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Flotasyon Tesis Atıklarının Asit Üretme Potansiyeli ve Kirliliğin Önlenmesi, Gümüşhane, KD Türkiye

Yıl 2020, Cilt: 41 Sayı: 1, 56 - 85, 27.04.2020
https://doi.org/10.17824/yerbilimleri.693508

Öz

Madencilik faaliyetlerindeki çevre kirliliğinin birincil kaynağını, çoğunlukla metalik, kömür ve asfaltit madenlerinde meydana gelen asit drenajı oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Pb-Zn cevherleşmesinin flotasyon tesisi atıklarının asit üretme potansiyelleri jeokimyasal analizler, kısa-dönem temas sızıntı testleri ve Asit-Baz Muhasebesi (ABM) işlemlerini kapsayan statik testlerle incelenmiştir. İşlenen cevherin mineral parajenezini başlıca pirit, kalkopirit, sfalerit ve galen mineralleri oluşturmaktadır. Cevherli atık örneklerinin iz element konsantrasyonlarında, özellikle S, Zn, Cu, As, Sb, Cd, Hg, Ag ve Bi gibi potansiyel toksik metallerdeki yüksek zenginleşme cevherin türü ile doğrudan ilişkili olup, yeraltı suyunu kirletme potansiyeline sahiptir. Kısa-dönem temas sızıntı testlerine göre, örneklerin pH değerleri (9.55-10.60, n= 10), kıta içi su kaynaklarının kalite sınıflandırmasına göre, dördüncü-sınıf (IV) kalite sularını işaret etmektedir. Bununla birlikte, sülfit-sülfür (%S-2 : 2.92-3.98, n= 10), Net Nötralizasyon Potansiyeli (NNP; -32 kg CaCO3/t -149 kg CaCO3/t, n= 10) ve Nötralizasyon Potansiyel Oranı (NPO; 0.20-0.80, n= 10) değerleri cevherli atık malzemenin potansiyel asit üreticisi olduğunu göstermektedir. Baraj eksen yeri ve rezervuar alanında açılan sondaj kuyularında kaya kütle geçirimliliğini değerlendirmek için lugeon deneyleri yapılmış ve geçirgen özellikte (K= 2x10-6 m/s) olduğu belirlenmiştir. Rezervuar alanını geçirimsiz hale getirmek için 40-50 cm kalınlığında kil verilerek sıkıştırılmış, oluşan kesit sonlu elemanlar yöntemi ile modellenerek geçirimlilik ve atıksu deşarjları belirlenmiştir. Sonlu elemanlar sızma analizi ile yapılan modellemede, temel kaya üzerinde 5m derinlikte elde edilen deşarj değeri 5.63x10-8 m 3 /s ve temel kaya kütlesinin geçirimlilik değeri ise 9.79x10-10 m/s olarak belirlenmiştir. Buna ilaveten atık baraj alanı, jeosentetik kil membran, jeomembran ve drenaj jeokompozit gibi jeotekstiller kullanılarak tamamen geçirimsiz hale getirilmiştir. Bu uygulamalar sayesinde, flotasyon tesisi atıklarının olası asit üretme potansiyellerinden kaynaklanacak yüzey ve yeraltı suyu kirliliği önlenmiş olacaktır.

Destekleyen Kurum

Gümüştaş Madencilik Tic. A.Ş. (Gümüşhane)

Teşekkür

Bu çalışmaya maddi destek sağlayan, sahadan numunelerin alınmasına ve analiz edilmesine yardımcı olan Gümüştaş Madencilik Tic. A.Ş. (Gümüşhane)’ye, özellikle Erdal GÜLDOĞAN ve Uğur ÖLGEN’e katkılarından dolayı teşekkür ederiz.

Kaynakça

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  • Akaryalı, E., 2016. Geochemical, fluid inclusion and isotopic (O, H and S) constraints on the origin of Pb-Zn±Au vein-type mineralizations in the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 74, 1-14.
  • Akaryalı, E. and Tüysüz, N., 2013. The genesis of the slab window-related Arzular lowsulfidation epithermal gold mineralization (Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey. Geoscience Frontiers, 4, 409-421.
  • Akaryalı, E., Gücer, M.A., ve Alemdag, S., 2018. Atık Barajı Rezervuarı ve Cevher Stok Alanlarında Asit Maden Drenajı (AMD) Oluşumunun Değerlendirilmesi: Gümüşhane Örneği. Doğal Afetler ve Çevre Dergisi, 4 (2), 192-209.
  • Alemdag, S., Gurocak, Z., Solanki, P., Zaman, M., 2008. Estimation of bearing capacity of basalts at Atasu dam site, Turkey. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 67, 1, 79-85.
  • Alemdag, S., 2015. Assessment of bearing capacity and permeability of foundation rocks at the Gumustas waste dam site, (Turkey) using empirical and numerical analysis. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8, 1099-1110.
  • Alemdag, S., Zeybek, H.I., Kulekci, G., 2019. Stability evaluation of the Gümüşhane-Akçakale cave by numerical analysis method. Journal of Mountain Science, 16(9), 2150-2158.
  • Arslan, M., Tüysüz, N., Korkmaz, S. and Kurt, H., 1997. Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of the Eastern Pontide Volcanic Rocks, Northeast Turkey, Chemie der Erde Geochemistry, 57, 157-187.
  • Aslan, Z., 2010. U–Pb zircon SHRIMP age, geochemical and petrographical characteristics of tuffs within calc-alkaline Eocene volcanics around Gümüșhane (NE Turkey. Eastern Pontides, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie – Abhandlungen, 187 (3), 329–346.
  • Aydınçakır, E., 2012. Borçka (Artvin, KD-Türkiye) yöresi Tersiyer volkanitlerinin petrografisi, jeokimyası ve petrojenezi. Doktora Tezi, KTÜ, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Trabzon, Türkiye.
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  • Brunner, B., Yu, J-Y., Mielke, R.E., MacAskill, J.A., Madzunkov, S., McGenity, T.J. and Coleman, M., 2008. Different isotope and chemical patterns of pyrite oxidation related to lag and exponential growth phases of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans reveal a microbial growth strategy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 270, 63-72.
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  • Demir, Y., Uysal, İ. and Sadıklar, M.B., 2013. Mineral Chemical Investigation on Sulfide Mineralization of the Istala Deposit, Gümüşhane, NE-Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 53, 306-317.
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Acid Production Potential of Flotation Plant Tailings and Pollution Prevention, Gumushane, Turkey NE

Yıl 2020, Cilt: 41 Sayı: 1, 56 - 85, 27.04.2020
https://doi.org/10.17824/yerbilimleri.693508

Öz

The primary source of environmental pollution in mining activity is acid drainage, which mostly occurring metallic, coal, and asphaltite mines. In this study, the acid producing potential of Pb-Zn mineralization from flotation plant tailings was investigated by geochemical analysis and static tests including short-term contact leakage tests and Acid-Base Accounting (ABM) processes. The mineral assemblage of the processed ore mainly consists of pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena minerals. The high enrichment in trace element concentrations of ore-bearing tailings samples, especially in potentially toxic metals such as S, Zn, Cu, As, Sb, Cd, Hg, Ag, and Bi is directly related to the type of mineralizations, and they have the potential to contaminate groundwater. According to short-term contact leaching tests, the pH (9.55-10.60, n= 10) values of samples indicated that they are four-class (IV) quality by classification of the intra-continental water resources. Besides, sulphide-sulfur (%S-2: 2.92-3.98, n= 10), Net Neutralization Potential (NNP; -32 kg CaCO3/t -149 kg CaCO3/t, n= 10), and Neutralization Potential Ratio (NPR; 0.20-0.80, n= 10) values show that the ore-bearing tailings material has an acid production potential. Lugeon tests were carried out to evaluate rock mass permeability in drilling wells drilled in the dam axis location and reservoir area and it was determined to be permeable (K= 2x10-6 m/s). In order to make the reservoir impermeable, 40-50 cm thick clay was laid and compacted, and the formed section was modeled by finite elements method, and permeability and wastewater discharges were determined. In the modeling with finite element seepage analysis, the wastewater discharge value obtained at a depth of 5m from the foundation excavation was determined as 5.63x10-8 m3/s. Also, the permeability value for the reservoir area was determined as 9.79x10-10 m/s after the applied clay compaction process. In addition, the environment will be completely impermeable as a result of laying geotextiles such as geosynthetic clay membrane, geomembrane and drainage geocomposite on the bottom of the reservoir area to prevent a possible chemical leakage. Thanks to these applications, surface and groundwater pollution will be prevented due to the potential of acid production of flotation plant tailings.

Kaynakça

  • Akaryalı, E. and Akbulut, K., 2016. Constraints of C-O-S isotope compositions and the origin of the Ünlüpınar volcanic-hosted epithermal Pb-Zn±Au deposit, Gümüşhane, NE Turkey. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 117, 119-134.
  • Akaryalı, E., 2016. Geochemical, fluid inclusion and isotopic (O, H and S) constraints on the origin of Pb-Zn±Au vein-type mineralizations in the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 74, 1-14.
  • Akaryalı, E. and Tüysüz, N., 2013. The genesis of the slab window-related Arzular lowsulfidation epithermal gold mineralization (Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey. Geoscience Frontiers, 4, 409-421.
  • Akaryalı, E., Gücer, M.A., ve Alemdag, S., 2018. Atık Barajı Rezervuarı ve Cevher Stok Alanlarında Asit Maden Drenajı (AMD) Oluşumunun Değerlendirilmesi: Gümüşhane Örneği. Doğal Afetler ve Çevre Dergisi, 4 (2), 192-209.
  • Alemdag, S., Gurocak, Z., Solanki, P., Zaman, M., 2008. Estimation of bearing capacity of basalts at Atasu dam site, Turkey. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 67, 1, 79-85.
  • Alemdag, S., 2015. Assessment of bearing capacity and permeability of foundation rocks at the Gumustas waste dam site, (Turkey) using empirical and numerical analysis. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8, 1099-1110.
  • Alemdag, S., Zeybek, H.I., Kulekci, G., 2019. Stability evaluation of the Gümüşhane-Akçakale cave by numerical analysis method. Journal of Mountain Science, 16(9), 2150-2158.
  • Arslan, M., Tüysüz, N., Korkmaz, S. and Kurt, H., 1997. Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of the Eastern Pontide Volcanic Rocks, Northeast Turkey, Chemie der Erde Geochemistry, 57, 157-187.
  • Aslan, Z., 2010. U–Pb zircon SHRIMP age, geochemical and petrographical characteristics of tuffs within calc-alkaline Eocene volcanics around Gümüșhane (NE Turkey. Eastern Pontides, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie – Abhandlungen, 187 (3), 329–346.
  • Aydınçakır, E., 2012. Borçka (Artvin, KD-Türkiye) yöresi Tersiyer volkanitlerinin petrografisi, jeokimyası ve petrojenezi. Doktora Tezi, KTÜ, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Trabzon, Türkiye.
  • Blowes, D.W. and Jambor, J.L., 1990. The pore-water geochemistry and the mineralogy of the vadose zone of sulfide tailings, Waite amulet, Quebec, Canada. Applied Geochemistry 5, 327-346.
  • Boon, M. and Heijnen, J.J., 1998. Chemical oxidation kinetics of pyrite in bioleaching processes. Hydrometallurgy, 48, 27-41.
  • Brodie, M.J., Broughton, L.M. and Robertson, A., 1991. A conceptual rock classification system for waste management and a laboratory method for ARD prediction from rock piles. Proc 2nd ICARD 3, 119-135.
  • Brunner, B., Yu, J-Y., Mielke, R.E., MacAskill, J.A., Madzunkov, S., McGenity, T.J. and Coleman, M., 2008. Different isotope and chemical patterns of pyrite oxidation related to lag and exponential growth phases of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans reveal a microbial growth strategy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 270, 63-72.
  • Cidu, R. and Frau, F., 2009. Abandoned and active mining sites: From contamination to remediation, IMWA Symposium Water in mining environments. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 100 (2-3), doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2008.06.002.
  • Day, S.J., 1989. Comments after presentation of: A practical approach to testing for acid mine drainage in the mine planning and approval process. At the Thirteenth Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium. June 7-9, Vernon, British Columbia.
  • Demir, Y. and Dişli, A., 2020. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope constraints (C, O, H) on the Dağbaşı Fe–Cu–Zn skarn mineralization (Trabzon, NE Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 116, 103235.
  • Demir, Y., Uysal, İ. and Sadıklar, M.B., 2013. Mineral Chemical Investigation on Sulfide Mineralization of the Istala Deposit, Gümüşhane, NE-Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 53, 306-317.
  • Demir, Y., Uysal, İ., Sadiklar, M.B. and Sipahi, F., 2008. Mineralogy, Mineral Chemistry, and Fluid Inclusion Investigation of Köstere Hydrothermal Vein-Type Deposit (Gümüşhane, NE-Turkey. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 185 (2), 215-232.
  • Descostes, M., Vitorge, P. and Beaucaire, C., 2004. Pyrite dissolution in acidic media. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68, 4559-4569.
  • Dold, B., 2014. Evolution of acid mine drainage formation in sulphidic mine tailings. Minerals, 4 (2), 621-641.
  • Dold, B., 2017. Acid rock drainage prediction: A critical review. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 172, 120-132.
  • Dold, B., Wade, C. and Fontboté, L., 2009. Water management for acid mine drainage control at the polymetallic Zn–Pb–(Ag–Bi–Cu) deposit Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 100, 133-141.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Selçuk ALEMDAĞ 0000-0003-2893-3681

Enver AKARYALI 0000-0003-1495-9186

Mehmet Ali GÜCER 0000-0002-9075-3350

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Nisan 2020
Gönderilme Tarihi 24 Şubat 2020
Kabul Tarihi 27 Nisan 2020
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020 Cilt: 41 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

EndNote ALEMDAĞ S, AKARYALI E, GÜCER MA (01 Nisan 2020) Flotasyon Tesis Atıklarının Asit Üretme Potansiyeli ve Kirliliğin Önlenmesi, Gümüşhane, KD Türkiye. Yerbilimleri 41 1 56–85.