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IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS

Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 4, 203 - 221, 09.10.2020

Öz

In this study, import dependency on intermediate goods within main manufacturing industries in Turkey was analyzed using World Input-Output Database (WIOD) between 2002 and 2014. Moreover, import dependency on intermediate goods within consumption goods sector was compared to that within export goods sector using a weighted multipliers approach. The analysis shows that Turkey’s import dependency on intermediate goods increased significantly in this period. The computer, electronic and optical products and automotive industries showed a markedly high import dependency on intermediate goods. The main reason for the import dependency in the automotive industry was the fact that; almost all goods produced were exported. The computer, electronic and optical products industry experienced high import dependency on intermediate goods, whereas the ratio of export to total output gradually declined and domestic consumption increased. The research reveals that after the 2000-2001 Economic Crisis, a number of institutional factors promoting a liberal economy and thus attracting FDI, stimulated the productivity growth of export goods. Thus, export growth was followed by high import dependency in export goods.

Kaynakça

  • • AKAMATSU, K., (1962), A Historical Pattern of Economic Growth in Developing Countries, the Developing Economies, 1 (1), 3−25.
  • • AYAS, N., (2017), Import Dependency of Sectors and Major Determinants: An Input Output Analysis, European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2 (1), 1-16.
  • • BOYER, R., (1990), The Regulation School: A Critical Introduction, C. Charney (trans.), Columbia University Press, New York.
  • • BOYER, R., (2005), Coherence, Diversity and the Evolution of Capitalism-The Institutional Complementarity Hypothesis, Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review, 2 (1): 43-80.
  • • BOYER, R. & HOLLINGSWORTH, J. R., (1997), The Variety of Institutional Arrangements and Their Complementarity in Modern Economies, in R. Boyer and J.R. Hollingsworth (eds.), Contemporary Capitalism: The Embeddedness of Institutions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 49–54.
  • • BOYER, R. & SAILLARD, Y., (2002), A Summary of Regulation Theory, in R. Boyer and Y. Saillard (eds.), Regulation Theory: The State of the Art, C. Shread (trans.), Routledge, London, pp. 36–44.
  • • BOYER, R. & YAMADA, T., (2000), Introduction: A Puzzle for Economic Theories, in R. Boyer and T. Yamada (eds), Japanese Capitalism in Crisis: A Regulationist Interpretation, Routledge, London, pp. 1−16.
  • • COMMONS, J. R., (1934), Institutional Economics, the Macmillan Company, New York, pp. 317−348.
  • • DIETZENBACHER, E., LOS, B., STEHRER, R., TIMMER, M. & DE VRIES, G., (2013), The Construction of World Input-Output Tables in the WIOD project, Economic Systems Research, 25 (1), 71-98.
  • • DUMAN, A. & ÖZGÜZER, G. E., (2012), An Input-Output Analysis of Rising Imports in Turkey, Ekonomik Yaklaşım, 23 (84), 39-54.
  • • GOLDSTEIN, M. & OFFICER, L. H., (1979), New Measures of Prices and Productivity for Tradable and Nontradable Goods, the Review of Income and Wealth, 25 (4), 413-427.
  • • GUO, J. & PLANTING, M. A., (2000), Using Input-Output Analysis to Measure U.S. Economic Structural Change Over a 24 Year Period, U.S. Department of Commerce: Bureu of Economic Analysis, WP2000-01.
  • • GÜNLÜK-ŞENESEN, G. & ŞENESEN, Ü., (2001), Reconsidering Import Dependency in Turkey: The Breakdown of Sectoral Demands with Respect to Suppliers, Economic Systems Research, 13 (4), 417-428.
  • • KRONENBERG, T., (2012), Regional Input-Output Models and the Treatment of Imports in the European System of Accounts (ESA), Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft, 37, 175-191.
  • • LEONTIEF, W. W., (1936), Quantitative Input-Output Relations in the Economic System of the United States, Review of Economics and Statistics, 18 (3), 105-125.
  • • LEONTIEF, W., (1949), Structural Matrices of National Economies, Econometrica, 17, 273-282.
  • • LEONTIEF, W., (1986), Input-Output Economics, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • • MIKULIC, D. & LOVRINCEVIC, Z., (2012), The Import Content of Croatian Economic Sectors and Final Demand, Economic Research, 31 (1), 2003-2023.
  • • PAMUK, Ş., (2010), Economic Growth and Institutional Change in Turkey before 1980, in T. Çetin and F. Yılmaz (eds.) Understanding the Process of Economic Change in Turkey, Nova Science, pp. 15-31.
  • • PASINETTI, L. L., (1973), The Notion of Vertical Integration in Economic Analysis, Metoroeconomica, 25, 1–29.
  • • UNI, H., (2018), Comparative Analysis of Regional Trade Imbalances in East Asia and the Eurozone, in R. Boyer et al. (eds.), Evolving Diversity and Interdependence of Capitalisms, Evolutionary Economics and Social Complexity Science 11, Springer, pp. 93-122.
  • • ÜNAL, E., (2016), A Comparative Analysis of Export Growth in Turkey and China through Macroeconomic and Institutional Factors, Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review, 13 (1), 57-91.
  • • ÜNAL, E., (2017), Turkey’s Current Account Deficit Problem and Integration into the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, Kyoto Economic Review, 86 (1-2), 1-49.
  • • ÜNAL, E., (2018), An Institutional Approach and Input-Output Analysis for Explaining the Transformation of the Turkish economy, Journal of Economic Structures, 7 (3), 1-38.
  • • ÜNAL, E., (2020), Industrial Growth Models by Input–Output Analysis and an Institutional Approach to the Automotive Industry in China and Turkey, Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review, DOI: 10.1007/s40844-020-00167-0.
  • • ÜNAL, E. ve KÖSE, N., (2019), Türkiye ve Birleşik Krallık’ta Grevde Kaybolan İşgünü Sayısının Ücret Üzerindeki Etkisi, Verimlilik Dergisi, 2019 (2), 143-168.

Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 4, 203 - 221, 09.10.2020

Öz

Bu çalışmada, Türkiye’nin temel sanayi endüstrilerindeki ithal girdi bağımlılığı, Dünya Girdi-Çıktı Veri Tabanı (WIOD) 2002 ve 2014 yılları arasındaki tablolar kullanılarak hesaplanmıştır. Ayrıca yine yurtiçi ve ihracattaki ithal girdi bağımlılığı ağırlıklandırılmış çarpan metodu kullanılarak bulunmuştur. Türkiye’nin endüstriyel ithal girdi bağımlılığının önemli derecede arttığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Bu endüstrilerin başında bilgisayar, elektronik ve optik ürünleri ve otomotiv endüstrisi gelmektedir. Otomotiv endüstrisindeki ithal girdi bağımlılığının en büyük nedeni üretilen ürünlerin büyük kısmının ihraç edilmesidir. Bilgisayar, elektronik ve optik ürünleri endüstrisindeki ithal girdi bağımlılığı artarken ihraç edilen ürünün toplam çıktı içerisindeki payının düştüğü ve yurtiçi tüketimin arttığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Bu çalışma 2000-2001 Ekonomik Krizinden sonra liberal ekonomiyi desteklemek için gerçekleştirilen ve yabancı doğrudan yatırımların artmasına yardımcı olan kurumsal değişimlerin ihracat verimliliğinde artışa neden olduğunu gözlemlemiştir. Bu yüzden ihracat artışı ihraç ürünlerinin ithal girdiye olan bağımlılığındaki artış ile takip edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • • AKAMATSU, K., (1962), A Historical Pattern of Economic Growth in Developing Countries, the Developing Economies, 1 (1), 3−25.
  • • AYAS, N., (2017), Import Dependency of Sectors and Major Determinants: An Input Output Analysis, European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2 (1), 1-16.
  • • BOYER, R., (1990), The Regulation School: A Critical Introduction, C. Charney (trans.), Columbia University Press, New York.
  • • BOYER, R., (2005), Coherence, Diversity and the Evolution of Capitalism-The Institutional Complementarity Hypothesis, Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review, 2 (1): 43-80.
  • • BOYER, R. & HOLLINGSWORTH, J. R., (1997), The Variety of Institutional Arrangements and Their Complementarity in Modern Economies, in R. Boyer and J.R. Hollingsworth (eds.), Contemporary Capitalism: The Embeddedness of Institutions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 49–54.
  • • BOYER, R. & SAILLARD, Y., (2002), A Summary of Regulation Theory, in R. Boyer and Y. Saillard (eds.), Regulation Theory: The State of the Art, C. Shread (trans.), Routledge, London, pp. 36–44.
  • • BOYER, R. & YAMADA, T., (2000), Introduction: A Puzzle for Economic Theories, in R. Boyer and T. Yamada (eds), Japanese Capitalism in Crisis: A Regulationist Interpretation, Routledge, London, pp. 1−16.
  • • COMMONS, J. R., (1934), Institutional Economics, the Macmillan Company, New York, pp. 317−348.
  • • DIETZENBACHER, E., LOS, B., STEHRER, R., TIMMER, M. & DE VRIES, G., (2013), The Construction of World Input-Output Tables in the WIOD project, Economic Systems Research, 25 (1), 71-98.
  • • DUMAN, A. & ÖZGÜZER, G. E., (2012), An Input-Output Analysis of Rising Imports in Turkey, Ekonomik Yaklaşım, 23 (84), 39-54.
  • • GOLDSTEIN, M. & OFFICER, L. H., (1979), New Measures of Prices and Productivity for Tradable and Nontradable Goods, the Review of Income and Wealth, 25 (4), 413-427.
  • • GUO, J. & PLANTING, M. A., (2000), Using Input-Output Analysis to Measure U.S. Economic Structural Change Over a 24 Year Period, U.S. Department of Commerce: Bureu of Economic Analysis, WP2000-01.
  • • GÜNLÜK-ŞENESEN, G. & ŞENESEN, Ü., (2001), Reconsidering Import Dependency in Turkey: The Breakdown of Sectoral Demands with Respect to Suppliers, Economic Systems Research, 13 (4), 417-428.
  • • KRONENBERG, T., (2012), Regional Input-Output Models and the Treatment of Imports in the European System of Accounts (ESA), Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft, 37, 175-191.
  • • LEONTIEF, W. W., (1936), Quantitative Input-Output Relations in the Economic System of the United States, Review of Economics and Statistics, 18 (3), 105-125.
  • • LEONTIEF, W., (1949), Structural Matrices of National Economies, Econometrica, 17, 273-282.
  • • LEONTIEF, W., (1986), Input-Output Economics, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • • MIKULIC, D. & LOVRINCEVIC, Z., (2012), The Import Content of Croatian Economic Sectors and Final Demand, Economic Research, 31 (1), 2003-2023.
  • • PAMUK, Ş., (2010), Economic Growth and Institutional Change in Turkey before 1980, in T. Çetin and F. Yılmaz (eds.) Understanding the Process of Economic Change in Turkey, Nova Science, pp. 15-31.
  • • PASINETTI, L. L., (1973), The Notion of Vertical Integration in Economic Analysis, Metoroeconomica, 25, 1–29.
  • • UNI, H., (2018), Comparative Analysis of Regional Trade Imbalances in East Asia and the Eurozone, in R. Boyer et al. (eds.), Evolving Diversity and Interdependence of Capitalisms, Evolutionary Economics and Social Complexity Science 11, Springer, pp. 93-122.
  • • ÜNAL, E., (2016), A Comparative Analysis of Export Growth in Turkey and China through Macroeconomic and Institutional Factors, Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review, 13 (1), 57-91.
  • • ÜNAL, E., (2017), Turkey’s Current Account Deficit Problem and Integration into the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, Kyoto Economic Review, 86 (1-2), 1-49.
  • • ÜNAL, E., (2018), An Institutional Approach and Input-Output Analysis for Explaining the Transformation of the Turkish economy, Journal of Economic Structures, 7 (3), 1-38.
  • • ÜNAL, E., (2020), Industrial Growth Models by Input–Output Analysis and an Institutional Approach to the Automotive Industry in China and Turkey, Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review, DOI: 10.1007/s40844-020-00167-0.
  • • ÜNAL, E. ve KÖSE, N., (2019), Türkiye ve Birleşik Krallık’ta Grevde Kaybolan İşgünü Sayısının Ücret Üzerindeki Etkisi, Verimlilik Dergisi, 2019 (2), 143-168.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Emre ÜNAL
FIRAT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9572-8923
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 9 Ekim 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 12 Mayıs 2019
Kabul Tarihi 29 Temmuz 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { verimlilik563424, journal = {Verimlilik Dergisi}, issn = {1013-1388}, eissn = {2757-6973}, address = {}, publisher = {Sanayi ve Teknoloji Bakanlığı}, year = {2020}, volume = {}, pages = {203 - 221}, doi = {}, title = {IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS}, key = {cite}, author = {Ünal, Emre} }
APA Ünal, E. (2020). IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS . Verimlilik Dergisi , (4) , 203-221 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/verimlilik/issue/57227/563424
MLA Ünal, E. "IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS" . Verimlilik Dergisi (2020 ): 203-221 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/verimlilik/issue/57227/563424>
Chicago Ünal, E. "IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS". Verimlilik Dergisi (2020 ): 203-221
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS AU - Emre Ünal Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - DO - T2 - Verimlilik Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 203 EP - 221 VL - IS - 4 SN - 1013-1388-2757-6973 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Verimlilik Dergisi IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS %A Emre Ünal %T IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS %D 2020 %J Verimlilik Dergisi %P 1013-1388-2757-6973 %V %N 4 %R %U
ISNAD Ünal, Emre . "IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS". Verimlilik Dergisi / 4 (Ekim 2020): 203-221 .
AMA Ünal E. IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS. Verimlilik Dergisi. 2020; (4): 203-221.
Vancouver Ünal E. IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS. Verimlilik Dergisi. 2020; (4): 203-221.
IEEE E. Ünal , "IMPORT DEPENDENCY ON INTERMEDIATE GOODS IN TURKEY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS", Verimlilik Dergisi, sayı. 4, ss. 203-221, Eki. 2020

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