Volume: 7 Issue: 3, 12/26/23

Year: 2023


Original Articles

Case Reports


European Journal of Research in Dentistry, publishes original research articles, reviews, short communications, letters, case reports and other special features related to the field of denistry.

European Journal of Research in Dentistry is a multidisciplinary, academic publication of Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry. Topics covered include the management of general clinical and basics sciences fields related to dentistry. The journal aims to publish papers of general interest relating to advances in dental practice and contemporary treatments that will be of interest to dental students, dentists and specialists. European Journal of Research in Dentistry will publish original scientific research papers including short communications. It is also interested in publishing review articles and articles about clinical and practical applications which will be linked to new scientific research. All dentists, specialist, dentist inacademic field and dental students are target group of European Journal of Research in Dentistry.

 Creative Commons Lisansı

European Journal of Research in Dentistry's content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


General Information

European Journal of Research in Dentistry (ERD) is the Official Publication of the Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry. ERD accepts original and review articles, case reports, technical notes, short communications and letter to editor concerning topics of general dentistry.
ERD accepts articles in English and Turkish, and the Editorial Board encourages submission from international authors. Submitting a paper to ERD is free of charges. In addition, ERD does not charge for article processing.

Publication Frequency
ERD is published two times a year (June and December). Important: From 01.01.2023, the journal will be published three times a year (April, August, and December).

Publication Model
ERD is published using an open access publication model, meaning that all interested readers are able to freely access the journal online. To ensure an unbiased evaluation process, manuscripts will be reviewed by the editors (including editorial reviews for pre-writing and language) and at least two reviewers who are experts in their fields.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES which do NOT have Ethics Committee institution name, decision date and ID number will not be considered for publication in ERD.
The authors must mention obtaining signed informed consent for all CASE REPORTS and all included studies.
The authors must report using Ethics statement including ETHICS COMMITTEE Institute name, decision date and id number in the Materials and Methods section. For all included studies, authors must add the statement regarding obtaining signed consent from all participants.

For case reports or case photographs, it is the authors’ responsibility to protect the patients’ anonymity. If there is a chance that the identity of the patient may be revealed, authors are required to obtain publication consents from their patients or the parents/legal guardians of the patients. In animal studies the measures that were taken to prevent pain and suffering of the animals should be added to the manuscript.

Review Process
ERD uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author identities are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa, throughout the review process. Within this aim, the authors need to ensure that their manuscripts are prepared in a way that does not give away their identity. Editors will send selected Reviewers the title and abstract of the submission, as well as an invitation to log into the journal web site to complete the review. Reviewers enter to the Journal’s web site to accept the invitation, to download submissions, submit their comments, and select a recommendation.
The typical period of time allowed for reviews is 8 weeks. However, this period may vary depending on the editorial process.
Reviewers will have access to related documents only after agreeing to review it.
Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.


The publication languages are Turkish and English. Authors whose native language is not English should consider to obtain the assistance of an expert in English and scientific writing before submitting their manuscripts. Manuscripts that do not meet basic language standards will be returned during editorial reviews for pre-writing and language.

Manuscript Format and Style
Manuscript length depends on manuscript type. Paper dimensions should be 8.5 × 11 inches with 2.5 cm margins on all sides. Please use normal, plain font (12-point Times New Roman), justified and number all pages consecutively. Double space should be used. For paragraphs please use Indent settings. Main titles of the manuscript (e.g. INTRODUCTION) should be capitalized. 

Manuscript Submission
Authors are requested to submit their original manuscript and related files (figures, tables, pictures etc.) via the online submission and editorial system for European Journal of Research in Dentistry. The web site address for this system: https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/erd. Via this online system, authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress.
Full instructions and support are available on the website. For further support please use dhf.journal@marmara.edu.tr e-mail address.
For manuscript submission, the authors should sign-in to the Journal’s web site (https://dergipark.org.tr). User ID and password can be obtained without any fee. All parts of the manuscript (Main Document, Tables, Figures and Supplemental Information) must be uploaded in an electronic format: Microsoft Word or generic RTF are recommended for text and tables; and JPEG, TIFF or EPS for graphics (see under Figures).
All figures (including pictures) must be uploaded to the system separately without being included in the manuscript file. Tables can be included in the file.

Accepted Manuscript Types
Original Article: This type of article provides new information based on original research. Statistical analyses must be done and reported in accordance with international statistical reporting standards (Altman DG, Gore SM, Gardner MJ, Pocock SJ. Statistical guidelines for contributors to medical journals. Br Med J 1983: 7; 1489-93). Units should be prepared in accordance with the International System of Units (SI).

Maximum length of the manuscript should be 3.500 words; abstract maximum 250 words, 50 references, normally no more than 6 figures or tables.

The article should consist of following headings: Title, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements, References, Tables and Figure Legends.

Review Articles: Reviews should describe, discuss, and evaluate the current level of knowledge on a relevant topic in a way to guide future studies.
Maximum length of the manuscript should be 5.000 words; abstract maximum 250 words, unlimited references, no more than 6 figures or tables.
Although a Review article (particularly following a systematic review) may adhere to the format of the Original Research Article, both Review and Focus Articles need not contain Materials and Methods, Results or Discussion sections, and may instead employ other headings as relevant for the topic addressed.

Case Report: This type of article should report on rare or challenging cases which would be interesting for the readers. Maximum length of the manuscript should be 2.000 words; abstract maximum of 250 words, 30 references, 10 figures or tables.
Consist of following headings: Title, Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements, References, Tables and Figure Legends.

Technical Notes: Maximum length 500 words, 5 references, 4 figures or tables, no abstract, no introduction or discussion.

Letters to Editor: Maximum length 500 words, 5 references, 2 figures or tables. Letters about a published paper should be headed with the full reference to that paper. Original letters should have their own heading.

Type of Manuscript

Word Limit (Main Text Only)

Abstract Word Limit

Reference Limit

Table and Figure Limit

Original Article


6 figures or tables

Review Article

1006 tables-10 figures

Case Report


10 figures or tables

Technical Note


4 figures or tables

Letter to the Editor




No figures- no tables

Table 1 Limitations for each manuscript type


1. Title Page

a. Title page must be uploaded apart from manuscript and should include;

i. Title (All principal words are capitalized) e.g. Investigation of the Molecular Profile of Granular Cell Tumours and Schwannomas of the Oral Cavity
ii. Authors (first name, middle initial, surname) e.g. Korkut Ulucan
iii. Authors' addresses (with authors academic title) e.g. Prof. Dr. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.
iv. ALL AUTHORS’ ORCID NUMBERS must be included
v. Running title, not exceeding 50 letters and spaces
vi. Please write up to 5 keywords should be supplied according to MESH. (Turkish authors must add Turkish keywords via http://www.bilimterimleri.com/
vii. Corresponding Author details including name, complete address, phone, fax, and e-mail must be added
viii. Turkish authors should also add Turkish title, running title and keywords.

Main Document
The main document includes, in a single electronic file (Word/text file, not pdf).

2. Title and Abstract

Should not exceed 250 words and should be presented under the following subheadings:
Research Articles: Objectives, Materials and Methods; Results; Conclusions (Turkish authors should also add Turkish abstract as follows: Amaç, Gereç ve Yöntemler, Bulgular ve Sonuçl)
Reviews and Case Reports: Provide a short, nonstructured, 1-paragraph abstract that briefly summarizes the study. Turkish authors should also add abstract Turkish.

3. Keywords
Up to 5 keywords should be supplied according to MESH. (Turkish authors must also add Turkish keywords via http://www.bilimterimleri.com)

4. Introduction
This must be presented in a structured format, covering the following subjects, although not under subheadings: succinct statements of the issue in question; the essence of existing knowledge and understanding pertinent to the issue; and the aims and objectives of the research being reported. All acronyms and abbreviations should be defined at first use, both in the abstract and in the main text by using parentheses following the definition.

5. Materials and methods
The authors should describe the procedures and analytical techniques and identify names and sources of all commercial products e.g. PureLink DNA isolation kit (Invitrogen, Van Allen Way Carlsbad, Calif., USA)
Please add ETHICS statement and add decision number if any.

6. Results
The authors should refer to appropriate tables and figures and report statistical findings.

7. Discussion
The authors should discuss the results of the study also state the agreement with other studies and identify the limitations of the present study, and suggest areas for future research.

8. Conclusion
The authors should concisely list conclusions that may be drawn from the research and do not simply restate the results.

9. Acknowledgements
If the work was supported by a grant or any other kind of funding, supply the name of the supporting organization and the grant number.

10. Conflicts of Interest statement
Specify any potential conflict of interests, or state no conflicts of interest.

11. References
Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references. Journal titles should be abbreviated in accordance with the journal abbreviations in Index Medicus / MEDLINE / PubMed. All authors of the cited articles should be listed at the references section. Each listed reference should be cited in text (Name.Year style). References section sould be placed in the main text of the manuscript and start on a separate page. Only references cited in the text should appear in the reference list. References in the reference list should be listed in alphabetical order.

a. In-text citations
• For two or fewer authors, list all author names (e.g. Idman & Gumru, 2018). For three or more authors, abbreviate with ‘first author’ et al. (e.g. Akpinaroglu et al., 2019). 
• Multiple references to the same item should be separated with a semicolon (;) and ordered chronologically. References by the same author in the same year should be differentiated by letters (Sirma, 2001a; Sirma, 2001b).
• Cite articles that have been accepted for publication as 'in press', include in the reference list.
• Cite unpublished work, work in preparation, or work under review as 'unpublished data' using the author's initials and surname in the text only; do not include in the reference section
• List references in alphabetical order. The reference styles for different types of publications are presented in the following examples.

Journal Article: Alsafadi A, Cobo JL, Menendez I, Muriel JD, Cobo T. Evaluation of the anterior meniscal displacement with reduction by High-Resolution Ultrasonography pulsed wave Doppler mode (PWD). A pilot study. Eur. J. Res. Dent. (ERD). 2020;4(1):1-6.

Book Section: Evren B, Kulak Ozkan Y. Anterior Tooth Selection and Arrangement. Kulak Ozkan Y, editors. Complete Denture Prosthodontics. Switzerland: Springer; 2018 .p.3-29.

Books: Kulak Ozkan Y. Complete Denture Prosthodontics Switzerland: Springer; 2018.

Conference Proceedings: Kahramanoglu E. Halmedov M. Keskin Ozyer E. Akmansoy SC. Ozkan Y. Estetik Bölge İmplant Destekli Protezde Karşılaşılan Komplikasyon ve Çözümü: Olgu Raporu. In: Ulucan K, editors. Marmara Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi 2. Uluslararası Diş Hekimliği Sempozyumu Bildiri Özet ve Tam Metin Bildiri Kitabı; 2019 Nisan 29-30; İstanbul, Türkiye; 2019. pp.128-133

Scientific or Technical Report: Cusick M, Chew EY, Hoogwerf B, Agrón E, Wu L, Lindley A, et al. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Risk factors for renal replacement therapy in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Kidney Int: 2004. Report No: 26.

Thesis: Yılmaz B. Ankara Üniversitesindeki Öğrencilerin Beslenme Durumları, Fiziksel Aktiviteleri ve Beden Kitle İndeksleri Kan Lipidleri Arasındaki Ilişkiler. Hacettepe Üniversitesi. Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi. 2007.

Epub Ahead of Print Articles: Cai L, Yeh BM, Westphalen AC, Roberts JP, Wang ZJ. Adult living donor liver imaging. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2016 Feb 24. doi: 10.5152/dir.2016.15323. [Epub ahead of print].

12. Tables
Tables should not be a repetition of the main text, but should be supporting it. All tables must be thoroughly discussed in the text of the manuscript. The authors should include the tables in the main manuscript after the reference list.
They should be arranged so that every table is put to a page, each with a descriptive title. Tables should be numbered in the order of mention using Arabic numerals.
For explanatory footnotes, symbols (*, #,**,##) must be used.

13. Figures
The authors must not embed the figures into the text and should be saved in jpeg format as separate files.
All graphs, drawings, and photographs are considered Figures and should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals.
Figures should be planned to fit the proportions of the printed page (width 17 cm) or one column (width 8 cm) and be legible at this size.
Figures grouped together should have similar dimensions and be labeled "A, B, C", etc.
Color and black-and-white photographs should be created and saved at a minimum of 300 dots per inch (dpi).
Please name each electronic image file to match the figure number. For example, a Figure 1 in jpeg format should be named fig 1. Multipart figures must be clearly identifiable by the file names: fig 1A, fig 1B, fig 1C, etc.

14. Figure legends
The authors should list together on a separate page and include key for symbols or abbreviations used in Figures.

Copyright Transfer Agreement
The copyright transfer agreement form signed by corresponding author on behalf of ALL Authors must be added to submission files. European Journal of Research in Dentistry provides free access to and allows free download of its contents from the journal’s website (https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/erd).

Both anonymous or registered users can read and/or download articles. Unless otherwise indicated, the articles and journal content are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Gayriticari-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported Licence. International (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

When submitting a manuscript to European Journal of Research in Dentistry, authors accept to assign the copyright of their manuscript to transfer European Journal of Research in Dentistry. When using previously published content, including figures, tables, or any other material in both print and electronic formats, authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder. Legal, financial and criminal liabilities in this regard belong to the author(s).

Open Access Policy
An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the Internet. The public good they make possible is the worldwide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge.

For various reasons, this kind of free and unrestricted online availability, which we will call open access, has so far been limited to small portions of the journal literature. But even in these limited collections, many different initiatives have shown that open access is economically feasible, that it gives readers extraordinary power to find and make use of relevant literature, and that it gives authors and their works vast, readership and impact. To secure these benefits for all, we call on all interested institutions and individuals to help open up access to the rest of this literature and remove the barriers, especially the price barriers that stand in the way. The more who join the effort to advance this cause, the sooner we will all enjoy the benefits of open access.

The literature that should be freely accessible online is that which scholars give to the world without expectation of payment. Primarily, this category encompasses their peer-reviewed journal articles, but it also includes any unreview preprints that they might wish to put online for comment or to alert colleagues to important research findings. There are many degrees and kinds of wider and easier access to this literature. By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.

While the peer-reviewed journal literature should be accessible online without cost to readers, it is not costless to produce. However, experiments show that the overall costs of providing open access to this literature are far lower than the costs of traditional forms of dissemination. With such an opportunity to save money and expand the scope of dissemination at the same time, there is today a strong incentive for professional associations, universities, libraries, foundations, and others to embrace open access as a means of advancing their missions. Achieving open access will require new cost recovery models and financing mechanisms, but the significantly lower overall cost of dissemination is a reason to be confident that the goal is attainable and not merely preferable or utopian.

To achieve open access to scholarly journal literature, we recommend two complementary strategies.
I. Self-Archiving: First, scholars need the tools and assistance to deposit their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives, a practice commonly called, self-archiving. When these archives conform to standards created by the Open Archives Initiative, then search engines and other tools can treat the separate archives as one. Users then need not know which archives exist or where they are located in order to find and make use of their contents.

II. Open-access Journals: Second, scholars need the means to launch a new generation of journals committed to open access, and to help existing journals that elect to make the transition to open access. Because journal articles should be disseminated as widely as possible, these new journals will no longer invoke copyright to restrict access to and use of the material they publish. Instead they will use copyright and other tools to ensure permanent open access to all the articles they publish. Because price is a barrier to access, these new journals will not charge subscription or access fees, and will turn to other methods for covering their expenses. There are many alternative sources of funds for this purpose, including the foundations and governments that fund research, the universities and laboratories that employ researchers, endowments set up by discipline or institution, friends of the cause of open access, profits from the sale of add-ons to the basic texts, funds freed up by the demise or cancellation of journals charging traditional subscription or access fees, or even contributions from the researchers themselves. There is no need to favor one of these solutions over the others for all disciplines or nations, and no need to stop looking for other.

Open access to peer-reviewed journal literature is the goal. Self-archiving (I.) and a new generation of open-access journals (II.) are the ways to attain this goal. They are not only direct and effective means to this end, they are within the reach of scholars themselves, immediately, and need not wait on changes brought about by markets or legislation. While we endorse the two strategies just outlined, we also encourage experimentation with further ways to make the transition from the present methods of dissemination to open access. Flexibility, experimentation, and adaptation to local circumstances are the best ways to assure that progress in diverse settings will be rapid, secure, and long-lived.

The Open Society Institute is committed to providing initial help and funding to realize this goal. It will use its resources and influence to extend and promote institutional self-archiving, to launch new open-access journals, and to help an open-access journal system become economically self-sustaining. While the Open Society Institute's commitment and resources are substantial, this initiative is very much in need of other organizations to lend their effort and resources.

We invite governments, universities, libraries, journal editors, publishers, foundations, learned societies, professional associations, and individual scholars who share our vision to join us in the task of removing the barriers to open access and building a future in which research and education in every part of the world are that much more free to flourish. Submitting a paper to ERD is free of charges. In addition, ERD has not have article processing charges.

ERD aims to the highest standards with regard to research integrity and in particular the avoidance of plagiarism, including self-plagiarism. It is therefore essential that authors, before they submit a paper, particular attention should be paid when submitting a paper on ERD, authors will be prompted as to whether they have read and agree to these guidelines before proceeding further with their submission. They will be asked specifically for an assurance that the paper contains no element of data fabrication, data falsification or plagiarism (including unacknowledged self-plagiarism). Authors are reminded that, where they draw upon material from another source, they must either put that material in the form of a quote, OR write it entirely in their own words (i.e. there is no 'middle way'). In both cases, they must explicitly cite the source, including the specific page number in the case of a quote or a particular point. ERD uses plagiarism dedection softwares like Ithenticate or TurnitIn to avoid plagiarism. Authors must upload the plagiarism report to the manuscript submission system. ERD has right to re-check plagiarism status for the submitted manuscpirt.

For the experimental, clinical and drug human studies, approval by ethical committee and statement on the adherence of the study protocol to the international agreements (Helsinki Declaration revised 2008) are required. In experimental animal studies, the authors should indicate that the procedures followed were in accordance with animal rights and they should obtain animal ethic committee approval. The Ethic Committee approval document should be submitted to the European Journal of Research in Dentistry together with the manuscript.
The approval of the ethic committee, statement on the adherence to international guidelines mentioned above and that the patients’ informed consent is obtained should be indicated in the “Materials and Methods” section and is required for case reports whenever data/media used could reveal identity of the patient.

The declaration of the conflict of interest between authors, institutions, acknowledgement of any financial or material support, aid is mandatory for authors submitting manuscript and the statement should appear at the end of manuscript. Reviewers are required to report if any potential conflict of interest exists between reviewer and authors, institutions.

JSCR does not charge authors a manuscript submission fee or page charges. However, once a manuscript is accepted for publication and sent in for typesetting, it is expected to be in its final form.