Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 12/31/21

Year: 2021

ELT Research Journal is an open-access electronic journal which is published in June and December.

The aim of the journal is to assist in the improvement of teaching-learning in the field of English Language Teaching related to the process of teacher training, teaching and learning in foreign language and to make a contribution to knowledge in this field by enabling the results of theoretical and practical research by specialists and instructors to be disseminated to interested parties.

Articles submitted to the journal should be about the process of teaching and/or learning English language and teacher-training and be based on original research. The journal stresses first and foremost educational aspects rather than pure sciences.

Special Themes to be included in future issues of the journal will be announced in advance.

All papers submitted to the journal must therefore conform to the requirements of the Style Guidelines for an appropriate blind review.
All papers submitted are first reviewed by the Editorial Board to check whether they are appropriate for the journal’s readership and in keeping with the editorial policy and aims of the journal. Following this first review, the paper is sent to at least two anonymous referees for blind review. The referees are assigned for review based on their expertise and care is taken to ensure institutional variety.

Once the Referees have accepted the article for publication, it then enters the publication process, after corrections if necessary. The author will be informed of the issue of the journal in which the article will be published. We regret that articles not accepted for publication cannot be returned. The author will be informed of the Referees' decision by e-mail.

ELT Research Journal is a peer-reviewed international journal devoted to the publication of articles and general issues relating to research in English Language Teaching as a foreign/second language around the world. The ELT Research Journal is a forum for constructive dialogue among researchers who seek to illuminate current and emerging areas of interest to the workers of the field. 

Manuscripts can adhere to the following themes; but they are not limited to: 

  • Applied Linguistics and Language Education
  • Approaches and Methods in English Education
  • Culture and Literature in English Education
  • Early English Education
  • English as an International Language
  • English for Academic Purposes
  • English for Specific Purposes
  • English Language Curriculum and Teaching Materials
  • Intercultural Communication
  • Language Learning and Acquisition
  • Language Policy
  • Language Testing and Evaluation
  • Life-long Language Learning
  • Distance Language Education
  • Multimedia and ICT in English Education
  • Teacher Training and Education
  • Translation Studies & Language Teaching


All articles are subject to independent anonymous peer review. Articles accepted for publication become the copyright of the journal, unless otherwise specifically agreed. All contributions should be original and should not be under consideration elsewhere. Authors should be aware that they are writing for an international audience and should use non-discriminatory language.

Papers to be published in ELT Research Journal must not have been published previously elsewhere. However, papers presented at a conference and not published in their entirety in the conference proceedings may be considered for publication providing that this is stated as a footnote under the title. A statement by the author is requested to this effect. All submissions will be checked to ensure originality by means of plagiarism detectors.

Submitted papers will be reviewed on the basis of the quality of their argument, the contemporary nature of their work, and the exemplary nature of their research for cross national contexts relating to teaching and learning of English as a foreign/second language.

To submit an article, authors must first register to the website. Articles are submitted through a five-step submission process. Please click on ‘start a new submission’ to submit your paper. An anonymous version of the paper (without the name(s) and affiliations of the author(s), without the acknowledgements) must be submitted. In the case of the author’s identity being clear from the text, the writer should refer to themselves as “AUTHOR” throughout the article. This is crucial for the blind review procedures.  ELT Research Journal Submission Form must be sent as a supplementary file. In submission form, a short biography, not exceeding 100 words, should be provided for each author. 


As a requirement of TR Dizin (TR) index, there are certain requirements with which authors have to comply in terms of research ethics and they have to provide some supplementary documents. In this regard, the following guidelines will be applied and required from the authors who are thinking of submitting their manuscripts to ELT-RJ.

1) It is obligatory to obtain an official document from Ethics Board/Committee Approval for your research if it requires to obtain a permission. If you believe that you are unable to obtain such a document, it is advisable that you not submit or withdraw your submission. Without the necessary official document from ethics board/committee approval for scientific research, it will not be possible to initiate the evaluation process of the articles. Even if your paper is accepted, it will not be published without presenting the official document.

2) In addition, authors should refer to the approval of the committee in their paper as well. They need to present such information (e.g., name of the board, date and the document number) in the methodology section of their paper. This information must also be placed either in the footnote of the first page or last page of the article.
3) Authors are also required to present a “Conflict of Interest Statement” at the end of their paper. The example below can be copied and pasted to their paper.
The Conflict of Interest Statement
In line with the statement of Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), I/we hereby declare that I/we had no conflicting interests regarding any parties of this study.

4) Authors need to state the amount of contribution each author has made to their paper at the end of their paper.
Contributions of authors
Author A: data collection, writing the methodology, …
Author B: Literature Review, Bibliography, …

5) Finally, the authors can also present an acknowledgment part in which they can also mention any funding they have received to carry out the study. This part is optional for the authors.
I would like to thank ….. for helping the quantitative analysis of data. This research study is funded by ………………………. (indicate the EU/TUBITAK Project Number and name here) without any occurrence of conflicting interest in the manner of author(s).


The content of the journal is available only in English.

Length of articles

The length of articles, excluding appendices and bibliography, should be between 3.000 and 8.000 words. Longer articles of academic importance and topical interest may, however, be considered.  


The title of the paper should be less than 13 words.


The abstract (between 120-200 words) should be followed immediately by the Keywords (maximum 6) used in the article.

Full Text

Since ELT Research Journal is published in English, manuscripts should be submitted only in English.

 Format of Electronic Articles

Articles sent to the journal in electronic form should be written in Times New Roman 12 point with double line spacing and justified on left. Margins should be arranged to 2.54cm on the right and left, and at the top and bottom. Page numbers, headers, and footers should not be used. Explanatory notes should be given as endnotes before the references, not as footnotes.

Tables and Figures

Any special characters used in the text should be sent together with the article. Tables, graphics, figures, and photographs included in the article must be inserted in the text. Tables need to be drawn according to APA guidelines. Any papers that do not conform to the policies outlined above in the style guidelines cannot be considered for publication in the Journal.

Referring to Other People’s Work in the Text

References within the text should be shown in brackets with the surname, date and/or page number [e.g. (Riding & Rayner, 1998, p. 1) or (Riding & Rayner, 1998)]. All references should be shown in the references section. Extracts of less than 40 words should be shown between the lines in “quotation marks” whereas longer ones should be indented 1,25 cm from the left and right margins without quotation marks as a block.


In their conclusion to their review of cognitive styles and learning strategies, Riding and Rayner (1998, p. 190) conclude that

Much of the work on style to date has been exploratory in nature – mapping the ground. The next stage is now required to systematically investigate the aspects, nature, role, relationship to other constructs and practical applications of style. This should significantly advance the understanding of individual differences and indicate the extent of the practical importance of style.



Please note that ELT Research Journal follows the format recommended in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA – 6th edition). Therefore, please ensure that your article adhere to APA requirements. However, if you are not familiar with the APA requirements, you can check out the following websites for information about APA guidelines

 Here are some suggestions for academic writing.

  • Use impersonal style throughout your paper and focus on the issue, not the writer by avoiding the use of the personal pronouns ‘I’ and ‘we’.
    • Use formal vocabulary.
    • Use objective language whenever possible as you are stating facts.
    • Use markers such as ‘firstly’, ‘secondly’, and ‘finally’.
    • Use linkers such as ‘as a result’ and ‘therefore’.
    • Use any verb that can replace a phrasal verb.
    • Back up your points with reasons and examples.
  • Avoid the use of contractions (use full forms instead: e.g. do not rather than don't).
  • Avoid the use of extreme adjectives and exclamations.
  • Avoid the use of colloquial English.
  • Ensure that the first usage of abbreviations both in the abstract and the article should be spelled out, e.g.: Short-Term Memory (STM); and do not switch between the abbreviated and written-out forms of a term throughout your paper.
  • Do not explain standard abbreviations such as ELT and EFL.
  • Avoid expressions with slashes such as ‘and/or’.

Please use the following items as a checklist before sending your manuscript.

  • Supply at least four keywords (up to six) to your article that are easy for indexing and search purposes.
  • Supply an abstract of no more than 200 words.
  • Double space your article.
  • Indent new paragraphs.
  • Use APA format for in-text citations.
  • Use APA format for the reference list.
  • Ensure that your in-text citations and reference list match exactly.
  • Order the entries in the reference list alphabetically by the surname of the first author.
  • Order the in-text citations of two or more works within the same parentheses alphabetically by the surname of the first author.
  • Ensure that the punctuation used in your article adhere to APA format.
  • Consider benefiting from language editing services.
  • If you have questions about ELT Research Journal format, please let us know.


Plagiarism Screening Policy

Manuscripts accepted for publication are subjected to plagiarism check through iThenticate plagiarism check software. Authors are expected to conform to the originality expectations of the journal. Once an act of over similarity/plagiarism is detected, authors are informed about the incident and their manuscript is rejected. Authors may be allowed to improve their manuscripts within acceptable limits of similarity.

Sample Reference List

Ajideh, P. (2003). Schema theory-based pre-reading tasks: A neglected essential in the ESL reading class. The Reading Matrix, 3(1), 1-14. Retrieved on November 10, 2007 from http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/ajideh/article.pdf

Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alexander, P. A., & Jetton, T. (2000). Learning from text: A multidimensional and developmental perspective. In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.),  Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3, pp. 285-310). Mattwah: Earlbaum.

Alptekin, C. (2008). Multicompetence revisited: from EFL to ELF. Plenary speech at the 5th ELT Research Conference – 23-25 May 2008, Bridging the gap between theory and practice in ELT. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey.

Carrell, P. L. (1983). Some issues in studying the role of schemata, or background knowledge, in second language comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 1, 81-92.

Carrell, P. L. (1987). Content and formal schemata in ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 461-481.

Carrell, P. L. (1988). Some causes of text-boundedness and schema interference in ESL reading. In P. L. Carrell, J. Devine, & D. E. Eskey (Eds.), Interactive approaches to second language reading (pp. 101-113). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Carrell, P. L., & Eisterhold, J. C. (1983). Schema theory and ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 553-573.

Chastain, K. (1988). Developing second-language skills (3rd ed.). San Diego: Harcourt Brave Jovanocich.

Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research and applications. Language Learning, 53, 3-32.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Ellis, N. C. (2001). Memory for language. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 33-68). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grabe, W. (1991). Current developments in second language reading research. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 375-406.

Grabe, W., & Stoller, L. F. (2002). Teaching and researching reading. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Longman dictionary of contemporary English. (1978). London: Longman.

McLaughlin, B. (1987). Theories of second language learning. London: Edward Arnold.

McLaughlin, B., Rossman, T., & McLeod, B. (1983). Second language learning: An information-processing perspective. Language Learning, 33, 135-158.

Oxford, R. (1989). Use of language learning strategies: A synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training. System 17, 235–247.

Oxford, R. L. (1990a). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publishers.

Oxford, R. (1990b). Styles, strategies, and aptitude: Connections for language learning. In T. S. Parry, & C. W. Stansfield (Eds.), Language aptitude reconsidered (pp. 67-125). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Oxford, R. L. (Ed.) (1996). Language learning strategies around the world: Cross- cultural perspectives. Honolulu: University of Hawaii.

Oxford, R. L. (2001). Language learning styles and strategies. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Oxford, R. (2003). Towards a more systematic model of L2 learner autonomy. In D. Palfreyman, & R. C. Smith (Eds.), Learner autonomy across cultures: Language education perspectives (pp. 75–92)Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke.

Oxford, R., & Crookall, D. (1989). Research on language learning strategies: Methods, findings, and instructional issues. Modern Language Journal, 73, 404-419.

Oxford, R. L., & Nyikos, M. (1989). Variables affecting choice of language learning strategies by university students. The Modern Language Journal, 73, 291–300.

Oxford, R. L., & Burry-Stock, J. A. (1995). Assessing the use of language learning strategies worldwide with the ESL/EFL version of the strategy inventory for language learning (SILL). System, 23(1), 1-23.

Oxford, R. L., & Ehrman, M. (1995). Adult’s language learning strategies in an intensive foreign language program in the United States. System, 23, 359–386.

Oxford, R., & Green, J. (1995). Comments on Virginia LoCastro's “Learning strategies and learning environments” -- Making sense of learning strategy assessment: Toward a higher standard of research accuracy. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 166- 171.

Zhaohua, S. (2004). Effects of previewing and providing background knowledge on EFL reading comprehension of American documentary narratives. TESL Reporter, 37(2), 50-63.

This journal permits and encourages authors to post items submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories both prior to and after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit, if applicable, its publication in this journal.UDEAD- International Association of Research in Foreign Language Education and Applied Lingusitics This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.The copyediting stage is intended to improve the flow, clarity, grammar, wording, and formatting of the article. It represents the last chance for the author to make any substantial changes to the text because the next stage is restricted to typos and formatting corrections. The file to be copyedited is in Word or .rtf format and therefore can easily be edited as a word processing document. The set of instructions displayed here proposes two approaches to copyediting. One is based on Microsoft Word's Track Changes feature and requires that the copy editor, editor, and author have access to this program. A second system, which is software independent, has been borrowed, with permission, from the Harvard Educational Review. The journal editor is in a position to modify these instructions, so suggestions can be made to improve the process for this journal.

Copyediting Systems
1. Microsoft Word's Track Changes Under Tools in the menu bar, the feature Track Changes enables the copy editor to make insertions (text appears in color) and deletions (text appears crossed out in color or in the margins as deleted). The copy editor can posit queries to both the author (Author Queries) and to the editor (Editor Queries) by inserting these queries in square brackets. The copyedited version is then uploaded, and the editor is notified. The editor then reviews the text and notifies the author. The editor and author should leave those changes with which they are satisfied. If further changes are necessary, the editor and author can make changes to the initial insertions or deletions, as well as make new insertions or deletions elsewhere in the text. Authors and editors should respond to each of the queries addressed to them, with responses placed inside the square brackets. After the text has been reviewed by editor and author, the copy editor will make a final pass over the text accepting the changes in preparation for the layout and galley stage. 2. Harvard Educational Review Instructions for Making Electronic Revisions to the Manuscript Please follow the following protocol for making electronic revisions to your manuscript: Responding to suggested changes. For each of the suggested changes that you accept, unbold the text. For each of the suggested changes that you do not accept, re-enter the original text and bold it. Making additions and deletions. Indicate additions by bolding the new text. Replace deleted sections with: [deleted text]. If you delete one or more sentence, please indicate with a note, e.g., [deleted 2 sentences]. Responding to Queries to the Author (QAs). Keep all QAs intact and bolded within the text. Do not delete them. To reply to a QA, add a comment after it. Comments should be delimited using: [Comment:] e.g., [Comment: Expanded discussion of methodology as you suggested]. Making comments. Use comments to explain organizational changes or major revisions e.g., [Comment: Moved the above paragraph from p. 5 to p. 7]. Note: When referring to page numbers, please use the page numbers from the printed copy of the manuscript that was sent to you. This is important since page numbers may change as a document is revised electronically.

An Illustration of an Electronic Revision

  1. Initial Copyedit: The journal copy editor will edit the text to improve flow, clarity, grammar, wording, and formatting, as well as including author queries as necessary. Once the initial edit is complete, the copy editor will upload the revised document through the journal Web site and notify the author that the edited manuscript is available for review.
  2. Author Copyedit: Before making dramatic departures from the structure and organization of the edited manuscript, authors must check in with the editors who are co-chairing the piece. Authors should accept/reject any changes made during the initial copyediting, as appropriate, and respond to all author queries. When finished with the revisions, authors should rename the file from AuthorNameQA.doc to AuthorNameQAR.doc (e.g., from LeeQA.doc to LeeQAR.doc) and upload the revised document through the journal Web site as directed.
  3. Final Copyedit: The journal copy editor will verify changes made by the author and incorporate the responses to the author queries to create a final manuscript. When finished, the copy editor will upload the final document through the journal Web site and alert the layout editor to complete formatting.

The publication of an article in the peer-reviewed journal ELT Research Journal is a reflection of the quality of the work of the authors and the institutions that support them. Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. It is therefore important to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in the act of publishing, including the authors, the peer-reviewers, the journal editors and the publisher. This publication ethics and malpractice statement is based on COPE’s Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.


Authorship of the paper Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Reporting standards
Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper, without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review and professional publication articles should also be accurate and objective, and editorial ‘opinion’ works should be clearly identified as such.

Data access and retention Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and plagiarism The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and, if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, that this has been appropriately cited or quoted. Data, text, figures or ideas originated by other researchers should be properly acknowledged. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.

Plagiarism Screening Policy Manuscripts accepted for publication are subjected to plagiarism check through iThenticate plagiarism check software. Authors are expected to conform to the originality expectations of the journal. Once an act of over similarity/plagiarism is detected, authors are informed about the incident and their manuscript is rejected. Authors may be allowed to improve their manuscripts within acceptable limits of similarity.

Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication The authors must guarantee: (1) that the article has not been published elsewhere; (2) it is not being considered for publication elsewhere; and (3) that it has been submitted with the full knowledge and approval of the institution or organization given as the affiliation of the authors. Submission of multi-authored manuscripts implies the consent of each of the authors. If data from the article is used, partially or entirely, in other research articles, or the data and results represent only part of a bigger research project described in multiple publications, these must be clearly presented to the editor.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed. Examples of potential conflicts of interest which should be disclosed include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed at the earliest stage possible.

Fundamental errors in published works When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper. If the editor or the publisher learns from a third party that a published work contains a significant error, it is the obligation of the author to promptly.


Publication decisions An editor is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The editor must evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor’s own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Editors should recuse themselves (should ask a co-editor, associate editor or other member of the editorial board instead to review and consider) from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

Response to ethical issues An editor should take reasonably responsive measures when ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper, in conjunction with the publisher.


Contribution to editorial decisions Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper. Any selected expert who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

Confidentiality Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

Standards of objectivity Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Acknowledgement of sources Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor’s attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Disclosure and conflict of interest Reviewers and editors are required to declare any and all potential conflicts of interest. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original, and full-length articles that are not under review elsewhere.


ELT-RJ provides immediate Open Access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. By stating open access to the articles, in line with the definition of Budapest Open Access Initiative, it is meant that it is absolutely free of charge to “read, download, copy, distribute, print, search the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose” providing the proper acknowledgment of the authors and the citation of the articles. Such access is associated with increased readership and free dissemination of knowledge. ELT-RJ uses open source software, Dergipark, developed by TUBITAK, to help make open access economically viable, as well as to improve the scholarly and public quality of research.

The accepted manuscripts are published online and they are free to access and download. No print copies are available for the time being. 


ELT-RJ uses a double-blind system for peer-review, with appropriate reviewers selected from an extensive panel of scholars. Both reviewers and authors’ identities remain anonymous. The review process takes 4-6 weeks

Each manuscript submitted to the journal will be peer-reviewed by at least two experts. Manuscripts are initially assessed by the Editors to ensure readiness and quality for review. This initial step may take 2-3 weeks. If deemed appropriate, manuscripts are then sent out for review, after which one of the following recommendations may be made:

  • accepted for publication,
  • accepted subject to minor revisions,
  • invited to resubmit following substantial revisions,
  • submit elsewhere or declined.


ELT-RJ does not charge authors for any submission, article-processing or publication fee. Thus, the publication is absolutely free.


ELT-RJ does not charge authors for any submission, article-processing or publication fee. Thus, the publication is absolutely free.