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Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union

Year 2021, Volume 54, Issue 1, 313 - 335, 01.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.30964/auebfd.687444

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to make a comparative analyse of goals, structure, and legal liability in adult education systems in England, Denmark, and Turkey. Since these countries are member, ex-member, or candidate countries of the European Union, the Union’s lifelong learning policies were also taken into consideration while doing the comparison. The method of the research is comparative adult education. This study does not include human subjects, thus ethics committee approval decision is not needed. The goals, structure, and legal liability of England, Denmark, and Turkey’s adult education systems were compared. The findings showed that these three countries’ adult education targets are parallel with the EU’s lifelong learning goals. According to the analyses of the adult education structure, it has been noted that the local governments are active in England. In Denmark, three different stakeholders can be seen and they reach a wider group. On the other hand, Turkey’s adult education is a public service. Whereas local authorities are responsible for legal liability in England, state and associations are responsible for it in Denmark. The central government is responsible for legal liability in Turkey. It was showed that the adult education provision in Denmark is much more withstanding than the one in Turkey and England.

References

  • Bağcı, Ş. E. (2011). Avrupa Birliğine üyelik sürecinde Türkiye'de yaşam boyu eğitim politikaları. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 30(2), 139-173. https://www.pegem.net/dosyalar/dokuman/137995-2013101015553-makale-7.pdf. adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Business, Innovation and Skills. (2010). Skills for sustainable growth. 02.12.2015 tarihinde https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/skills-for-sustainable-growth-strategy-document adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Business, Innovation and Skills. (2013). Rigour and responsiveness in skills. 02.12.2015 tarihinde https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/rigour-and-responsiveness-in-skills adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Danish Ministry of Education. (2007). Denmark’s strategy for lifelong learning-Education and lifelong skills upgrading for all. Report to the European Commission. Erişim adresi: https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/en/2007/denmarks-strategy-lifelong-learning-education-and-lifelong-skills-upgrading-all-report-european
  • Danish Ministry of Education. (2016a). Nonformal adult education. http://eng.uvm.dk/Education/Adult-education-and-continuing-training/Nonformal-adulteducation adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Danish Ministry of Education. (2016b). The general adult education programme. http://eng.uvm.dk/Education/Adult-education-and-continuing-training/The-General-Adult-Education-Programme adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Danish Ministry of Education. (2016c). Adult education and continuing training. http://eng.uvm.dk/Education/Adult-education-and-continuing-training adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Demirel, M. ve Yağcı, E. (2012). Üniversite öğrencilerinin yaşam boyu öğrenmeye ilişkin algıları. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, Özel Sayı. 1, 100-111.
  • EAEAC Eurydice. (2016a). Denmark. adult education and training/main providers. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Denmark:Main_Providers adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • EAEAC Eurydice. (2016b). Denmark. Adult Education and Training/Main Types of Provision. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Denmark:Main_Types_of_Provision adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • European Commission. (1993). White paper on growth, competitiveness and employment. The challenges and the ways forward forthe 21st century. Erişim adresi: file:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/gp_eudor_PDFA1B_CM8294529ENC_001.pdf.en.pdf
  • European Commission. (1995). White paper on education and training. Teaching and learning. Towards the learning society. Erişim adresi: https://europa.eu/documents/comm/white_papers/pdf/com95_590_en.pdf
  • European Commission. (2000a). Lisbon European Council 23 and 24 March 2000 Presidency Conclusions. Erişim adresi: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/summits/lis1_en.htm
  • European Commission. (2000b). A Memorandum on lifelong learning. Brussels: European Commission, SEC (2000) 1832. Erişim adresi: https://arhiv.acs.si/dokumenti/Memorandum_on_Lifelong_Learning.pdf
  • European Commission. (2001). Making a european area of lifelong learning a reality. Brussels: European Commission, SEC (21.11.2001) 678. Erişim adresi: http://viaa.gov.lv/files/free/48/748/pol_10_com_en.pdf
  • European Commission. (2009). Education and Training 2020. http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/strategic-framework/index_en.htm adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • European Council. (2010). Consolidated versions of the treaty on european union and the treaty on the functioning of the european union. (2010, 03 30). Official Journal C83. Erişim adresi: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:12012E/TXT:EN:PDF
  • European Council. (2015). 2015 Joint Report of the Council and the Commission on the implementation of the strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020). (2015, 12 15). Official Journal C 417. Erişim adresi: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52015XG1215(01)&from=EN
  • EUROSTAT. (2016). Lifelong learning statistics. 13.11.2015 tarihinde http://appsso.EUROSTAT.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=trng_lfs_01&lang=en adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Field, J. (2010). Lifelong learning. 03.18.2016 tarihinde http://booksite.elsevier.com/brochures/educ/PDF/Lifelong_Learning.pdf adresinden edilmiştir.
  • Green, A. (2005, Eylül). Models of lifelong learning and the knowledge economy/society in Europe: what regional patterns are emerging? European Conference on Educational Research Konfereansında sunulan sözlü bildiri. Erişim adresi: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00003902.htm
  • Kogan, M. (2000). Lifelong learning in the UK. European Journal of Education, 35(3), 343-359. Larson, A., and Milana, M. (2011). Professionalization of adult educators in Denmark. Denmark International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 3(2). 75-89.
  • Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Teşkilat ve Görevleri Hakkında Kanun. No.3797. (1992). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 21226, 30 Nisan 1992.
  • MEB Yaygın Eğitim Kurumları Yönetmeliği (2010). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 27587, 21 Mayıs 2010.
  • MEB. (2009). Türkiye hayat boyu öğrenme strateji belgesi. http://mesbil.meb.gov.tr/genel/hayat%20boyu%20öğrenme%20dokuman.pdf adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • MEB. Türkiye hayat boyu öğrenme strateji belgesi ve eylem planı (2014-2018). http://hbogm.meb.gov.tr/str/str.html adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Mesleki Eğitim Kanunu. No.3308. (1986). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 19139.
  • Mesleki ve Teknik Eğitim Yönetmeliği. (2008). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 27003, 20 Eylül 2008.
  • Mesleki Yeterlilik Kurumu Kanunu. No.5544. (2006). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 26312, 7 Ekim 2006.
  • Milana, M. (2012). Political globalization and the shift from adult education to lifelong learning. European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults, 3(2), 103-117. doi: 10.3384/rela.2000-7426.rela0070
  • Milli Eğitim Temel Kanunu. No. 1739. (1973). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 14574, 24 Haziran 1973.
  • Nicholls, G. (2000). Professional development, teaching, and lifelong learning: the implications for higher education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 19(4), 370-377. doi: 10.1080/02601370050110419
  • Philips, D., and Ochs, K. (2004). Researching policy borrowing: some methodological challenges in comparative education. British Educational Research Journal, 30(6), 773-784. doi: 10.1080/0141192042000279495
  • Prokou, E. (2004). Globalisation, knowledge society and lifelong learning. Adult Education: A Journal of the Hellenic Adult Education Association, 2, 4-10.
  • Rizvi, F., and Lingard, B. (2000). Globalization and education: Complexities and contingencies. Educational Theory, 50(4), 419-426. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-5446.2000.00419.x
  • Sayılan, F. (2001). Küreselleşme ve yaşam boyu eğitim. Ankara: Mülkiyeliler Birliği Yayınları. No:25.
  • Smith, A. (2002). The EU Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. C. Medel-Anonuevo (Ed.), Integrating lifelong learning perspectives içinde (ss.47-52). UNESCO Institute for Education.
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2014). TÜİK İstatistiklerle Türkiye. Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi Sonuçları. Ankara: Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu.
  • United Nations Development Programme (2015). Human Development Report. 2015. http://hdr.undp.org/en/data adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1972). Learning to be. Paris: UNESCO.
  • Yıldız, A. (2012). Transformation of adult education in turkey: form public eductaion to life-long learning. Kemal İnal and Güliz Akkaymak (Ed.), In neoliberal transformation of eductaion in Turkey. (ss. 245-257). Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9781137097811_19

Avrupa Birliği’nin Yaşam Boyu Öğrenme Politikaları Bağlamında İngiltere, Danimarka ve Türkiye’nin Yetişkin Eğitimi Sistemlerinin Karşılaştırmalı Analizi

Year 2021, Volume 54, Issue 1, 313 - 335, 01.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.30964/auebfd.687444

Abstract

Bu araştırmanın amacı AB’ye üye olan, eskiyen üye olan veya aday ülke olan İngiltere, Danimarka ve Türkiye’de yetişkin eğitiminin hedefleri, yapısı ve yasal sorumluluğunu karşılaştırarak analiz etmektir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmanın yöntemi karşılaştırmalı yetişkin eğitimidir. Bu araştırma insanlar üzerinde yapılmadığı için etik kurul onayı gerekmemektedir. Araştırmada, söz konusu ülkelerin yetişkin eğitimi sistemlerinin hedefleri, yapısı ve yasal sorumluluğu karşılaştırılmıştır. Bu araştırmada elde edilen bulgulardan ilki, AB’nin yaşam boyu öğrenme hedeflerinin her üç ülkenin yetişkin eğitimi hedeflerini etkilemiş olduğudur. Söz konusu ülkelerdeki yetişkin eğitimi sistemi yapı boyutunda incelendiğinde, yerel yönetimlerin İngiltere’de etkin olduğu, Danimarka’da üç farklı paydaşın yer aldığı, Türkiye’de ise kamunun yetişkin eğitiminde ağırlıklı rol aldığı görülmüştür. İngiltere’de yerel yönetimler yasal sorumluluğu üstlenirken Danimarka’da kamu ve birliklerin bu rolü üstlendiği belirlenmiştir. Merkeziyetçi bir yapıya sahip Türkiye’de ise yasal sorumluluk merkezdedir. Yetişkin eğitimi hizmetlerini en başarılı bir şekilde yürüten ülkenin Danimarka olduğu görülmüştür.

References

  • Bağcı, Ş. E. (2011). Avrupa Birliğine üyelik sürecinde Türkiye'de yaşam boyu eğitim politikaları. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 30(2), 139-173. https://www.pegem.net/dosyalar/dokuman/137995-2013101015553-makale-7.pdf. adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Business, Innovation and Skills. (2010). Skills for sustainable growth. 02.12.2015 tarihinde https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/skills-for-sustainable-growth-strategy-document adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Business, Innovation and Skills. (2013). Rigour and responsiveness in skills. 02.12.2015 tarihinde https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/rigour-and-responsiveness-in-skills adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Danish Ministry of Education. (2007). Denmark’s strategy for lifelong learning-Education and lifelong skills upgrading for all. Report to the European Commission. Erişim adresi: https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/en/2007/denmarks-strategy-lifelong-learning-education-and-lifelong-skills-upgrading-all-report-european
  • Danish Ministry of Education. (2016a). Nonformal adult education. http://eng.uvm.dk/Education/Adult-education-and-continuing-training/Nonformal-adulteducation adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Danish Ministry of Education. (2016b). The general adult education programme. http://eng.uvm.dk/Education/Adult-education-and-continuing-training/The-General-Adult-Education-Programme adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Danish Ministry of Education. (2016c). Adult education and continuing training. http://eng.uvm.dk/Education/Adult-education-and-continuing-training adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Demirel, M. ve Yağcı, E. (2012). Üniversite öğrencilerinin yaşam boyu öğrenmeye ilişkin algıları. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, Özel Sayı. 1, 100-111.
  • EAEAC Eurydice. (2016a). Denmark. adult education and training/main providers. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Denmark:Main_Providers adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • EAEAC Eurydice. (2016b). Denmark. Adult Education and Training/Main Types of Provision. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Denmark:Main_Types_of_Provision adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • European Commission. (1993). White paper on growth, competitiveness and employment. The challenges and the ways forward forthe 21st century. Erişim adresi: file:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/gp_eudor_PDFA1B_CM8294529ENC_001.pdf.en.pdf
  • European Commission. (1995). White paper on education and training. Teaching and learning. Towards the learning society. Erişim adresi: https://europa.eu/documents/comm/white_papers/pdf/com95_590_en.pdf
  • European Commission. (2000a). Lisbon European Council 23 and 24 March 2000 Presidency Conclusions. Erişim adresi: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/summits/lis1_en.htm
  • European Commission. (2000b). A Memorandum on lifelong learning. Brussels: European Commission, SEC (2000) 1832. Erişim adresi: https://arhiv.acs.si/dokumenti/Memorandum_on_Lifelong_Learning.pdf
  • European Commission. (2001). Making a european area of lifelong learning a reality. Brussels: European Commission, SEC (21.11.2001) 678. Erişim adresi: http://viaa.gov.lv/files/free/48/748/pol_10_com_en.pdf
  • European Commission. (2009). Education and Training 2020. http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/strategic-framework/index_en.htm adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • European Council. (2010). Consolidated versions of the treaty on european union and the treaty on the functioning of the european union. (2010, 03 30). Official Journal C83. Erişim adresi: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:12012E/TXT:EN:PDF
  • European Council. (2015). 2015 Joint Report of the Council and the Commission on the implementation of the strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020). (2015, 12 15). Official Journal C 417. Erişim adresi: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52015XG1215(01)&from=EN
  • EUROSTAT. (2016). Lifelong learning statistics. 13.11.2015 tarihinde http://appsso.EUROSTAT.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=trng_lfs_01&lang=en adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Field, J. (2010). Lifelong learning. 03.18.2016 tarihinde http://booksite.elsevier.com/brochures/educ/PDF/Lifelong_Learning.pdf adresinden edilmiştir.
  • Green, A. (2005, Eylül). Models of lifelong learning and the knowledge economy/society in Europe: what regional patterns are emerging? European Conference on Educational Research Konfereansında sunulan sözlü bildiri. Erişim adresi: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00003902.htm
  • Kogan, M. (2000). Lifelong learning in the UK. European Journal of Education, 35(3), 343-359. Larson, A., and Milana, M. (2011). Professionalization of adult educators in Denmark. Denmark International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 3(2). 75-89.
  • Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Teşkilat ve Görevleri Hakkında Kanun. No.3797. (1992). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 21226, 30 Nisan 1992.
  • MEB Yaygın Eğitim Kurumları Yönetmeliği (2010). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 27587, 21 Mayıs 2010.
  • MEB. (2009). Türkiye hayat boyu öğrenme strateji belgesi. http://mesbil.meb.gov.tr/genel/hayat%20boyu%20öğrenme%20dokuman.pdf adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • MEB. Türkiye hayat boyu öğrenme strateji belgesi ve eylem planı (2014-2018). http://hbogm.meb.gov.tr/str/str.html adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Mesleki Eğitim Kanunu. No.3308. (1986). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 19139.
  • Mesleki ve Teknik Eğitim Yönetmeliği. (2008). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 27003, 20 Eylül 2008.
  • Mesleki Yeterlilik Kurumu Kanunu. No.5544. (2006). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 26312, 7 Ekim 2006.
  • Milana, M. (2012). Political globalization and the shift from adult education to lifelong learning. European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults, 3(2), 103-117. doi: 10.3384/rela.2000-7426.rela0070
  • Milli Eğitim Temel Kanunu. No. 1739. (1973). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 14574, 24 Haziran 1973.
  • Nicholls, G. (2000). Professional development, teaching, and lifelong learning: the implications for higher education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 19(4), 370-377. doi: 10.1080/02601370050110419
  • Philips, D., and Ochs, K. (2004). Researching policy borrowing: some methodological challenges in comparative education. British Educational Research Journal, 30(6), 773-784. doi: 10.1080/0141192042000279495
  • Prokou, E. (2004). Globalisation, knowledge society and lifelong learning. Adult Education: A Journal of the Hellenic Adult Education Association, 2, 4-10.
  • Rizvi, F., and Lingard, B. (2000). Globalization and education: Complexities and contingencies. Educational Theory, 50(4), 419-426. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-5446.2000.00419.x
  • Sayılan, F. (2001). Küreselleşme ve yaşam boyu eğitim. Ankara: Mülkiyeliler Birliği Yayınları. No:25.
  • Smith, A. (2002). The EU Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. C. Medel-Anonuevo (Ed.), Integrating lifelong learning perspectives içinde (ss.47-52). UNESCO Institute for Education.
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2014). TÜİK İstatistiklerle Türkiye. Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi Sonuçları. Ankara: Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu.
  • United Nations Development Programme (2015). Human Development Report. 2015. http://hdr.undp.org/en/data adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1972). Learning to be. Paris: UNESCO.
  • Yıldız, A. (2012). Transformation of adult education in turkey: form public eductaion to life-long learning. Kemal İnal and Güliz Akkaymak (Ed.), In neoliberal transformation of eductaion in Turkey. (ss. 245-257). Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9781137097811_19

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Derleme Makaleler
Authors

Rabia VEZNE> (Primary Author)
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-0137-3613
Türkiye


Ahmet YILDIZ>
Ankara Üniversitesi
0000-0002-0158-6168
Türkiye

Publication Date April 1, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 54, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { auebfd687444, journal = {Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES)}, issn = {1301-3718}, eissn = {2458-8342}, address = {auebfd@gmail.com}, publisher = {Ankara University}, year = {2021}, volume = {54}, number = {1}, pages = {313 - 335}, doi = {10.30964/auebfd.687444}, title = {Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union}, key = {cite}, author = {Vezne, Rabia and Yıldız, Ahmet} }
APA Vezne, R. & Yıldız, A. (2021). Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union . Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES) , 54 (1) , 313-335 . DOI: 10.30964/auebfd.687444
MLA Vezne, R. , Yıldız, A. "Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union" . Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES) 54 (2021 ): 313-335 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/auebfd/issue/58045/687444>
Chicago Vezne, R. , Yıldız, A. "Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union". Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES) 54 (2021 ): 313-335
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union AU - Rabia Vezne , Ahmet Yıldız Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30964/auebfd.687444 DO - 10.30964/auebfd.687444 T2 - Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES) JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 313 EP - 335 VL - 54 IS - 1 SN - 1301-3718-2458-8342 M3 - doi: 10.30964/auebfd.687444 UR - https://doi.org/10.30964/auebfd.687444 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES) Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union %A Rabia Vezne , Ahmet Yıldız %T Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union %D 2021 %J Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES) %P 1301-3718-2458-8342 %V 54 %N 1 %R doi: 10.30964/auebfd.687444 %U 10.30964/auebfd.687444
ISNAD Vezne, Rabia , Yıldız, Ahmet . "Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union". Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES) 54 / 1 (April 2021): 313-335 . https://doi.org/10.30964/auebfd.687444
AMA Vezne R. , Yıldız A. Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union. JFES. 2021; 54(1): 313-335.
Vancouver Vezne R. , Yıldız A. Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES). 2021; 54(1): 313-335.
IEEE R. Vezne and A. Yıldız , "Comparative Analyses of Adult Education Systems of England, Denmark, and Turkey in the Context of The Lifelong Learning Policies of the European Union", Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES), vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 313-335, Apr. 2021, doi:10.30964/auebfd.687444

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