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UDDER MICROBIOTA IN DAIRY COWS

Yıl 2022, Cilt 13, Sayı 2, 70 - 77, 31.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.38137/vftd.1021051

Öz

Existence of microbiota in mammals become a popular research subject nowadays. The microbiota is present in different parts of the creature, intensively in intestine, skin, vagina and udder. Microbiota has an importance in animal health as it gives information of about diseases and it’s curative roles. Due to microorganisms being the major agent in the occurrence of diseases, microbiota should be broadly evaluated. The aim of this review is constituting a perspective about bacteria in microbiota, approaches to detect microbiota, changes in udder microbiota, microbiota in teat and udder canals and colostrum, origin of microbiota, and interrelation with mastitis and microbiota.

Kaynakça

  • Addis, M. F., Tanca, A., Uzzau, S., Oikonomou, G., Bicalho, R. C. & Moroni, P. (2016). The bovine milk microbiota: insights and perspectives from–omics studies. Mol Biosyst, 12 (8), 2359-72. doi: 10.1039/c6mb00217j. PMID: 27216801.
  • Barkema, H. W., Schukken, Y. H. & Zadoks, A. R. N. (2006). Invited review: The role of cow, pathogen, and treatment regimen in the therapeutic success of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 89, 1877–1895.
  • Belkaid, Y. & Naik, S. (2013) Compartmentalized and systemic control of tissue immunity by commensals. Nat Immunol, 14 (7), 646-653.
  • Bhatt, V. D., Ahir, V. B., Koringa, P. G., Jakhesara, S. J., Rank, D. N., Naurıyal, D. S., Kunjadıa, A. P. & Joshı, C. G. (2012). Milk microbiome signatures of subclinical mastitis affected cattle analysed by shotgun sequencing. Appl Microbiol, 12 (4), 639–650.
  • Blaxter, M., Mann, J., Chapman, T., Thomas, F., Whitton, C., Floyd, R. & Abebe, E. (2005). Defining operational taxonomic units using DNA barcode data. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B. Biol Sci, 360 (1462), 1935-1943.
  • Bonsaglia, E. C. R., Gomes, M. S., Canisso, I. F., Zhou, Z., Lima, S. F., Rall, V. L. M., Oikonomou, G., Bicalho, R. C. & Lima, F. S. (2017). Milk microbiome and bacterial load following dry cow therapy without antibiotics in dairy cows with healthy mammary gland. Sci Rep, 147 (1), 8067.
  • Braem, G., De Vliegher, S., Verbist, B., Heyndrickx, B., Leroy, F. & De Vuyst, A. N. D. L. (2012). Culture-independent exploration of the tea tapex microbiota of dairy cows reveals a wide bacterial species diversity. Vet Microbiol, 157, 383–390.
  • Butler, J. E., Rainard, P., Lippolis, J. D., Salmon, H. & Kacskovics, I. (2015).The mammary gland in mucosal and regional immunity. In: Mestecky J, Strober W, Russell M,Cheroutre H, Lambrecht BN, Kelsall BL (eds) Mucosal immunology. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp: 2269–2306.
  • Clark, T. B., Davis, K. M., Lysenko, E. S., Zhou, A. Y., Yu, Y. & Weiser, J. N. (2010). Recognition of peptido glycan from the microbiota by Nod1 enhances system icinnate immunity. Nat Med, 16, 228–231.
  • Colwell, K. (2009). Biodiversity: concepts, patterns, and measurement. The Prince tonguideto ecology. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press; p: 257–263.
  • Condas, L. A., De Buck, J., Nobrega, D. B., Carson, D. A., Naushad, S., De Vliegher, S., Zadoks, R. N., Middleton, J. R., Dufour, S. & Kastelic, J. P. (2017a). Prevalence of non-aureus staphylococci species causing intramammary infections in Canadian dairy herds. J Dairy Sci, 100, 5592–5612.
  • Condas, L. A. Z., De Buck, J., Nobrega, D. B., Carson, D. A., Roy, J. P., Keefe, G. P., Devries, T. J., Middleton, J. R., Dufour, S. & Barkema, H. W. (2017b). Distribution of non-aureus staphylococci species in udder quarters with lowand high somatic cell count, and clinical mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 100 (7), 5613-5627. doi: 10.3168/jds.2016-12479.
  • Costello, E. K., Lauber, C. L., Hamady, M., Fierer, N., Gordon, J. I. & Knight, R. (2009). Bacterial community variation in human body habitat sacross space and time. Science, 326 (5960), 1694-1697. doi: 10.1126/science.1177486.
  • Derakhshani, H., Fehr, K. B., Sepehri, S., Francoz, D., De Buck, J., Barkema, H. W., Plaizier, J. C. & Khafipour, E. (2018). Invited review: Microbiota of the bovine udder: Contributing factors and potential implications for udder health and mastitis susceptibility. J Dairy Sci, 101 (12), 10605-10625.
  • De Vlıegher, S., Opsomer, G., Vanrolleghem, A., Devrıese, L. A., Sampımon, O. C., Sol, J., Barkema, H. W., Haesebrouck, F. & Dekruıf, A. (2004). Invitro growth inhibition of majör mastitis pathogens by Staphylococcus chromogenes originating from teatapices of dairy heifers. Vet Microbiol, 101, 215–221.
  • Falentin, H., Rault, L., Nicolas, A., Bouchard, D. S., Lassalas, J., Lamberton, P., Aubry, J. M., Marnet, P. G., Le Loir, Y. & Even, S. (2016). Bovine teat microbiome analysis revealed reduced alpha diversity and significant changes in taxonomic profiles in quarters with a history of mastitis. Front Microbiol, 7, 480.
  • Hood, L. (2012) Tackling the microbiome. Science, 336 (6086), 1209. doi: 10.1126/science.1225475.
  • Gıll, J. J., Sabour, P. M., Gong, J., Yu, H., Leslıe, K. E. & Grıffıths, M. W. (2006). Characterization of bacterial populations recovered from the teat canals of lactating dairy and beef cattle by 16Sr RNA gene sequence analysis. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 56, 471–481.
  • Gueimonde, M., Laitinen, K., Salminen, S. & Isolauri, E. (2007). Breast milk: a source of bifido bacteria for infant gut development and maturation? Neonatology, 92 (1), 64-66.
  • Harp, J. A., Runnels, P, :L. & Pesch, B. A. (1988). Lymphocyte recirculation in cattle: patterns of localization by mammary and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 20, 31–39.
  • Julia, V., Macia, L. & Dombrowicz, D. (2015). The impact of diet on asthma and allergic diseases. Nat Rev Immunol, 15 (5), 308-22. doi: 10.1038/nri3830. PMID: 25907459.
  • Kehrli, M. E. J. R. & Harp, J. A. (2001). Immunity in the mammary gland. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract, 17, 495–516.
  • Kindt, R. & Coe, R. (2005). Tree diversity analysis. A manual and software for common statistical methods for ecological and biodiversity studies. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).
  • Kuehn, J. S., Gorden, P. J., Munro, D., Rong, R., Dong, Q., Plummer, P. J., Wang, C. & Phıllıps, G. J. (2013). Bacterial community profiling of milk samples as a means tounder stand culture-negative bovine clinical mastitis. PLoS One, 8 (4), e61959.
  • Lamendella, R., Verberkmoes, N. & Jansson, J. K. (2012). Omics of the memeli gut-news into function. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 23, 491-500.
  • Lima, S. F., Bicalho, M. L. S. & Bicalho, R. C. (2018). Evaluation of milk sample fractions for characterization of milk microbiota from healthy and clinical mastitis cows. PLoS One, 13 (3), e0193671.
  • Li, N., Wang, Y., You, C., Ren, J., Chen, W., Zheng, H. & Liu, Z. (2018). Variation in raw milk microbiota throughout 12 months and the impact of weather conditio ns. Sci Rep, 8 (1), 2371.
  • Matthews, K. R., Harmon, R. J. & Smith, B. A. (1990). Protective effect of Staphylococcus chromogenes infection against Staphylococcus aureus infection in the lactating bovine mammary gland. J Dairy Sci, 73 (12), 3457-3462. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)79044-3. PMID: 2099367.
  • Melchior, M. B., Vaarkamp, H. & Fink-Gremmels, J. (2006). Biofilms: a role in recurrent mastitis infections? Vet J, 171 (3), 398-407. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.01.006. PMID: 16624706.
  • Metzger, S. A., Hernandez, L. I., Suen, G. & Ruegg, P. L. (2018). Understanding the milk microbiota. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract, 34 (3), 427-438.
  • Metzger, S. A., Hernandez, L. I., Skarlupka, J. H., Suen, G., Walker, T. M. & Ruegg, P. L. (2018a). Influence of sampling technique and bedding type on the milk microbiota: results of a pilot study. J Dairy Sci, 101, 1–11.
  • Metzger, S. A., Hernandez, L. I., Skarlupka, J. H., Walker, T. M., Suen, G. & Ruegg, P. L. (2018b). A cohort study of the milk microbiota of healthy and ınflamed bovine mammary glands from dry off through 150 days in milk. Front Vet Sci, 9 (5), 247.
  • Neave, F. K., Dodd, F. H., Kingwill, R. G. & Westgarth, D. R. (1969). Control of mastitis İn the dairy herd by hygiene and management. J Dairy Sci, 52 (5), 696–707.
  • Oikonomou, G., Machado, V. S., Santisteban, C., Schukken, Y. H. & Bıcalho, R. C. (2012). Microbial diversity of bovine mastitic milk as described by pyrosequencing of metagenomics 16s rDNA. PLoS One, 7 (10), e47671. Plastridge, W. N. (1958). Bovine mastitis: a review. J Dairy Sci, 41, 1141–1181.
  • Pang, M., Xie, X., Bao, H., Sun, L., He, T., Zhao, H., Zhou, Y., Zhang, L., Zhang, H., Wei, R., Xie, K. & Wang, R. (2018). İn sights ınto the bovine milk microbiota in dairy farms with different ıncide cerates of subclinical mastitis. Front Microbiol, 16 (9), 2379.
  • Plastridge, W. N. (1958). Bovine mastitis: a review. J Dairy Sci, 41, 1141–1181.
  • Pyorala, S. & Taponen, S. (2009). Coagulase-negative Staphylococci–Emerging mastitis pathogens. Vet Microbiol, 134, 3–8.
  • Rainard, P. (2017). Mammary microbiota of dairy ruminants: factor fiction? Vet Res, 48 (1), 25. doi: 10.1186/s13567-017-0429-2. PMID: 28412972.
  • Ruegg, P. L. (2017). A 100-year review: mastitis detection, management, and prevention. J Dairy Sci, 100 (12), 10381–10397.
  • Schukken, Y. H., Hertl, J., Bar, D., Bennett, G. J., González, R. N., Rauch, B. J., Santisteban, C., Schulte, H. F., Tauer, L., Welcome, F. L. & Gröhn, Y. T. (2009). Effects of repeated gram-positive and gram-negative clinical mastitis episodes on milk yield loss in Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 92 (7), 3091-3105.
  • Supre, K., Haesebrouck, F., Zadoks, R. N., Vaneechoutte, M., Piepers, S. & De Vliegher, S. (2011). Some coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species affect udder health more than others. J Dairy Sci, 94, 2329–2340.
  • Sharpton, T. J. (2014). An introduction to the analysis of shotgun metagenomic data Front Plant Sci, 5 (209), 1-14.
  • Tveit, A. T., Urich, T. & Svenning, M. M. (2014). Meta transcriptomic analysis of arctic peat soil microbiota. Appl Environ Microbiol, 80 (18), 5761-5772. doi:10.1128/AEM.01030-14.
  • Thorberg, B. M., Danielsson-Tham, M. L., Emanuelson, U. & Waller, K. P. (2009). Bovine subclinical mastitis caused by different types of coagulase negative staphylococci. J Dairy Sci, 92, 4962–4970.
  • Turnbaugh, P. J., Ley, R. E., Hamady, M., Fraser-Lıggett, C. M., Knıght, R. & Gordon, J. I. (2007). The human microbiome project. Nature, 449 (7164), 804–810.
  • Valles-Colomer, M., Darzi, Y., Vieira-Silva, S., Falony, G., Raes, J. & Joossens, M. (2016). Meta-omics in inflammatory bowel disease research: applications, challenges, and guidelines. J Crohns Colitis, 10 (6), 735-746. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw024.
  • Verdier-Metz, I., Gagne, G., Bornes, S., Monsallier, F., Veisseire, P., Delbes-Paus, C. & Montel, M. C. (2012). Cow teat skin, a potential source of diverse microbial populations for cheese production. Appl Environ Microbiol, 78, 326–333.
  • Winter, G. & Krömer, J. O. (2013). Fluxomics -connecting ‘omics analysis and phenotypes. Environ Microbiol, 15 (7), 1901-1916. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12064.
  • Young, W., Hine, B. C., Wallace, O. A., Callaghan, M. & Bibiloni, R. (2012). Transfer of intestinal bacterial components to mammary secretions in the cow. Peer J, 23 (3), e888.
  • Zadoks, R. N. & Fitzpatrick, J. I. (2009). Changing trends in mastitis. Ir Vet J, 62, 59–70.

SÜTÇÜ İNEKLERDE MEME MİKROBİYOTASI

Yıl 2022, Cilt 13, Sayı 2, 70 - 77, 31.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.38137/vftd.1021051

Öz

Günümüzde memeli hayvanlarda mikrobiyotanın varlığı sıklıkla araştırma konusu olmaya başlamıştır. Mikrobiyotanın, canlının farklı bölgelerinde, en yoğun olarak da bağırsak, deri, vagina ve memelerinde olduğu bildirilmektedir. Mikrobiyota, hayvanların sağlık durumu ve hastalıkla ilgili bilgi vermesi ve hastalığın sağaltımında büyük rol oynaması nedeniyle hayvan sağlığı açısından büyük önem taşımaktadır. Mikroorganizmaların hastalıkların temel sebeplerinden biri sayılması nedeniyle dünya genelinde önemli bir hale gelmesi ve mikrobiyotanın geniş çerçevede değerlendirilmesi bu konuya ışık tutması bakımından önem arz etmektedir. Bu derlemeyle, sütçü ineklerde meme mikrobiyotasında yer alan bakterilere, mikrobiyotanın belirlenmesinde kullanılan yaklaşımlara, meme mikrobiyotasında görülen değişikliklere, meme başı ve meme kanalı mikrobiyotasına, kolostrum mikrobiyotasına, mikrobiyotanın orijinine ve mastitis ve mikrobiyota ilişkisine farklı bir pencereden bakılması amaçlanmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Addis, M. F., Tanca, A., Uzzau, S., Oikonomou, G., Bicalho, R. C. & Moroni, P. (2016). The bovine milk microbiota: insights and perspectives from–omics studies. Mol Biosyst, 12 (8), 2359-72. doi: 10.1039/c6mb00217j. PMID: 27216801.
  • Barkema, H. W., Schukken, Y. H. & Zadoks, A. R. N. (2006). Invited review: The role of cow, pathogen, and treatment regimen in the therapeutic success of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 89, 1877–1895.
  • Belkaid, Y. & Naik, S. (2013) Compartmentalized and systemic control of tissue immunity by commensals. Nat Immunol, 14 (7), 646-653.
  • Bhatt, V. D., Ahir, V. B., Koringa, P. G., Jakhesara, S. J., Rank, D. N., Naurıyal, D. S., Kunjadıa, A. P. & Joshı, C. G. (2012). Milk microbiome signatures of subclinical mastitis affected cattle analysed by shotgun sequencing. Appl Microbiol, 12 (4), 639–650.
  • Blaxter, M., Mann, J., Chapman, T., Thomas, F., Whitton, C., Floyd, R. & Abebe, E. (2005). Defining operational taxonomic units using DNA barcode data. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B. Biol Sci, 360 (1462), 1935-1943.
  • Bonsaglia, E. C. R., Gomes, M. S., Canisso, I. F., Zhou, Z., Lima, S. F., Rall, V. L. M., Oikonomou, G., Bicalho, R. C. & Lima, F. S. (2017). Milk microbiome and bacterial load following dry cow therapy without antibiotics in dairy cows with healthy mammary gland. Sci Rep, 147 (1), 8067.
  • Braem, G., De Vliegher, S., Verbist, B., Heyndrickx, B., Leroy, F. & De Vuyst, A. N. D. L. (2012). Culture-independent exploration of the tea tapex microbiota of dairy cows reveals a wide bacterial species diversity. Vet Microbiol, 157, 383–390.
  • Butler, J. E., Rainard, P., Lippolis, J. D., Salmon, H. & Kacskovics, I. (2015).The mammary gland in mucosal and regional immunity. In: Mestecky J, Strober W, Russell M,Cheroutre H, Lambrecht BN, Kelsall BL (eds) Mucosal immunology. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp: 2269–2306.
  • Clark, T. B., Davis, K. M., Lysenko, E. S., Zhou, A. Y., Yu, Y. & Weiser, J. N. (2010). Recognition of peptido glycan from the microbiota by Nod1 enhances system icinnate immunity. Nat Med, 16, 228–231.
  • Colwell, K. (2009). Biodiversity: concepts, patterns, and measurement. The Prince tonguideto ecology. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press; p: 257–263.
  • Condas, L. A., De Buck, J., Nobrega, D. B., Carson, D. A., Naushad, S., De Vliegher, S., Zadoks, R. N., Middleton, J. R., Dufour, S. & Kastelic, J. P. (2017a). Prevalence of non-aureus staphylococci species causing intramammary infections in Canadian dairy herds. J Dairy Sci, 100, 5592–5612.
  • Condas, L. A. Z., De Buck, J., Nobrega, D. B., Carson, D. A., Roy, J. P., Keefe, G. P., Devries, T. J., Middleton, J. R., Dufour, S. & Barkema, H. W. (2017b). Distribution of non-aureus staphylococci species in udder quarters with lowand high somatic cell count, and clinical mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 100 (7), 5613-5627. doi: 10.3168/jds.2016-12479.
  • Costello, E. K., Lauber, C. L., Hamady, M., Fierer, N., Gordon, J. I. & Knight, R. (2009). Bacterial community variation in human body habitat sacross space and time. Science, 326 (5960), 1694-1697. doi: 10.1126/science.1177486.
  • Derakhshani, H., Fehr, K. B., Sepehri, S., Francoz, D., De Buck, J., Barkema, H. W., Plaizier, J. C. & Khafipour, E. (2018). Invited review: Microbiota of the bovine udder: Contributing factors and potential implications for udder health and mastitis susceptibility. J Dairy Sci, 101 (12), 10605-10625.
  • De Vlıegher, S., Opsomer, G., Vanrolleghem, A., Devrıese, L. A., Sampımon, O. C., Sol, J., Barkema, H. W., Haesebrouck, F. & Dekruıf, A. (2004). Invitro growth inhibition of majör mastitis pathogens by Staphylococcus chromogenes originating from teatapices of dairy heifers. Vet Microbiol, 101, 215–221.
  • Falentin, H., Rault, L., Nicolas, A., Bouchard, D. S., Lassalas, J., Lamberton, P., Aubry, J. M., Marnet, P. G., Le Loir, Y. & Even, S. (2016). Bovine teat microbiome analysis revealed reduced alpha diversity and significant changes in taxonomic profiles in quarters with a history of mastitis. Front Microbiol, 7, 480.
  • Hood, L. (2012) Tackling the microbiome. Science, 336 (6086), 1209. doi: 10.1126/science.1225475.
  • Gıll, J. J., Sabour, P. M., Gong, J., Yu, H., Leslıe, K. E. & Grıffıths, M. W. (2006). Characterization of bacterial populations recovered from the teat canals of lactating dairy and beef cattle by 16Sr RNA gene sequence analysis. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 56, 471–481.
  • Gueimonde, M., Laitinen, K., Salminen, S. & Isolauri, E. (2007). Breast milk: a source of bifido bacteria for infant gut development and maturation? Neonatology, 92 (1), 64-66.
  • Harp, J. A., Runnels, P, :L. & Pesch, B. A. (1988). Lymphocyte recirculation in cattle: patterns of localization by mammary and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 20, 31–39.
  • Julia, V., Macia, L. & Dombrowicz, D. (2015). The impact of diet on asthma and allergic diseases. Nat Rev Immunol, 15 (5), 308-22. doi: 10.1038/nri3830. PMID: 25907459.
  • Kehrli, M. E. J. R. & Harp, J. A. (2001). Immunity in the mammary gland. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract, 17, 495–516.
  • Kindt, R. & Coe, R. (2005). Tree diversity analysis. A manual and software for common statistical methods for ecological and biodiversity studies. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).
  • Kuehn, J. S., Gorden, P. J., Munro, D., Rong, R., Dong, Q., Plummer, P. J., Wang, C. & Phıllıps, G. J. (2013). Bacterial community profiling of milk samples as a means tounder stand culture-negative bovine clinical mastitis. PLoS One, 8 (4), e61959.
  • Lamendella, R., Verberkmoes, N. & Jansson, J. K. (2012). Omics of the memeli gut-news into function. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 23, 491-500.
  • Lima, S. F., Bicalho, M. L. S. & Bicalho, R. C. (2018). Evaluation of milk sample fractions for characterization of milk microbiota from healthy and clinical mastitis cows. PLoS One, 13 (3), e0193671.
  • Li, N., Wang, Y., You, C., Ren, J., Chen, W., Zheng, H. & Liu, Z. (2018). Variation in raw milk microbiota throughout 12 months and the impact of weather conditio ns. Sci Rep, 8 (1), 2371.
  • Matthews, K. R., Harmon, R. J. & Smith, B. A. (1990). Protective effect of Staphylococcus chromogenes infection against Staphylococcus aureus infection in the lactating bovine mammary gland. J Dairy Sci, 73 (12), 3457-3462. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)79044-3. PMID: 2099367.
  • Melchior, M. B., Vaarkamp, H. & Fink-Gremmels, J. (2006). Biofilms: a role in recurrent mastitis infections? Vet J, 171 (3), 398-407. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.01.006. PMID: 16624706.
  • Metzger, S. A., Hernandez, L. I., Suen, G. & Ruegg, P. L. (2018). Understanding the milk microbiota. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract, 34 (3), 427-438.
  • Metzger, S. A., Hernandez, L. I., Skarlupka, J. H., Suen, G., Walker, T. M. & Ruegg, P. L. (2018a). Influence of sampling technique and bedding type on the milk microbiota: results of a pilot study. J Dairy Sci, 101, 1–11.
  • Metzger, S. A., Hernandez, L. I., Skarlupka, J. H., Walker, T. M., Suen, G. & Ruegg, P. L. (2018b). A cohort study of the milk microbiota of healthy and ınflamed bovine mammary glands from dry off through 150 days in milk. Front Vet Sci, 9 (5), 247.
  • Neave, F. K., Dodd, F. H., Kingwill, R. G. & Westgarth, D. R. (1969). Control of mastitis İn the dairy herd by hygiene and management. J Dairy Sci, 52 (5), 696–707.
  • Oikonomou, G., Machado, V. S., Santisteban, C., Schukken, Y. H. & Bıcalho, R. C. (2012). Microbial diversity of bovine mastitic milk as described by pyrosequencing of metagenomics 16s rDNA. PLoS One, 7 (10), e47671. Plastridge, W. N. (1958). Bovine mastitis: a review. J Dairy Sci, 41, 1141–1181.
  • Pang, M., Xie, X., Bao, H., Sun, L., He, T., Zhao, H., Zhou, Y., Zhang, L., Zhang, H., Wei, R., Xie, K. & Wang, R. (2018). İn sights ınto the bovine milk microbiota in dairy farms with different ıncide cerates of subclinical mastitis. Front Microbiol, 16 (9), 2379.
  • Plastridge, W. N. (1958). Bovine mastitis: a review. J Dairy Sci, 41, 1141–1181.
  • Pyorala, S. & Taponen, S. (2009). Coagulase-negative Staphylococci–Emerging mastitis pathogens. Vet Microbiol, 134, 3–8.
  • Rainard, P. (2017). Mammary microbiota of dairy ruminants: factor fiction? Vet Res, 48 (1), 25. doi: 10.1186/s13567-017-0429-2. PMID: 28412972.
  • Ruegg, P. L. (2017). A 100-year review: mastitis detection, management, and prevention. J Dairy Sci, 100 (12), 10381–10397.
  • Schukken, Y. H., Hertl, J., Bar, D., Bennett, G. J., González, R. N., Rauch, B. J., Santisteban, C., Schulte, H. F., Tauer, L., Welcome, F. L. & Gröhn, Y. T. (2009). Effects of repeated gram-positive and gram-negative clinical mastitis episodes on milk yield loss in Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 92 (7), 3091-3105.
  • Supre, K., Haesebrouck, F., Zadoks, R. N., Vaneechoutte, M., Piepers, S. & De Vliegher, S. (2011). Some coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species affect udder health more than others. J Dairy Sci, 94, 2329–2340.
  • Sharpton, T. J. (2014). An introduction to the analysis of shotgun metagenomic data Front Plant Sci, 5 (209), 1-14.
  • Tveit, A. T., Urich, T. & Svenning, M. M. (2014). Meta transcriptomic analysis of arctic peat soil microbiota. Appl Environ Microbiol, 80 (18), 5761-5772. doi:10.1128/AEM.01030-14.
  • Thorberg, B. M., Danielsson-Tham, M. L., Emanuelson, U. & Waller, K. P. (2009). Bovine subclinical mastitis caused by different types of coagulase negative staphylococci. J Dairy Sci, 92, 4962–4970.
  • Turnbaugh, P. J., Ley, R. E., Hamady, M., Fraser-Lıggett, C. M., Knıght, R. & Gordon, J. I. (2007). The human microbiome project. Nature, 449 (7164), 804–810.
  • Valles-Colomer, M., Darzi, Y., Vieira-Silva, S., Falony, G., Raes, J. & Joossens, M. (2016). Meta-omics in inflammatory bowel disease research: applications, challenges, and guidelines. J Crohns Colitis, 10 (6), 735-746. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw024.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Ceren HALICI DEMİR> (Sorumlu Yazar)
KIRIKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2509-478X
Türkiye


Sibel KIZIL>
KIRIKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0697-3092
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum KIRIKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ağustos 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 13, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Halıcı Demir, C. & Kızıl, S. (2022). SÜTÇÜ İNEKLERDE MEME MİKROBİYOTASI . Veteriner Farmakoloji ve Toksikoloji Derneği Bülteni , 13 (2) , 70-77 . DOI: 10.38137/vftd.1021051