effect of short term sleep loss on breathing. J. Appl. Physiol. 1982; 53(4): 855-858.
  • 6. Schiffman PL, Trontel MC, Mazar MF, Edelman NH. Sleep deprivation decreases ventilatory response to CO2 but not load compensation. Chest 1983; 84(6): 695-668.
  • 7. White DP, Douglas NJ, Pickett CK. Sleep deprivation and the control of ventilation. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1983; 128(6): 984-986.
  • 8. Ayas NT, White DP, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE, Malhotra A et al. A prospective study of sleep duration and coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163(2): 205-209.
  • 9. Carrington MJ, Barbieri R, Colrain I M, Crowley K E, Kim Y, Trinder J. Changes in cardiovascular function during the sleep onset period in young adults. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98(2): 468-476.
  • 10. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilising the principle of protein dye binding. Anal biochem. 1976;72:248-254. 11. Drapper HH, Hadley M. Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1990; 186: 421–431. 12. Aebi H. Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol. 1984;105:121–26. 13. Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med. 1967; 70: 158–69. 14. Woolliams JA, Wiener G, Anderson PH, McMurray CH. Variation in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and in the concentration of copper in the blood various breed crosses of sheep. Res Vet Sci. 1983; 34: 69–77. 15. Abdel-Wahhab MA, Nada SA, Arbid MS. Ochratoxicosis: Preventation of Developmental Toxicity by L-Methionine in Rats. J Applied Toxicol. 1999; 19: 7-12 16. Reimund E. The free radical flux theory of sleep. Med Hypotheses 1994; 43(4): 231-233.
  • 17. Inoue S, Honda K, Komoda Y. Sleep as neuronal detoxification and restitution. Behav Brain Res 1995; 69(1-2): 91-96.
  • 18. D'Almeida V, Lobo LL, Hipólide DC, de Oliveira AC, Nobrega JN, Tufik S. Sleep deprivation induces brain region-specific decreases in glutathione levels. Neuroreport 1998; 9(12): 2853-2856.
  • 19. D'Almeida V, Hipólide DC, Lobo LL, de Oliveira AC, Nobrega JN, Tufik S. Melatonin treatment does not prevent decreases in brain glutathione levels induced by sleep deprivation. Eur J Pharmacol 2000; 390(3): 299-302. 20. Ramanathan L, Gulyani S, Nienhuis R, Siegel JM. Sleep deprivation decreases superoxide dismutase activity in rat hippocampus and brainstem. Neuroreport 2002; 13(11): 1387-1390.
  • 21. Poon HF, Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Butterfield DA. Free radicals and brain aging. Clin Geriatr Med 2004; 20(2): 329-359.
  • 22. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. The definition and measurement of antioxidants in biological systems. Free Radical Biol Med 1995; 18(1): 125-126.
  • 23. Bonnet MH, Berry RB, Arand DL. Metabolism during normal, fragmented, and recovery sleep. J Appl Physiol 1991; 71(3): 1112-1118
  • 24. Bettendorff L, Sallanon-Moulin M, Touret M, Wins P, Margineanu I, Schoffeniels E. Paradoxical sleep deprivation increases the content of glutamate and glutamine in rat cerebral cortex. Sleep 1996; 19:65-71
  • 25. Maquet P. Functional neuroimaging of normal human sleep by positron emission tomography. J Sleep Res 2000; 9(3): 207-231.
  • 26. Maquet P. Current status of brain imaging in sleep medicine. Sleep Med Rev 2005; 9(3): 155-156.
  • 27. D'Almeida V, Hipólide DC, Azzalis LA, Lobo LL, Junqueira VB, Tufik S. Absence of oxidative stress following paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats. Neurosci Lett 1997; 235(1-2): 25-28.
  • 28. Gopalakrishnan A, Ji LL, Cirelli C. Sleep deprivation and cellular responses to oxidative stress. Sleep 2004; 27(1): 27-35. 29. Tsiara S, Elisaf M, Jagroop IA, Mikhailidis DP. Platelets as predictors of vascular risk: Is there a practical index of platelet activity? Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2003; 9:177–190 30. Varol E, Ozturk O, Gonca T, Has M, Ozaydin M, Erdogan D, Akkaya A. Mean platelet volume is increased in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2010; 70(7):497-502. 31. Staessen JA, Bieniaszewski L, O'Brien E, Gosse P, Hayashi H, Imai Y, Kawasaki T, Otsuka K, Palatini P, Thijs L, Fagard R. Nocturnal blood pressure fall on ambulatory monitoring in a large international database. The "Ad Hoc' Working Group. Hypertension. 1997; 29(1 Pt 1): 30-39. 32. Somers VK, Dyken ME, Mark AL, Abboud FM. Sympathetic-nerve activity during sleep in normal subjects. N Engl J Med. 19934; 328(5):303-7. 33. Verrier RL, Muller JE, Hobson JA. Sleep, dreams, and sudden death: the case for sleep as an autonomic stress test for the heart. Cardiovasc Res. 1996; 31(2):181-211. Review. 34. Chasen C, Muller JE. Cardiovascular triggers and morning events. Blood Press Monit. 1998; 3(1):35-42. 35. Cannon CP, McCabe CH, Stone PH, Schactman M, Thompson B, Theroux P, Gibson RS, Feldman T, Kleiman NS, Tofler GH, Muller JE, Chaitman BR, Braunwald E. Circadian variation in the onset of unstable angina and non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction (the TIMI III Registry and TIMI IIIB). Am J Cardiol. 1997; 1;79(3):253-8. 36. Cohen MC, Rohtla KM, Lavery CE, Muller JE, Mittleman MA. Meta-analysis of the morning excess of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Jun 1;79(11):1512-6. Erratum in: Am J Cardiol 1998; 15;81(2):260.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Fizyoloji
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Mustafa SAYGIN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Fizyoloji ABD
0000-0003-4925-3503
Türkiye


Mehmet ÖZGÜNER>
Emekli
Türkiye


Önder ÖZTÜRK>
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, TIP PR.
Türkiye


Duygu KUMBUL DOĞUÇ>
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, TIP PR.
Türkiye


İlter İLHAN>
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, TIP PR.
0000-0003-3739-9580
Türkiye


İbrahim Candan AYDIN>
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ALANYA TIP FAKÜLTESİ, ALANYA TIP PR.
0000-0002-3937-8786
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Mart 2020
Gönderilme Tarihi 6 Mart 2020
Kabul Tarihi 30 Mart 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Saygın M. , Özgüner M. , Öztürk Ö. , Kumbul Doğuç D. , İlhan İ. , Aydın İ. C. Sıçanlarda deneysel uyku yoksunluğunun kardiyovasküler sisteme etkilerinin araştırılması. Uyku Bülteni. 2020; 1(1): 1-8.