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Edible Insects in Nutritional and Food Technology Perspective

Year 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1, 18 - 29, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.53569/apjhls.1111684

Abstract

While the global population is estimated to reach 9 billion by 2050, alternative food sources that utilise less natural resources and do not contribute the level of carbon emissions are needed to meet the increasing quality protein demand. In this respect, it is believed that insect production on the farm will be a safer and more sustainable source of protein compared to traditional animal agriculture. Although edible insects vary according to their species in terms of nutrition, they attract attention as an alternative food source due to their high fat, protein, vitamin, mineral, and fiber contents. In particular, they are considered to have the potential to offer solutions that can meet the increasing demand for protein in the future. The presence of raw protein varies among the species, e.g. more than a hundred edible insect species' have between 20- 70% protein content. The use of edible insects and the nutrients to be harvested from them to form alternative food recipies makes it necessary to accept new (novel) food concepts and risk assessments. This study aimed to reveal edible insects in nutritional and food sciences perspectives by using a comprehensive literature review.

References

  • Adegboye, A. R. A., Bawa, M., Keith, R., Twefik, S., & Tewfik, I. (2021). Edible Insects: Sustainable nutrient-rich foods to tackle food insecurity and malnutrition. World Nutrition, 12(4), 176-189.
  • Candoğan, P. D. K. & Özdemir, G. (2021). Sürdürülebilir Et Üretimi İçin Yenilikçi Yaklaşımlar. Gıda, 46(2), 408-427.
  • Conti, M. V., Kalmpourtzidou, A., Lambiase, S., De Giuseppe, R., & Cena, H. (2021). Novel Foods and Sustainability as Means to Counteract Malnutrition in Madagascar. Molecules, 26 (8), 2142.
  • de Castro, R. J. S., Ohara, A., dos Santos Aguilar, J. G., & Domingues, M. A. F. (2018). Nutritional, functional and biological properties of insect proteins: Processes for obtaining, consumption and future challenges. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 76, 82-89.
  • Demirci, M., & Yetim, H. (2021). İnsan gıdası olarak böcek proteinleri tüketimi ve getirdiği sorunlar. Helal ve Etik Araşt. Derg, 3(2), 11-22.
  • Dobermann, D., Swift, J. A., & Field, L. M. (2017). Opportunities and hurdles of edible insects for food and feed. Nutrition Bulletin, 42(4), 293-308.
  • EFSA. (2015). Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed. EFSA Journal, 13(10), 4257.
  • Elhassan, M., Wendin, K., Olsson, V., & Langton, M. (2019). Quality aspects of insects as food—nutritional, sensory, and related concepts. Foods, 8(3), 95.
  • Gere, A. (2017). Insect Based Foods a Nutritional Point of View. Nutrition & Food Science International Journal, 4(2), 555638.
  • Gravel, A., & Doyen, A. (2020). The use of edible insect proteins in food: Challenges and issues related to their functional properties. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 59, 102272.
  • Güneş, E., Sormaz, Ü. & Nizamlıoğlu, H. F. (2017). Gıda ve Turizm Sektöründe Böceklere Yer Var mı? Uluslararası Türk Dünyası Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(1), 63-75.
  • Hadi, J., & Brightwell, G. (2021). Safety of Alternative Proteins: Technological, Environmental and Regulatory Aspects of Cultured Meat, Plant-Based Meat, Insect Protein and Single-Cell Protein. Foods, 10(6), 1226.
  • Henchion, M., Hayes, M., Mullen, A. M., Fenelon, M., & Tiwari, B. (2017). Future protein supply and demand: strategies and factors influencing a sustainable equilibrium. Foods, 6(7), 53.
  • Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K. (2021). Rare food allergens. Allergologie Select, 5, 29.
  • Ignaczak, A., & Kowalska, H. (2021). Nutritional value of edible insects in relation to consumer acceptance. Postępy Techniki Przetwórstwa Spożywczego, 1, 130-140.
  • Imathiu, S. (2020). Benefits and food safety concerns associated with consumption of edible insects. NFS Journal, 18, 1-11.
  • Jansson, A., & Berggren, A. (2015). Insects as food-something for the future? Swedish University of Agricultural Science. Erişim https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/12935/7/jansson_a_berggren_a_151230.pdf
  • Karaman, R. & Girgin, G. K. (2020). Yenilebilir Böcekler Kapsamında Çekirge Ve Karides. Journal of Global Tourism and Technology Research, 1(1), 1-11.
  • Kaymaz, E. & Ulema, Ş. (2020). Yenilebilir Böceklerin Menülerde Kullanılması Üzerine Bir Araştırma- Kapadokya Örneği. Journal of Travel and Tourism Research, (14), 46-63.
  • Kibar, S. (2017). Böcek Yemenin Nesi Yanlış? Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 8(1), 96-113.
  • Kim, T. K., Yong, H. I., Kim, Y. B., Kim, H. W., & Choi, Y. S. (2019). Edible insects as a protein source: a review of public perception, processing technology, and research trends. Food science of animal resources, 39(4), 521.
  • Lange, K. W., & Nakamura, Y. (2021). Edible insects as future food: chances and challenges. Journal of Future Foods, 1(1), 38-46.
  • Lange, K., & Nakamura, Y. (2021). Edible insects as a source of food bioactives and their potential health effects. Journal of Food Bioactives, 14, 4-9.
  • Manditsera, F. A., Luning, P. A., Fogliano, V., & Lakemond, C. M. (2019). The contribution of wild harvested edible insects (Eulepida mashona and Henicus whellani) to nutrition security in Zimbabwe. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 75, 17–25.
  • Muslu, M. (2020). Sağlığın Geliştirilmesi Ve Sürdürülebilir Beslenme İçin Alternatif Bir Kaynak: Yenilebilir Böcekler. Gıda, 45(5), 1009-1018.
  • Mwangi MN, Oonincx DGAB, Stouten T, Veenenbos M, Melse-Boonstra A, Dicke M, van Loon JJA. (2018). Insects as sources of iron and zinc in human nutrition. Nutr Res Rev., 31(2), 248-255.
  • Nongonierma, A. B., & FitzGerald, R. J. (2017). Unlocking the biological potential of proteins from edible insects through enzymatic hydrolysis: A review. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 43, 239-252.
  • Nyberg, M., Olsson, V., & Wendin, K. (2020). Reasons for eating insects? Responses and reflections among Swedish consumers. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 22, 100268.
  • Nyberg, M., Olsson, V., & Wendin, K. (2021). ‘Would you like to eat an insect?’—Children's perceptions of and thoughts about eating insects. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 45(2), 248-258.
  • Odabaşı, F. & Yeşilbağ, D. (2021). Broyler Beslemede Protein İhtiyacının Karşılanmasında Yeni Bir Yaklaşım: Böcekler. Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences, 6(2), 180-187.
  • Oghenesuvwe, E. E., & Paul, C. (2019). Edible insects bio-actives as anti-oxidants: Current status and perspectives. Journal of Complementary Medicine, 10(2), 89-102.
  • Ojha, S., Bußler, S., Psarianos, M., Rossi, G., & Schlüter, O. K. (2021). Edible insect processing pathways and implementation of emerging technologies. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 7(5), 877-900.
  • Onwezen, M. C., Bouwman, E. P., Reinders, M. J., & Dagevos, H. (2021). A systematic review on consumer acceptance of alternative proteins: Pulses, algae, insects, plant-based meat alternatives, and cultured meat. Appetite, 159, 105058.
  • Orkusz, A. (2021). Edible Insects versus Meat—Nutritional Comparison: Knowledge of Their Composition Is the Key to Good Health. Nutrients, 13(4), 1207.
  • Pali-Schöll, I., Binder, R., Moens, Y., Polesny, F., & Monsó, S. (2019). Edible insects–defining knowledge gaps in biological and ethical considerations of entomophagy. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 59(17), 2760-2771.
  • Payne, C. L., & Van Itterbeeck, J. (2017). Ecosystem services from edible insects in agricultural systems: a review. Insects, 8(1), 24.
  • Peksever, D., Erdoğan, B., Görür, A., Sümer, O. & El, S. (2021). Sürdürülebilir Protein Kaynaği Olarak Yenilebilir Böceklerin Besleyici Özellikleri Ve Tüketici Kabulü. Gıda, 46(5), 1105-1116.
  • Ribeiro, J., Sousa-Pinto, B., Fonseca, J., Fonseca, S. C., & Cunha, L. (2021). Edible insects and food safety: allergy. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 7(5), 833–847.
  • Seni, A. (2017). Edible insects: Future prospects for dietary regimen. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci, 6, 1302-1314.
  • Skotnicka, M., Karwowska, K., Kłobukowski, F., Borkowska, A., & Pieszko, M. (2021). Possibilities of the Development of Edible Insect-Based Foods in Europe. Foods, 10(4), 766.
  • Sogari, G., Liu, A., & Li, J. (2019). Understanding Edible Insects as Food in Western and Eastern Societies. In D. Bogueva, D. Marinova, T. Raphaely, & K. Schmidinger (Ed.), Environmental, Health, and Business Opportunities in the New Meat Alternatives Market (pp. 166-181). IGI Global.
  • Svanberg, I., & Berggren, S. (2021). Insects as past and future food in entomophobic Europe. Food, Culture & Society, 24(5), 624–638.
  • Tang, C., Yang, D., Liao, H., Sun, H., Liu, C., Wei, L., & Li, F. (2019). Edible insects as a food source: a review. Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, 1(1), 1-13.
  • Tekeli, A. (2014). Hayvan Beslemede Alternatif Protein Kaynağı Olarak Böceklerin Kullanımı. Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(4), 531-538.
  • Ünal, Y. & Arslan, D. (2020). Böcekçil Beslenme ve Bazı Büyük Memeli Yaban Hayvanı Türlerinin Besin Tercihleri. Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research, 4(2), 160-170.
  • van Huis, A. (2016). Edible insects are the future. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 75(3), 294-305.
  • Van Huis, A., Rumpold, B. A., Van der Fels-Klerx, H. J., & Tomberlin, J. K. (2021). Advancing edible insects as food and feed in a circular economy. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 7 (5), 935-948.
  • van Huis, A., van Itterbeeck, J., Klunder, H., Mertens, E., Halloran, A., Muir, G., & Vantomme, P. (2013). Edible insects: future prospects for food and feed security (171). FAO Forestry Paper. Erişm: https://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/fulltext/258042
  • Vangsoe, M. T., Thogersen, R., Bertram, H. C., Heckmann, L. H. L., & Hansen, M. (2018). Ingestion of insect protein isolate enhances blood amino acid concentrations similar to soy protein in a human trial. Nutrients, 10(10), 1357.
  • Wade, M., & Hoelle, J. (2020). A review of edible insect industrialization: scales of production and implications for sustainability. Environmental Research Letters, 15(12), 123013.

Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler

Year 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1, 18 - 29, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.53569/apjhls.1111684

Abstract

Sürekli artan küresel nüfusun 2050 yılına kadar 9 milyara ulaşması öngörülürken artan protein ihtiyacını karşılamak için doğal kaynakları daha az tüketen ve karbon emisyon seviyesini yükseltmeyen alternatif gıda kaynaklarına ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Bu açıdan geleneksel hayvan tarımı ile karşılaştırıldığında, çiftlikte böcek üretiminin daha güvenli ve sürdürülebilir bir protein kaynağı olacağına inanılmaktadır. Yenilebilir böcekler, nütrisyonel açıdan türlerine göre değişiklikler göstermekle birlikte, genel olarak yüksek yağ, protein, vitamin, mineral ve lif içerikleri sayesinde alternatif gıda kaynağı olarak gösterilmekte ve özellikle, %20-70 ham protein içeriği ile gelecekteki protein talebini karşılayabilecek çözümlerden birisi olacağı ileri sürülmektedir. Ayrıca, protein ve yağ dışında böcekler; demir, magnezyum, manganez, fosfor, potasyum, selenyum, sodyum ve çinko gibi biyoyararlılığı yüksek bazı mikro besinleri de içermektedir. Yenilebilir böcekler ve bunlardan elde edilecek çeşitli besin öğelerinin alternatif gıda formülasyonlarında kullanılması durumu, beraberinde yeni (novel) gıda kavramı yanında risk değerlendirmelerinin yapılmasının gerekliliğini de ortaya koymuştur. Bu çalışmada, alternatif gıda kaynaklarından yenilebilir böceklerin beslenme ve gıda bilimleri yönünden kapsamlı bir literatür taraması ile değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır.

References

  • Adegboye, A. R. A., Bawa, M., Keith, R., Twefik, S., & Tewfik, I. (2021). Edible Insects: Sustainable nutrient-rich foods to tackle food insecurity and malnutrition. World Nutrition, 12(4), 176-189.
  • Candoğan, P. D. K. & Özdemir, G. (2021). Sürdürülebilir Et Üretimi İçin Yenilikçi Yaklaşımlar. Gıda, 46(2), 408-427.
  • Conti, M. V., Kalmpourtzidou, A., Lambiase, S., De Giuseppe, R., & Cena, H. (2021). Novel Foods and Sustainability as Means to Counteract Malnutrition in Madagascar. Molecules, 26 (8), 2142.
  • de Castro, R. J. S., Ohara, A., dos Santos Aguilar, J. G., & Domingues, M. A. F. (2018). Nutritional, functional and biological properties of insect proteins: Processes for obtaining, consumption and future challenges. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 76, 82-89.
  • Demirci, M., & Yetim, H. (2021). İnsan gıdası olarak böcek proteinleri tüketimi ve getirdiği sorunlar. Helal ve Etik Araşt. Derg, 3(2), 11-22.
  • Dobermann, D., Swift, J. A., & Field, L. M. (2017). Opportunities and hurdles of edible insects for food and feed. Nutrition Bulletin, 42(4), 293-308.
  • EFSA. (2015). Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed. EFSA Journal, 13(10), 4257.
  • Elhassan, M., Wendin, K., Olsson, V., & Langton, M. (2019). Quality aspects of insects as food—nutritional, sensory, and related concepts. Foods, 8(3), 95.
  • Gere, A. (2017). Insect Based Foods a Nutritional Point of View. Nutrition & Food Science International Journal, 4(2), 555638.
  • Gravel, A., & Doyen, A. (2020). The use of edible insect proteins in food: Challenges and issues related to their functional properties. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 59, 102272.
  • Güneş, E., Sormaz, Ü. & Nizamlıoğlu, H. F. (2017). Gıda ve Turizm Sektöründe Böceklere Yer Var mı? Uluslararası Türk Dünyası Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(1), 63-75.
  • Hadi, J., & Brightwell, G. (2021). Safety of Alternative Proteins: Technological, Environmental and Regulatory Aspects of Cultured Meat, Plant-Based Meat, Insect Protein and Single-Cell Protein. Foods, 10(6), 1226.
  • Henchion, M., Hayes, M., Mullen, A. M., Fenelon, M., & Tiwari, B. (2017). Future protein supply and demand: strategies and factors influencing a sustainable equilibrium. Foods, 6(7), 53.
  • Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K. (2021). Rare food allergens. Allergologie Select, 5, 29.
  • Ignaczak, A., & Kowalska, H. (2021). Nutritional value of edible insects in relation to consumer acceptance. Postępy Techniki Przetwórstwa Spożywczego, 1, 130-140.
  • Imathiu, S. (2020). Benefits and food safety concerns associated with consumption of edible insects. NFS Journal, 18, 1-11.
  • Jansson, A., & Berggren, A. (2015). Insects as food-something for the future? Swedish University of Agricultural Science. Erişim https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/12935/7/jansson_a_berggren_a_151230.pdf
  • Karaman, R. & Girgin, G. K. (2020). Yenilebilir Böcekler Kapsamında Çekirge Ve Karides. Journal of Global Tourism and Technology Research, 1(1), 1-11.
  • Kaymaz, E. & Ulema, Ş. (2020). Yenilebilir Böceklerin Menülerde Kullanılması Üzerine Bir Araştırma- Kapadokya Örneği. Journal of Travel and Tourism Research, (14), 46-63.
  • Kibar, S. (2017). Böcek Yemenin Nesi Yanlış? Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 8(1), 96-113.
  • Kim, T. K., Yong, H. I., Kim, Y. B., Kim, H. W., & Choi, Y. S. (2019). Edible insects as a protein source: a review of public perception, processing technology, and research trends. Food science of animal resources, 39(4), 521.
  • Lange, K. W., & Nakamura, Y. (2021). Edible insects as future food: chances and challenges. Journal of Future Foods, 1(1), 38-46.
  • Lange, K., & Nakamura, Y. (2021). Edible insects as a source of food bioactives and their potential health effects. Journal of Food Bioactives, 14, 4-9.
  • Manditsera, F. A., Luning, P. A., Fogliano, V., & Lakemond, C. M. (2019). The contribution of wild harvested edible insects (Eulepida mashona and Henicus whellani) to nutrition security in Zimbabwe. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 75, 17–25.
  • Muslu, M. (2020). Sağlığın Geliştirilmesi Ve Sürdürülebilir Beslenme İçin Alternatif Bir Kaynak: Yenilebilir Böcekler. Gıda, 45(5), 1009-1018.
  • Mwangi MN, Oonincx DGAB, Stouten T, Veenenbos M, Melse-Boonstra A, Dicke M, van Loon JJA. (2018). Insects as sources of iron and zinc in human nutrition. Nutr Res Rev., 31(2), 248-255.
  • Nongonierma, A. B., & FitzGerald, R. J. (2017). Unlocking the biological potential of proteins from edible insects through enzymatic hydrolysis: A review. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 43, 239-252.
  • Nyberg, M., Olsson, V., & Wendin, K. (2020). Reasons for eating insects? Responses and reflections among Swedish consumers. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 22, 100268.
  • Nyberg, M., Olsson, V., & Wendin, K. (2021). ‘Would you like to eat an insect?’—Children's perceptions of and thoughts about eating insects. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 45(2), 248-258.
  • Odabaşı, F. & Yeşilbağ, D. (2021). Broyler Beslemede Protein İhtiyacının Karşılanmasında Yeni Bir Yaklaşım: Böcekler. Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences, 6(2), 180-187.
  • Oghenesuvwe, E. E., & Paul, C. (2019). Edible insects bio-actives as anti-oxidants: Current status and perspectives. Journal of Complementary Medicine, 10(2), 89-102.
  • Ojha, S., Bußler, S., Psarianos, M., Rossi, G., & Schlüter, O. K. (2021). Edible insect processing pathways and implementation of emerging technologies. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 7(5), 877-900.
  • Onwezen, M. C., Bouwman, E. P., Reinders, M. J., & Dagevos, H. (2021). A systematic review on consumer acceptance of alternative proteins: Pulses, algae, insects, plant-based meat alternatives, and cultured meat. Appetite, 159, 105058.
  • Orkusz, A. (2021). Edible Insects versus Meat—Nutritional Comparison: Knowledge of Their Composition Is the Key to Good Health. Nutrients, 13(4), 1207.
  • Pali-Schöll, I., Binder, R., Moens, Y., Polesny, F., & Monsó, S. (2019). Edible insects–defining knowledge gaps in biological and ethical considerations of entomophagy. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 59(17), 2760-2771.
  • Payne, C. L., & Van Itterbeeck, J. (2017). Ecosystem services from edible insects in agricultural systems: a review. Insects, 8(1), 24.
  • Peksever, D., Erdoğan, B., Görür, A., Sümer, O. & El, S. (2021). Sürdürülebilir Protein Kaynaği Olarak Yenilebilir Böceklerin Besleyici Özellikleri Ve Tüketici Kabulü. Gıda, 46(5), 1105-1116.
  • Ribeiro, J., Sousa-Pinto, B., Fonseca, J., Fonseca, S. C., & Cunha, L. (2021). Edible insects and food safety: allergy. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 7(5), 833–847.
  • Seni, A. (2017). Edible insects: Future prospects for dietary regimen. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci, 6, 1302-1314.
  • Skotnicka, M., Karwowska, K., Kłobukowski, F., Borkowska, A., & Pieszko, M. (2021). Possibilities of the Development of Edible Insect-Based Foods in Europe. Foods, 10(4), 766.
  • Sogari, G., Liu, A., & Li, J. (2019). Understanding Edible Insects as Food in Western and Eastern Societies. In D. Bogueva, D. Marinova, T. Raphaely, & K. Schmidinger (Ed.), Environmental, Health, and Business Opportunities in the New Meat Alternatives Market (pp. 166-181). IGI Global.
  • Svanberg, I., & Berggren, S. (2021). Insects as past and future food in entomophobic Europe. Food, Culture & Society, 24(5), 624–638.
  • Tang, C., Yang, D., Liao, H., Sun, H., Liu, C., Wei, L., & Li, F. (2019). Edible insects as a food source: a review. Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, 1(1), 1-13.
  • Tekeli, A. (2014). Hayvan Beslemede Alternatif Protein Kaynağı Olarak Böceklerin Kullanımı. Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(4), 531-538.
  • Ünal, Y. & Arslan, D. (2020). Böcekçil Beslenme ve Bazı Büyük Memeli Yaban Hayvanı Türlerinin Besin Tercihleri. Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research, 4(2), 160-170.
  • van Huis, A. (2016). Edible insects are the future. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 75(3), 294-305.
  • Van Huis, A., Rumpold, B. A., Van der Fels-Klerx, H. J., & Tomberlin, J. K. (2021). Advancing edible insects as food and feed in a circular economy. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 7 (5), 935-948.
  • van Huis, A., van Itterbeeck, J., Klunder, H., Mertens, E., Halloran, A., Muir, G., & Vantomme, P. (2013). Edible insects: future prospects for food and feed security (171). FAO Forestry Paper. Erişm: https://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/fulltext/258042
  • Vangsoe, M. T., Thogersen, R., Bertram, H. C., Heckmann, L. H. L., & Hansen, M. (2018). Ingestion of insect protein isolate enhances blood amino acid concentrations similar to soy protein in a human trial. Nutrients, 10(10), 1357.
  • Wade, M., & Hoelle, J. (2020). A review of edible insect industrialization: scales of production and implications for sustainability. Environmental Research Letters, 15(12), 123013.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Articles
Authors

İsmail Hakkı TEKİNER>
İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7248-2446
Türkiye


Gülşah DARAMA>
İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-1400-5067
Türkiye


Bahar ÖZATİLA>
İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9549-870X
Türkiye


Hasan YETİM> (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5388-5856
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Bulunmamaktadır.
Project Number Bulunmamaktadır.
Thanks Bulunmamaktadır.
Publication Date June 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @review { apjhls1111684, journal = {Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle}, eissn = {2687-2374}, address = {Babalık Mh. Kemerli Cd,. Demirci İş Merk.B Blok, No: 7/705 Selçuklu-Konya}, publisher = {Akademik Perspektif Derneği}, year = {2022}, volume = {4}, number = {1}, pages = {18 - 29}, doi = {10.53569/apjhls.1111684}, title = {Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler}, key = {cite}, author = {Tekiner, İsmail Hakkı and Darama, Gülşah and Özatila, Bahar and Yetim, Hasan} }
APA Tekiner, İ. H. , Darama, G. , Özatila, B. & Yetim, H. (2022). Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler . Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle , 4 (1) , 18-29 . DOI: 10.53569/apjhls.1111684
MLA Tekiner, İ. H. , Darama, G. , Özatila, B. , Yetim, H. "Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler" . Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle 4 (2022 ): 18-29 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/apjhls/issue/70761/1111684>
Chicago Tekiner, İ. H. , Darama, G. , Özatila, B. , Yetim, H. "Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler". Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle 4 (2022 ): 18-29
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Edible Insects in Nutritional and Food Technology Perspective AU - İsmail HakkıTekiner, GülşahDarama, BaharÖzatila, HasanYetim Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.53569/apjhls.1111684 DO - 10.53569/apjhls.1111684 T2 - Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 18 EP - 29 VL - 4 IS - 1 SN - -2687-2374 M3 - doi: 10.53569/apjhls.1111684 UR - https://doi.org/10.53569/apjhls.1111684 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler %A İsmail Hakkı Tekiner , Gülşah Darama , Bahar Özatila , Hasan Yetim %T Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler %D 2022 %J Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle %P -2687-2374 %V 4 %N 1 %R doi: 10.53569/apjhls.1111684 %U 10.53569/apjhls.1111684
ISNAD Tekiner, İsmail Hakkı , Darama, Gülşah , Özatila, Bahar , Yetim, Hasan . "Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler". Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle 4 / 1 (June 2022): 18-29 . https://doi.org/10.53569/apjhls.1111684
AMA Tekiner İ. H. , Darama G. , Özatila B. , Yetim H. Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler. AP Halal Lifestyle. 2022; 4(1): 18-29.
Vancouver Tekiner İ. H. , Darama G. , Özatila B. , Yetim H. Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler. Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle. 2022; 4(1): 18-29.
IEEE İ. H. Tekiner , G. Darama , B. Özatila and H. Yetim , "Beslenme ve Gıda Teknolojisi Yönünden Yenilebilir Böcekler", Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 18-29, Jun. 2022, doi:10.53569/apjhls.1111684

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Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle