Year 2014, Volume 56 , Issue 56, Pages 1 - 17 2014-03-01

Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty
Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty

Sadia SHAUKAT [1] , Aishah SIDDIQUAH [2] , Anthony William PELL [3]


Problem statement: Gender disparity is a worldwide phenomenon. This disparity is not only with respect to opportunities and resources but also in rewards, and exists in all regions and classes. Gender disparity exists in the field of education as well. Females experience overt and subtle gender discrimination to some extent nearly at every stage of their career. Males represent the majority of the faculty of higher education institutes across the globe. Managerial positions are usually held by males, who not only have more decision making power but also have more opportunities of social networking. Women have to achieve a successful career at the cost of their family life. Purpose of the study: The present study aimed at exploring the current situation regarding gender discrimination in the higher education institutes of Pakistan. Method: Gender equality has been investigated by a questionnaire survey of 180 faculty members on the five aspects of the working environment, namely Decision Making, Professional Development, Utilization of Resources, Academic Affairs and Job Satisfaction. Results and findings: Two-way analysis of variance shows that post-level is the strongest significant contributor to the differences in the five scores from the equality questionnaire. Gender contributes only in Decision Making, where females tend to be excluded. Conclusions and recommendation: There are significant differences in perceptions of gender equality that are attributable to the respondent's post-level. Those at the higher levels see less inequality. Those at lower levels, especially lecturers, see more. With a high proportion of females at the lecturer level, this can appear as a straight forward gender polarization of views, as happens with Professional Development, Academic Affairs and Job Satisfaction. The fact that the concurrent introduction of post-level into the analyses removes the significance of the gender variable points to the impact of the relatively few promoted females, who do not see inequalities in Professional Development and Academic Affairs. These promoted females will have high Job Satisfaction scores because of their achievement in acquiring their positions. This suggests real movement in Pakistani higher education in the direction intended by the adoption of national equality policies.
Problem statement: Gender disparity is a worldwide phenomenon. This disparity is not only with respect to opportunities and resources but also in rewards, and exists in all regions and classes. Gender disparity exists in the field of education as well. Females experience overt and subtle gender discrimination to some extent nearly at every stage of their career. Males represent the majority of the faculty of higher education institutes across the globe. Managerial positions are usually held by males, who not only have more decision making power but also have more opportunities of social networking. Women have to achieve a successful career at the cost of their family life. Purpose of the study: The present study aimed at exploring the current situation regarding gender discrimination in the higher education institutes of Pakistan. Method: Gender equality has been investigated by a questionnaire survey of 180 faculty members on the five aspects of the working environment, namely Decision Making, Professional Development, Utilization of Resources, Academic Affairs and Job Satisfaction. Results and findings: Two-way analysis of variance shows that post-level is the strongest significant contributor to the differences in the five scores from the equality questionnaire. Gender contributes only in Decision Making, where females tend to be excluded. Conclusions and recommendation: There are significant differences in perceptions of gender equality that are attributable to the respondent's post-level. Those at the higher levels see less inequality. Those at lower levels, especially lecturers, see more. With a high proportion of females at the lecturer level, this can appear as a straight forward gender polarization of views, as happens with Professional Development, Academic Affairs and Job Satisfaction. The fact that the concurrent introduction of post-level into the analyses removes the significance of the gender variable points to the impact of the relatively few promoted females, who do not see inequalities in Professional Development and Academic Affairs. These promoted females will have high Job Satisfaction scores because of their achievement in acquiring their positions. This suggests real movement in Pakistani higher education in the direction intended by the adoption of national equality policies.
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Primary Language tr
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Sadia SHAUKAT

Author: Aishah SIDDIQUAH

Author: Anthony William PELL

Dates

Publication Date : March 1, 2014

Bibtex @ { ejer70211, journal = {Eurasian Journal of Educational Research}, issn = {1302-597X}, eissn = {2528-8911}, address = {}, publisher = {Anı Yayıncılık Eğitim ve Danışmanlık Ltd. Şti.}, year = {2014}, volume = {56}, pages = {1 - 17}, doi = {10.14689/ejer.2014.56.2}, title = {Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty}, key = {cite}, author = {Shaukat, Sadia and Sıddıquah, Aishah and Pell, Anthony William} }
APA Shaukat, S , Sıddıquah, A , Pell, A . (2014). Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty . Eurasian Journal of Educational Research , 56 (56) , 1-17 . DOI: 10.14689/ejer.2014.56.2
MLA Shaukat, S , Sıddıquah, A , Pell, A . "Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty" . Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 56 (2014 ): 1-17 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejer/issue/5161/70211>
Chicago Shaukat, S , Sıddıquah, A , Pell, A . "Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty". Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 56 (2014 ): 1-17
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty AU - Sadia Shaukat , Aishah Sıddıquah , Anthony William Pell Y1 - 2014 PY - 2014 N1 - doi: 10.14689/ejer.2014.56.2 DO - 10.14689/ejer.2014.56.2 T2 - Eurasian Journal of Educational Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 17 VL - 56 IS - 56 SN - 1302-597X-2528-8911 M3 - doi: 10.14689/ejer.2014.56.2 UR - https://doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2014.56.2 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty %A Sadia Shaukat , Aishah Sıddıquah , Anthony William Pell %T Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty %D 2014 %J Eurasian Journal of Educational Research %P 1302-597X-2528-8911 %V 56 %N 56 %R doi: 10.14689/ejer.2014.56.2 %U 10.14689/ejer.2014.56.2
ISNAD Shaukat, Sadia , Sıddıquah, Aishah , Pell, Anthony William . "Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty". Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 56 / 56 (March 2014): 1-17 . https://doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2014.56.2
AMA Shaukat S , Sıddıquah A , Pell A . Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 56(56): 1-17.
Vancouver Shaukat S , Sıddıquah A , Pell A . Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 56(56): 1-17.
IEEE S. Shaukat , A. Sıddıquah and A. Pell , "Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty", Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, vol. 56, no. 56, pp. 1-17, Mar. 2014, doi:10.14689/ejer.2014.56.2