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ESP Course Design and Employability: A Small-Scale Exploratory Study at Tourism Faculties

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, 83 - 102, 30.06.2021

Abstract

English for Specific Purposes is designed to meet students’ career-related needs. This study examined the ESP courses across tourism faculties by focusing on Hotel Management, Travel Management, and Tour Guidance Programmes to see the relationship between employment needs across these programmes and English for Specific Purposes classes. Data was collected through qualitative surveys and syllabi. Qualitative surveys were conducted with undergraduates and graduates of the mentioned programmes. Also, course syllabi across 26 programmes were analysed through content analysis. Findings were evaluated according to employability framework described in the literature. The evaluation indicated a mismatch between ESP course content and the career-related needs of undergraduates and graduates across tourism faculties. Using the findings, a dynamic revision approach towards ESP course contents across tourism faculties is recommended.

References

  • Adeyinka-Ojo, S. (2018). A strategic framework for analysing employability skills deficits in rural hospitality and tourism destinations. Tourism Management Perspectives, 27, pp.47-54.
  • Ahmad-Tajuddin, A. J., and Hamid, S. A. (2017). English for Workplace: What Do We Need to Teach?. The Social Sciences, 12(7), pp. 1257-1263.
  • Baştürkmen, H., and Bocanegra-Valle, A. (2018). Materials design processes, beliefs and practices of experienced ESP teachers in university settings in Spain. In Y. Kırkgöz, & K. Dikilitaş (Eds.), Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 13-27). Springer, Cham.
  • Baxter, S., and Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), pp.544- 559.
  • Biernacki, P., and Waldorf, D. (1981). Snowball Sampling: Problems and Techniques of Chain Referral Sampling. Sociological Methods & Research, 10(2), pp. 141–163. https://doi.org/10.1177/004912418101000205
  • Braun, V., and Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), pp. 77-101.
  • Bowen, J. T., and Sparks, B. A. (1998). Hospitality marketing research: A content analysis and implications for future research. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 17(2), pp. 125-144.
  • Canaran, Ö., Bayram, İ., and Altuğ, Ç. (2020). English for Specific Purposes (ESP) program evaluation: Perspectives from three faculties. Başkent University Journal of Education, 7(1), pp. 20-28. Retrieved from: http://buje.baskent.edu.tr/index.php/buje/article/view/211
  • Chaim, N. (2008). Sampling Knowledge: The Hermeneutics of Snowball Sampling in Qualitative Research, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 11(4), pp. 327-344. doi: 10.1080/13645570701401305
  • Charmaz, K. (2000). Grounded theory: Objectivist and constructivist methods. Handbook of qualitative research, 2, pp. 509-535.
  • Cheng, L.; Im, G.; Doe, C. and Douglas, S. R. (2020). Identifying English Language Use and Communication Challenges Facing “Entry-Level” Workplace Immigrants in Canada. Journal of International Migration & Integration. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-020-00779-w.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2007). Five qualitative approaches to inquiry. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, 2, 53-80.
  • Çelik, S., Stavicka, A., and Odina, I. (2018). Are we really teaching English for specific purposes, or basic English skills? The cases of Turkey and Latvia. In Y. Kırkgöz, & K. Dikilitaş (Eds.), Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 243-264). Springer, Cham.
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford, New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.
  • Er, M., and Kırkgöz, Y. (2018). Introducing innovation into an ESP Program: Aviation English for cadets. In Y. Kırkgöz, & K. Dikilitaş (Eds.), Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 179-199). Springer, Cham.
  • Forrest, J. R. (2018). A Firm-Specific Analysis of Southern US English and Workplace Processes.(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). North Caroline State University, USA.
  • Ghaljaie, F., Naderifar, M., and Goli, H. (2017). Snowball sampling: A purposeful method of sampling in qualitative research. Strides in Development of Medical Education, 14(3).
  • Hiranburana, K. (2017). Use of English in the Thai workplace. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38(1), pp.31-38.
  • Leong, A. M. W., and Li, J. X. (2012). A study on English teaching improvement based on stakeholders' needs and wants: The case of the Faculty of International Tourism of the Macau University of Science and Technology (MUST). Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 11(1), pp. 67-78.
  • Lo, Yi-Hsuan Gloria, Yu-Lin Chen, Chia-Yi Chu, Wan-Erh Lin, and Chencong Qi. (2019). Does the Preparation Match the Expectation? A Comparative Study of the Evaluation Criteria for English Job Interviews between Academia and the Workplace. Taiwan International ESP Journal, 10(2), pp. 39-67.
  • McIntosh, M. J., and Morse, J. M. (2015). Situating and constructing diversity in semi-structured interviews. Global qualitative nursing research, 2.
  • Naderifar, M., Goli, H., and Ghaljaie, F. (2017). Snowball sampling: A purposeful method of sampling in qualitative research. Strides in Development of Medical Education, 14(3), pp. 1-6.
  • Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. USA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Norton, J. (2018). Lesson study in higher education: A collaborative vehicle for professional learning and practice development of teachers of English for specific purposes. In Y. Kırkgöz, & K. Dikilitaş (Eds.), Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 95-109). Springer, Cham.
  • Noy, C. (2008). Sampling knowledge: The hermeneutics of snowball sampling in qualitative research. International Journal of social research methodology, 11(4), pp. 327-344.
  • Özer, S. (2018). A Qualitative Study to Determine Expectations of Students Studying at a Faculty of Tourism from Vocational English Course. International Journal of Progressive Education, 14(4), pp. 15-25.
  • Qureshi, H. A. (2018). Theoretical sampling in qualitative research: A multi-layered nested sampling scheme. International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 9(6). doi: 10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/08/576.
  • Richards, K. (2011). Case study. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (Vol.2, pp. 207–221). Routledge.
  • Sincer, G. H. (2017). Inquiring what to teach and how to teach in EVP classes: A general overview on English teaching for vocational purposes in Turkey. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 9(2), pp. 39-48. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1207255.pdf
  • Singh, G. K. G., and Singh, S. K. G. (2008). Malaysian graduates' employability skills. Unitar e-Journal, 4(1), pp. 14–44.
  • Topler, J. P. (2014). Using authentic materials for students of tourism in Slovenia: English language acquisition for students of the Faculty of Tourism of the University of Maribor. ExELL, 2(2), 104-115.
  • Uysal, D., and Seçilmiş, C. (2019). English Communication Needs of Tourism Faculty Undergraduates: A Comparative Stakeholder Analysis. Journal of Tourism Leisure and Hospitality, 1(2), pp. 68-75.
  • Uysal, D. (2019). Evaluation of the learning outcomes statements of the English courses at tourism faculties in Turkey through their web-sites. Journal of Gastronomy Hospitality and Travel, 2(2), pp. 171-181.
  • Williams, S., Dodd, L. J., Steele, C., & Randall, R. (2015). A systematic review of current understandings of employability. Journal of Education and Work, 29(8), pp. 877–901. doi:10.1080/13639080.2015.1102210

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, 83 - 102, 30.06.2021

Abstract

References

  • Adeyinka-Ojo, S. (2018). A strategic framework for analysing employability skills deficits in rural hospitality and tourism destinations. Tourism Management Perspectives, 27, pp.47-54.
  • Ahmad-Tajuddin, A. J., and Hamid, S. A. (2017). English for Workplace: What Do We Need to Teach?. The Social Sciences, 12(7), pp. 1257-1263.
  • Baştürkmen, H., and Bocanegra-Valle, A. (2018). Materials design processes, beliefs and practices of experienced ESP teachers in university settings in Spain. In Y. Kırkgöz, & K. Dikilitaş (Eds.), Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 13-27). Springer, Cham.
  • Baxter, S., and Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), pp.544- 559.
  • Biernacki, P., and Waldorf, D. (1981). Snowball Sampling: Problems and Techniques of Chain Referral Sampling. Sociological Methods & Research, 10(2), pp. 141–163. https://doi.org/10.1177/004912418101000205
  • Braun, V., and Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), pp. 77-101.
  • Bowen, J. T., and Sparks, B. A. (1998). Hospitality marketing research: A content analysis and implications for future research. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 17(2), pp. 125-144.
  • Canaran, Ö., Bayram, İ., and Altuğ, Ç. (2020). English for Specific Purposes (ESP) program evaluation: Perspectives from three faculties. Başkent University Journal of Education, 7(1), pp. 20-28. Retrieved from: http://buje.baskent.edu.tr/index.php/buje/article/view/211
  • Chaim, N. (2008). Sampling Knowledge: The Hermeneutics of Snowball Sampling in Qualitative Research, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 11(4), pp. 327-344. doi: 10.1080/13645570701401305
  • Charmaz, K. (2000). Grounded theory: Objectivist and constructivist methods. Handbook of qualitative research, 2, pp. 509-535.
  • Cheng, L.; Im, G.; Doe, C. and Douglas, S. R. (2020). Identifying English Language Use and Communication Challenges Facing “Entry-Level” Workplace Immigrants in Canada. Journal of International Migration & Integration. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-020-00779-w.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2007). Five qualitative approaches to inquiry. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, 2, 53-80.
  • Çelik, S., Stavicka, A., and Odina, I. (2018). Are we really teaching English for specific purposes, or basic English skills? The cases of Turkey and Latvia. In Y. Kırkgöz, & K. Dikilitaş (Eds.), Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 243-264). Springer, Cham.
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford, New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.
  • Er, M., and Kırkgöz, Y. (2018). Introducing innovation into an ESP Program: Aviation English for cadets. In Y. Kırkgöz, & K. Dikilitaş (Eds.), Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 179-199). Springer, Cham.
  • Forrest, J. R. (2018). A Firm-Specific Analysis of Southern US English and Workplace Processes.(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). North Caroline State University, USA.
  • Ghaljaie, F., Naderifar, M., and Goli, H. (2017). Snowball sampling: A purposeful method of sampling in qualitative research. Strides in Development of Medical Education, 14(3).
  • Hiranburana, K. (2017). Use of English in the Thai workplace. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38(1), pp.31-38.
  • Leong, A. M. W., and Li, J. X. (2012). A study on English teaching improvement based on stakeholders' needs and wants: The case of the Faculty of International Tourism of the Macau University of Science and Technology (MUST). Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 11(1), pp. 67-78.
  • Lo, Yi-Hsuan Gloria, Yu-Lin Chen, Chia-Yi Chu, Wan-Erh Lin, and Chencong Qi. (2019). Does the Preparation Match the Expectation? A Comparative Study of the Evaluation Criteria for English Job Interviews between Academia and the Workplace. Taiwan International ESP Journal, 10(2), pp. 39-67.
  • McIntosh, M. J., and Morse, J. M. (2015). Situating and constructing diversity in semi-structured interviews. Global qualitative nursing research, 2.
  • Naderifar, M., Goli, H., and Ghaljaie, F. (2017). Snowball sampling: A purposeful method of sampling in qualitative research. Strides in Development of Medical Education, 14(3), pp. 1-6.
  • Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. USA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Norton, J. (2018). Lesson study in higher education: A collaborative vehicle for professional learning and practice development of teachers of English for specific purposes. In Y. Kırkgöz, & K. Dikilitaş (Eds.), Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 95-109). Springer, Cham.
  • Noy, C. (2008). Sampling knowledge: The hermeneutics of snowball sampling in qualitative research. International Journal of social research methodology, 11(4), pp. 327-344.
  • Özer, S. (2018). A Qualitative Study to Determine Expectations of Students Studying at a Faculty of Tourism from Vocational English Course. International Journal of Progressive Education, 14(4), pp. 15-25.
  • Qureshi, H. A. (2018). Theoretical sampling in qualitative research: A multi-layered nested sampling scheme. International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 9(6). doi: 10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/08/576.
  • Richards, K. (2011). Case study. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (Vol.2, pp. 207–221). Routledge.
  • Sincer, G. H. (2017). Inquiring what to teach and how to teach in EVP classes: A general overview on English teaching for vocational purposes in Turkey. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 9(2), pp. 39-48. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1207255.pdf
  • Singh, G. K. G., and Singh, S. K. G. (2008). Malaysian graduates' employability skills. Unitar e-Journal, 4(1), pp. 14–44.
  • Topler, J. P. (2014). Using authentic materials for students of tourism in Slovenia: English language acquisition for students of the Faculty of Tourism of the University of Maribor. ExELL, 2(2), 104-115.
  • Uysal, D., and Seçilmiş, C. (2019). English Communication Needs of Tourism Faculty Undergraduates: A Comparative Stakeholder Analysis. Journal of Tourism Leisure and Hospitality, 1(2), pp. 68-75.
  • Uysal, D. (2019). Evaluation of the learning outcomes statements of the English courses at tourism faculties in Turkey through their web-sites. Journal of Gastronomy Hospitality and Travel, 2(2), pp. 171-181.
  • Williams, S., Dodd, L. J., Steele, C., & Randall, R. (2015). A systematic review of current understandings of employability. Journal of Education and Work, 29(8), pp. 877–901. doi:10.1080/13639080.2015.1102210

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education, Scientific Disciplines
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Züleyha ÜNLÜ (Primary Author)
TOKAT GAZİOSMANPAŞA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9119-7042
Türkiye


Henna QURESHİ
National University of Science and Technology
0000-0002-6219-6550
Pakistan

Publication Date June 30, 2021
Application Date April 24, 2021
Acceptance Date May 19, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1

Cite

APA Ünlü, Z. & Qureshi, H. (2021). ESP Course Design and Employability: A Small-Scale Exploratory Study at Tourism Faculties . ELT Research Journal , 10 (1) , 83-102 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/eltrj/issue/63041/927296