Year 2021, Volume 5 , Issue 1, Pages 92 - 106 2021-03-31

Effect of inulin concentration on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of date powders obtained by hot-air tray dryer

Zeynep AKSOYLU ÖZBEK [1] , Kıvılcım ÇELİK [2] , Pelin GUNC ERGONUL [3]


In the present study, it was aimed to produce free-flowing date powders using various levels of inulin as drying-aid agent (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) through hot-air drying at 60°C for 24 h. Effects of different inulin ratios on physicochemical properties of date powders were investigated. This is the first report which evaluated the suitability of this prebiotic carbohydrate as drying-aid agent to fabricate date powders. Inulin addition yielded date powders with high flowability. On the other hand, contents of bioactive compounds including total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins of date powders decreased significantly (P<0.05) as the inulin concentration increased from 10% to 50% Accordingly, DPPH-radical inhibition capacities reduced in date powders containing higher levels of inulin. Furthermore, significant correlations were detected between bioactives contents and antioxidant activity of date samples. The results showed that free-flowing date powders with improved prebiotic content may be produced by incorporating inulin up to ratio of 50% and used as sugar substitute in different food products.
condensed tannin, date palm, drying, flavonoid, inulin
  • Abbas, F. M. A., Foroogh, B., Liong, M. T., and Azhar, M. E. (2008). Multivariate statistical analysis of antioxidants in dates (Phoenix dactylifera). International Food Research Journal, 15(2), 193–200.
  • Ahmadnia, A., and Sahari, M. A. (2008). Using date Powder in Formulation of Chocolate Toffee. Iranian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5(3), 1–8. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5796/kogyobutsurikagaku.66.778
  • Aksoylu Özbek, Z., Çelik, K., Günç Ergönül, P., and Hepçimen, A. Z. (2020). A Promising Food Waste for Food Fortification: Characterization of Dried Tomato Pomace and Its Cold Pressed Oil. Journal of Food Chemistry and Nanotechnology, 06(01). Doi: https://doi.org/10.17756/jfcn.2020-078
  • Al-Farsi, M., Alasalvar, C., Morris, A., Baron, M., and Shahidi, F. (2005). Comparison of Antioxidant Activity, Anthocyanins, Carotenoids, and Phenolics of Three Native Fresh and Sun-Dried Date ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) Varieties Grown in Oman. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(19), 7592–7599. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf050579q
  • Al-Jasass, F. M., Siddiq, M., and Sogi, D. S. (2015). Antioxidants Activity and Color Evaluation of Date Fruit of Selected Cultivars Commercially Available in the United States. Advances in Chemistry, 2015, 1–5. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/567203
  • Al-Manhal, A. J. A. (2004). Preparation of Date powder From Some local Date Cultivars, Study quality properties and its Utilization in Bread and Biscuit Making. Agriculture-University of Basrah.
  • Al-Orf, S. M., Ahmed, M. H. M., Al-Atwai, N., Al-Zaidi, H., Dehwah, A., and Dehwah, S. (2012). Nutritional Properties and Benefits of the Date Fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Bulletin of the National Nutrition Institute of the Arab Republic of Egypt, 39, 97–129.
  • Al-Shahib, W., and Marshall, R. J. (2002). Dietary fibre content of dates from 13 varieties of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 37(6), 719–721. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2621.2002.00615.x
  • Al-Turki, S. M. (2008). Antioxidant properties of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars. Colorado State University.
  • Al-Turki, S., Shahba, M. A., and Stushnoff, C. (2010). Diversity of antioxidant properties and phenolic content of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits as affected by cultivar and location. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 8(1), 253–260. Retrieved from https://www.actahort.org/books/882/882_135.htm
  • Al Juhaimi, F., Ghafoor, K., and Özcan, M. M. (2014). Physicochemical properties and mineral contents of seven different date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties growing from Saudi Arabia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186(4), 2165–2170. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3526-3
  • Alcantara Marte, Y., Alcantara Marte, Y., Tejada, A. E., and Ros Berruezo, G. (2018). Effect of different concentrations of pulverized mesocarp of Citrus paradisi Macf. on the bromatological characteristics of spray-dried lemon juice powder. Food Science and Nutrition, 6(5), 1261–1268. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.679
  • Ali Haimoud, S., Allem, R., and Merouane, A. (2016). Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Widely Consumed Date Palm ( Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Fruit Varieties in Algerian Oases. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 40(4), 463–471. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12227
  • Allaith, A. A. A. (2008). Antioxidant activity of Bahraini date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit of various cultivars. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43(6), 1033–1040. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2007.01558.x
  • Alsenaien, W. A., Alamer, R. A., Tang, Z.-X., Albahrani, S. A., Al-Ghannam, M. A., and Aleid, S. M. (2015). Substitution of Sugar with Dates Powder and Dates Syrup in Cookies Making. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8(1), 8–13. Doi: https://doi.org/10.19026/ajfst.8.1455
  • Amin, A., Abdel Fattah, A. F., El kalyoubi, M., and El-Sharabasy, S. (2020). Quality attributes of Cookies Fortified with Date Powder. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences. Doi: https://doi.org/10.21608/ajs.2020.20760.1136
  • Amira, E. A., Behija, S. E., Beligh, M., Lamia, L., Manel, I., Mohamed, H., and Lotfi, A. (2012). Effects of the ripening stage on phenolic profile, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of date palm fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(44), 10896–10902. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf302602v
  • AOAC. (2019). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. (G. W. Latimer, Ed.) (21st ed.). Rockville, Maryland: AOAC International.
  • Arem, A. El, Saafi, E. B., Ben Slama, R., Zayen, N., Hammami, M., and Achour, L. (2013). Phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of common date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit during three maturation stages. Tunisian Journal of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products, 10(2), 33–48.
  • Aslam, J., Khan, S. H., and Khan, S. A. (2013). Quantification of water soluble vitamins in six date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivar’s fruits growing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, through high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 17(1), 9–16. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2011.02.015
  • Baliga, M. S., Baliga, B. R. V., Kandathil, S. M., Bhat, H. P., and Vayalil, P. K. (2011). A review of the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Food Research International, 44(7), 1812–1822. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.07.004
  • Barcelo, R., Basilio, A., Calsiyao, I. D., Mabesa, C. B., Palconete, R. M., and Tobias, J. A. (2016). Antioxidant Property and Total Polyphenol and Flavonoid Content of Selected Fruits and Fruit Wines. Philippine E-Journal for Applied Research and Development, 6, 10–17. Retrieved from http://pejard.slu.edu.ph/vol.6/2016.03.22.pdf
  • Barimah, J., Laryea, D., and Okine, U. N. K. (2015). Date fruit powder as sugar replacer in rock buns. Nutrition and Food Science, 45(6), 920–929. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-05-2015-0050
  • Bazaria, B., and Kumar, P. (2016). Effect of whey protein concentrate as drying aid and drying parameters on physicochemical and functional properties of spray dried beetroot juice concentrate. Food Bioscience, 14, 21–27. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2015.11.002
  • Benmeddour, Z., Mehinagic, E., Meurlay, D. Le, and Louaileche, H. (2013). Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacities of ten Algerian date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars: A comparative study. Journal of Functional Foods, 5(1), 346–354. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2012.11.005
  • Bhandari, B. R., Datta, N., and Howes, T. (1997). Problems Associated With Spray Drying Of Sugar-Rich Foods. Drying Technology, 15(2), 671–684. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373939708917253
  • Bhandari, B., and Roos, Y. H. (2012). Food Materials Science and Engineering: An Overview. In B. Bhandari and Y. H. Roos (Eds.), Food Materials Science and Engineering (pp. 1–25). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118373903.ch1
  • Biglari, F., AlKarkhi, A. F. M., and Easa, A. M. (2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of various date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits from Iran. Food Chemistry, 107(4), 1636–1641. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.033
  • Botrel, D. A., Rodrigues, I. C. B., Souza, H. J. B. de, and Fernandes, R. V. de B. (2016). Application of inulin in thin-layer drying process of araticum (Annona crassiflora) pulp. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 69, 32–39. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2016.01.018
  • Bouhlali, E. dine T., Bammou, M., Sellam, K., Benlyas, M., Alem, C., and Filali-Zegzouti, Y. (2016). Evaluation of antioxidant, antihemolytic and antibacterial potential of six Moroccan date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties. Journal of King Saud University - Science, 28(2), 136–142. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2016.01.002
  • Bouhlali, E. dine T., Ramchoun, M., Alem, C., Ghafoor, K., Ennassir, J., and Zegzouti, Y. F. (2017). Functional composition and antioxidant activities of eight Moroccan date fruit varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 16(3), 257–264. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2015.08.005
  • Boussaa, F., Zaouay, F., Burlo-Carbonell, F., Noguera-Artiaga, L., Carbonell-Barrachina, A., Melgarejo, P., … Mars, M. (2020). Growing Location Affects Physical Properties, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Fruit ( Punica granatum L. var. Gabsi). International Journal of Fruit Science, 1–16. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2020.1741058
  • Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., and Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 28(1), 25–30. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
  • Broadhurst, R. B., and Jones, W. T. (1978). Analysis of condensed tannins using acidified vanillin. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 29(9), 788–794. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740290908
  • Caliskan, G., and Dirim, S. N. (2013). The effects of the different drying conditions and the amounts of maltodextrin addition during spray drying of sumac extract. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 91(4), 539–548. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2013.06.004
  • Caliskan, G., and Dirim, S. N. (2016). The effect of different drying processes and the amounts of maltodextrin addition on the powder properties of sumac extract powders. Powder Technology, 287, 308–314. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2015.10.019
  • Cano-Chauca, M., Stringheta, P. C., Ramos, a. M., and Cal-Vidal, J. (2005). Effect of the carriers on the microstructure of mango powder obtained by spray drying and its functional characterization. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 6(4), 420–428. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2005.05.003
  • Carmo, E. L., Teodoro, R. A. R., Campelo, P. H., Figueiredo, J. de A., Botrel, D. A., Fernandes, R. V. de B., and Borges, S. V. (2019). The use of different temperatures and inulin:whey protein isolate ratios in the spray drying of beetroot juice. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 43(10).Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.14113
  • Chaira, N, Mrabet, A., and Ferchichi, A. (2009). Evaluation of antioxidant activity, phenolics, sugar and mineral contents in date palm fruits. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 33(3), 390–403. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4514.2009.00225.x
  • Chaira, Nizar, Smaali, M. I., Martinez-Tomé, M., Mrabet, A., Murcia, M. A., and Ferchichi, A. (2009). Simple phenolic composition, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities in water-methanol extracts of Tunisian common date cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.). International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 60(sup7), 316–329. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480903124333
  • Chinta, D. D., Graves, R. A., Pamujula, S., Praetorius, N., Bostanian, L. A., and Mandal, T. K. (2009). Spray-dried chitosan as a direct compression tableting excipient. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 35(1), 43–48. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/03639040802149053
  • Chong, S. Y., and Wong, C. W. (2017). Effect of spray dryer inlet temperature and maltodextrin concentration on colour profile and total phenolic content of Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) powder. International Food Research Journal, 24(6), 2543–2548.
  • Cosmulescu, S., Trandafir, I., Nour, V., and Botu, M. (2015). Total Phenolic, Flavonoid Distribution and Antioxidant Capacity in Skin, Pulp and Fruit Extracts of Plum Cultivars. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 39(1), 64–69. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12112
  • de Oliveira, M. A., Maia, G. A., de Figueiredo, R. W., de Souza, A. C. R., de Brito, E. S., and de Azeredo, H. M. C. (2009). Addition of cashew tree gum to maltodextrin-based carriers for spray drying of cashew apple juice. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44(3), 641–645. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01888.x
  • Dev, S. R. S., Annamalai, M., Orsat, V., Raghavan, V. G. S., and Ngadi, M. (2018). Nanostructural characterization and sorption isotherm analysis of spray-dried date powder. Drying Technology, 36(13), 1531–1541. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2017.1412318
  • Dhankhar, J., Vashistha, N., and Sharma, A. (2019). Development of biscuits by partial substitution of refined wheat flour with chickpea flour and date powder. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 8(4), 1093–1097. Doi: https://doi.org/10.15414/jmbfs.2019.8.4.1093-1097
  • Dou, D., Leng, P., Li, Y., Zeng, Y., and Sun, Y. (2015). Comparative study of antioxidant compounds and antiradical properties of the fruit extracts from three varieties of Crataegus pinnatifida. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(1), 430–436. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-0954-6
  • Elleuch, M., Besbes, S., Roiseux, O., Blecker, C., Deroanne, C., Drira, N. E., and Attia, H. (2008). Date flesh: Chemical composition and characteristics of the dietary fibre. Food Chemistry, 111(3), 676–682. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.036
  • Elsharnouby, G., Al-Eid, S. M., and Al-Otaibi, M. M. (2017). Effect of Replacement of Wheat Flour by Palm Date Powder and Wheat Bran (at ratio 1:1) on Dough Rheological Properties and Nutritional Quality of Biscuit Produced. In The Fourth Symposium on Date Palm in Saudi Arabia (pp. 1998–2010). Alahsa, Saudi Arabia.
  • Fahloul, D., Abdedaim, M., and Trystram, G. (2010). Heat, mass transfer and physical properties of biscuits enriched with date powder. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 6(11), 1680–1686.
  • Farag, M. A., Mohsen, M., Heinke, R., and Wessjohann, L. A. (2014). Metabolomic fingerprints of 21 date palm fruit varieties from Egypt using UPLC/PDA/ESI-qTOF-MS and GC-MS analyzed by chemometrics. Food Research International, 64, 218–226. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.06.021
  • Farahnaky, A., Mansoori, N., Majzoobi, M., and Badii, F. (2016). Physicochemical and sorption isotherm properties of date syrup powder: Antiplasticizing effect of maltodextrin. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 98, 133–141. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2016.01.003
  • Fernandes, R. V. D. B., Borges, S. V., and Botrel, D. A. (2014). Gum arabic/starch/maltodextrin/inulin as wall materials on the microencapsulation of rosemary essential oil. Carbohydrate Polymers, 101(1), 524–532. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.09.083
  • Flamm, G., Glinsmann, W., Kritchevsky, D., Prosky, L., and Roberfroid, M. (2001). Inulin and Oligofructose as Dietary Fiber: A Review of the Evidence. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 41(5), 353–362. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/20014091091841
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2018). FAOSTAT. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/visualize
  • Fu, L., Xu, B. T., Xu, X. R., Gan, R. Y., Zhang, Y., Xia, E. Q., and Li, H. Bin. (2011). Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of 62 fruits. Food Chemistry, 129(2), 345–350. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.079
  • Hamad, I. (2014). Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Saudi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit of various cultivars. Life Science Journal, 11(10), 1268–1271.
  • Hamad, I., Abdelgawad, H., Al Jaouni, S., Zinta, G., Asard, H., Hassan, S., … Selim, S. (2015). Metabolic analysis of various date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars from Saudi Arabia to assess their nutritional quality. Molecules, 20(8), 13620–13641. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200813620
  • Hammouda, H., Chérif, J. K., Trabelsi-Ayadi, M., Baron, A., and Guyot, S. (2013). Detailed polyphenol and tannin composition and its variability in Tunisian dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) at different maturity stages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(13), 3252–3263. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf304614j
  • Hariri, A, Ouis, N., and Bouhadi, D. (2017). Effect of Substitution of Sugars by Date Powders Variety H’lowa on the Quality of the Soft Drinks. Journal of Applied Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 3(6), 450–457. Doi: https://doi.org/10.15406/jabb.2017.03.00083
  • Hariri, Ahmed, Ouis, N., Bouhadi, D., and Benatouche, Z. (2018). Characterization of the quality of the steamed yoghurts enriched by dates flesh and date powder variety H’loua. Banat’s Journal of Biotechnology, 9(17), 31–39. Doi: https://doi.org/10.7904/2068–4738–IX(17)–31
  • Hasnaoui, A., Elhoumaizi, M. A., Hakkou, A., Wathelet, B., and Sindic, M. (2010). Physico-chemical Characterization, Classification and Quality Evaluation of Date Palm Fruits of some Moroccan Cultivars. Journal of Scientific Research, 3(1), 139. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3329/jsr.v3i1.6062
  • Hedayatnia, S., and Mirhosseini, H. (2018). Quality of Reduced-Fat Dairy Coffee Creamer: Affected by Different Fat Replacer and Drying Methods. In A. V. Díaz and R. M. García-Gimeno (Eds.), Descriptive Food Science (pp. 115–135). London, UK: IntechOpen. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.76367
  • Hemmateenejad, B., Karimi, S., Javidnia, K., Parish, M., and Khademi, R. (2015). Classification and assessment of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of different varieties of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits from Iran. Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society, 12(11), 1935–1943. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-015-0668-y
  • Huber, K. C., and BeMiller, J. N. (2017). Carbohydrates. In S. Damodaran and K. L. Parkin (Eds.), Fennema’s Food Chemistry (5th ed., pp. 91–169). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  • Hussain, M. I., Farooq, M., and Syed, Q. A. (2020). Nutritional and biological characteristics of the date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) – A review. Food Bioscience, 34(December 2019), 100509. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2019.100509
  • İzli, G. (2016). Total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, colour and drying characteristics of date fruit dried with different methods. Food Science and Technology, 37(1), 139–147. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-457x.14516
  • Jayasundera, M., Adhikari, B., Howes, T., and Aldred, P. (2011). Surface protein coverage and its implications on spray-drying of model sugar-rich foods: Solubility, powder production and characterisation. Food Chemistry, 128(4), 1003–1016. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.006
  • Jrad, Z., Oussaief, O., Bouhemda, T., Khorchani, T., and EL-Hatmi, H. (2019). Potential effects of ultrafiltration process and date powder on textural, sensory, bacterial viability, antioxidant properties and phenolic profile of dromedary Greek yogurt. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(3), 854–861. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.14005
  • Juliano, P., and Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. (2010). Food Powders Flowability Characterization: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 1(1), 211–239. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.102308.124155
  • Kapoulas, N., S., I. Z., Milenković, L., and Mirecki, N. (2013). Effects of organic and conventional cultivation methods on mineral content and taste parameters in tomato fruit. Agriculture and Forestry, 59(3), 23–34. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf904438n
  • Kchaou, W., Abbès, F., Blecker, C., Attia, H., and Besbes, S. (2013). Effects of extraction solvents on phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of Tunisian date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 45, 262–269. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.12.028
  • Kha, T. C., Nguyen, M. H., and Roach, P. D. (2010). Effects of spray drying conditions on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) fruit aril powder. Journal of Food Engineering, 98(3), 385–392. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.01.016
  • Khallouki, F., Ricarte, I., Breuer, A., and Owen, R. W. (2018). Characterization of phenolic compounds in mature Moroccan Medjool date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 70(March), 63–71. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2018.03.005
  • Kim, Y., Faqih, M. ., and Wang, S. . (2001). Factors affecting gel formation of inulin. Carbohydrate Polymers, 46(2), 135–145. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(00)00296-4
  • Klinkesorn, U., Sophanodora, P., Chinachoti, P., Decker, E. A., and McClements, D. J. (2006). Characterization of spray-dried tuna oil emulsified in two-layered interfacial membranes prepared using electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition. Food Research International, 39(4), 449–457. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2005.09.008
  • Kozłowska, M., Gruczyńska, E., Ścibisz, I., and Rudzińska, M. (2016). Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds. Food Chemistry, 213, 450–456. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.06.102
  • Labuza, T. P., and Altunakar, B. (2007). Water Activity Prediction and Moisture Sorption Isotherms. In G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas, A. J. J. Fontana, S. J. Schmidt, and T. P. Labuza (Eds.), Water Activity in Foods - Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 109–154). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470376454.ch5
  • Lekbir, A., Lombarkia, O. A., Haddad, S., Mizane, B., Noui, Y., Abdeddaim, M., … Ferhat, R. (2015). Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of six Algerian date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars. Annals. Food Science and Technology, 16(1), 201–206.
  • Li, Y., Guo, C., Yang, J., Wei, J., Xu, J., and Cheng, S. (2006). Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract. Food Chemistry, 96(2), 254–260. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.02.033
  • Louaileche, H., Hammiche, D., and Hamoudi, F. (2015). Total Phenolic, Flavonoid Contents and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Date Palm Varieties: A Comparative Study. American Journal of Food Science and Health, 1(3), 63–68. Retrieved from http://www.aiscience.org/journal/ajfshhttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
  • Luximon-Ramma, A., Bahorun, T., and Crozier, A. (2003). Antioxidant actions and phenolic and vitamin C contents of common Mauritian exotic fruits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83(5), 496–502. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1365
  • Manickavasagan, A., Thangavel, K., Dev, S. R. S., Delfiya, D. S. A., Nambi, E., Orsat, V., and Raghavan, G. S. V. (2015). Physicochemical Characteristics of Date Powder Produced in a Pilot-Scale Spray Dryer. Drying Technology, 33(9), 1114–1123. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2015.1014045
  • Mansouri, A., Embarek, G., Kokkalou, E., and Kefalas, P. (2005). Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of the Algerian ripe date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). Food Chemistry, 89(3), 411–420. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.051
  • Marzouk, H. A., and Kassem, H. A. (2011). Improving fruit quality, nutritional value and yield of Zaghloul dates by the application of organic and/or mineral fertilizers. Scientia Horticulturae, 127(3), 249–254. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.10.005
  • Masmoudi-Allouche, F., Touati, S., Mnafgui, K., Gharsallah, N., El Feki, A., and Allouche, N. (2016). Phytochemical profile, antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiabetic and anti-obesity activities of fruits and pits from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) grown in south of Tunisia. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 5(3), 15–22. Retrieved from http://www.phytojournal.com/archives/2016/vol5issue3/PartA/5-2-10-841.pdf
  • Matloob, M. H., and Balakit, A. A. A. A.-H. (2016). Phenolic Content of Various Date Palms Fruits and Vinegars From Iraq. International Journal of Chemical Sciences, 14(4), 1893–1906.
  • Messaoudi, A., and Fahloul, D. (2018). Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Pancake Enriched with Freeze Dried Date Pomace Powder. Annals. Food Science and Technology, 19(1), 59–68.
  • Michalska-Ciechanowska, A., Majerska, J., Brzezowska, J., Wojdyło, A., and Figiel, A. (2020). The Influence of Maltodextrin and Inulin on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Cranberry Juice Powders. ChemEngineering, 4(1), 12. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010012
  • Mishra, P., Mishra, S., and Mahanta, C. L. (2014). Effect of maltodextrin concentration and inlet temperature during spray drying on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of amla (Emblica officinalis) juice powder. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 92(3), 252–258. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2013.08.003
  • Mnari, A. B., Harzallah, A., Amri, Z., Dhaou Aguir, S., and Hammami, M. (2016). Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Phenolic Profile of Tunisian Raisin Varieties ( Vitis Vinifera L.). International Journal of Food Properties, 19(3), 578–590. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2015.1038720
  • Moghbeli, S., Jafari, S. M., Maghsoudlou, Y., and Dehnad, D. (2019). Influence of pectin-whey protein complexes and surfactant on the yield and microstructural properties of date powder produced by spray drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 242(April 2018), 124–132. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2018.08.025
  • Moghbeli, S., Jafari, S. M., Maghsoudlou, Y., and Dehnad, D. (2020). A Taguchi approach optimization of date powder production by spray drying with the aid of whey protein-pectin complexes. Powder Technology, 359, 85–93. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2019.10.013
  • Mohamed, A. K., Fawzy, A. H. E. S., Mohamed, N. K., Mostafa, T. M. A., and Zeinab, A. H. A. E. galil. (2016). Chemical, physical and sensory evaluation of biscuit supplemented with date powder. Minia Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 36(2), 215–227.
  • Mohamed Lemine, F. M., Mohamed Ahmed, M. V. O., Ben Mohamed Maoulainine, L., Bouna, Z. el A. O., Samb, A., and O. Boukhary, A. O. M. S. (2014). Antioxidant activity of various Mauritanian date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits at two edible ripening stages. Food Science and Nutrition, 2(6), 700–705. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.167
  • Mohamed, R. M. A., Fageer, A. S. M., Eltayeb, M. M., and Mohamed Ahmed, I. A. (2014). Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and mineral extractability of Sudanese date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits. Food Science and Nutrition, 2(5), 478–489. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.123
  • Moreira, G. É. G., Maia Costa, M. G., Souza, A. C. R. de, Brito, E. S. de, Medeiros, M. de F. D. de, and Azeredo, H. M. C. de. (2009). Physical properties of spray dried acerola pomace extract as affected by temperature and drying aids. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 42(2), 641–645. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.07.008
  • Muzaffar, K., and Kumar, P. (2016). Effect of Soya Protein Isolate as a Complementary Drying Aid of Maltodextrin on Spray Drying of Tamarind Pulp. Drying Technology, 34(1), 142–148. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2015.1042586
  • Myhara, R. M., Al-Alawi, A., Karkalas, J., and Taylor, M. S. (2000). Sensory and textural changes in maturing Omani dates. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80(15), 2181–2185. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0010(200012)80:15<2181::AID-JSFA765>3.0.CO;2-C
  • Nadeem, M., Qureshi, T. M., Ahmad, M. M., Riaz, M. N., Ameer, A., and Qurat-ul-An. (2017). Development of Free Flowing Date Powder and Its Utilization in Muffins to Enhance Nutritional Value. Journal of Agricultural Research, 55(4), 671–677. Doi: https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.20574.69445
  • Nadeem, M., Qureshi, T. M., Ugulu, I., Riaz, M. N., Ain, Q. U., Khan, Z. I., … Dogan, Y. (2019). Mineral, vitamin and phenolic contents and sugar profiles of some prominent date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) varieties of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 51(1), 171–178. Doi: https://doi.org/10.30848/PJB2019-1(14)
  • Nadeem, M., Salim-ur-Rehman, Anjum, F. M., and Bhatti, I. A. (2011). Textural Profile Analysis and Phenolic Content of Some Date Palm Varieties. Journal of Agricultural Research, 49(4), 525–539.
  • Nortuy, N., Suthapakti, K., and Utama-ang, N. (2018). Effects of Maltodextrin and Silicon Dioxide Added as Anticaking Agents on the Properties of Instant Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Powder Using Spray Drying. Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies, 5(2), 86–92. Doi: https://doi.org/10.18178/joaat.5.2.86-92
  • Nwanekezi, E., Ekwe, C., and Agbugba, R. (2015). Effect of Substitution of Sucrose with Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)Fruit on Quality of Bread. Journal of Food Processing and Technology, 06(09). Doi: https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000484
  • Oberoi, D. P. S., and Sogi, D. S. (2015). Effect of drying methods and maltodextrin concentration on pigment content of watermelon juice powder. Journal of Food Engineering, 165, 172–178. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.06.024
  • Odeh, I., Al-Rimawi, F., Abbadi, J., Obeyat, L., Qabbajeh, M., and Hroub, A. (2014). Effect of Harvesting Date and Variety of Date Palm on Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2(8), 499–505. Doi: https://doi.org/10.12691/jfnr-2-8-11
  • Olumese, F. E., and Oboh, H. A. (2016). Antioxidant and Antioxidant capacity of raw and processed Nigerian Beetroot (Beta vulgaris). Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 24(1), 35. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4314/njbas.v24i1.6
  • Onwulata, C. I., Konstance, R. P., and Holsinger, V. H. (1996). Flow properties of encapsulated milkfat powders as affected by flow agent. Journal of Food Science, 61(6), 1211–1215. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1996.tb10962.x
  • Ozdikicierler, O., Dirim, S. N., and Pazir, F. (2014). The effects of spray drying process parameters on the characteristic process indices and rheological powder properties of microencapsulated plant (Gypsophila) extract powder. Powder Technology, 253, 474–480. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2013.12.004
  • Papadakis, S. E., Gardeli, C., and Tzia, C. (2006). Spray Drying of Raisin Juice Concentrate. Drying Technology, 24(2), 173–180. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373930600559019
  • Patil, V., Chauhan, A. K., and Singh, R. P. (2014). Optimization of the spray-drying process for developing guava powder using response surface methodology. Powder Technology, 253, 230–236. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2013.11.033
  • Phoungchandang, S., and Sertwasana, A. (2010). Spray-drying of ginger juice and physicochemical properties of ginger powders. ScienceAsia, 36, 40–45. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2010.36.040
  • Quek, S. Y., Chok, N. K., and Swedlund, P. (2007). The physicochemical properties of spray-dried watermelon powders. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 46(5), 386–392. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2006.06.020
  • Quispe-Condori, S., Saldaña, M. D. A., and Temelli, F. (2011). Microencapsulation of flax oil with zein using spray and freeze drying. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44(9), 1880–1887. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.01.005
  • Raza, N., Arshad, M. U., Anjum, F. M., Saeed, F., Maan, A. A., and Bader Ul Ain, H. (2019). Impact of drying methods on composition and functional properties of date powder procured from different cultivars. Food Science and Nutrition, 7(7), 2345–2352. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1081
  • Roberfroid, M. (1993). Dietary fiber, inulin, and oligofructose: A review comparing their physiological effects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 33(2), 103–148. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408399309527616
  • Saafi, Emna B., Trigui, M., Thabet, R., Hammami, M., and Achour, L. (2008). Common date palm in Tunisia: chemical composition of pulp and pits. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43(11), 2033–2037. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01817.x
  • Saafi, Emna Behija, El Arem, A., Issaoui, M., Hammami, M., and Achour, L. (2009). Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of four date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit varieties grown in Tunisia. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44(11), 2314–2319. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02075.x
  • Sablani, S. S., Shrestha, A. K., and Bhandari, B. R. (2008). A new method of producing date powder granules: Physicochemical characteristics of powder. Journal of Food Engineering, 87(3), 416–421. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.12.024
  • Sadeghi, Z., Valizadeh, J., and Shermeh, O. A. (2015). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of some date varieties from Saravan Region, Baluchistan, Iran. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 9(4), 78–83. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2014.5676
  • Sakr, A. M., and Hussien, H. A. (2017). Nutritional quality of gluten free biscuits supplemented with sweet chickpeas and date palm powder. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 2(1), 128–134. Retrieved from www.foodsciencejournal.com
  • Saleh, E. A., Tawfik, M. S., and Abu-Tarboush, H. M. (2011). Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Various Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Fruits from Saudi Arabia. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 02(10), 1134–1141. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.210152
  • Sarabandi, K., Peighambardoust, S. H., Sadeghi Mahoonak, A. R., and Samaei, S. P. (2018). Effect of different carriers on microstructure and physical characteristics of spray dried apple juice concentrate. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(8), 3098–3109. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3235-6
  • Seerangurayar, T., Manickavasagan, A., Al-Ismaili, A. M., and Al-Mulla, Y. A. (2017). Effect of carrier agents on flowability and microstructural properties of foam-mat freeze dried date powder. Journal of Food Engineering, 215, 33–43. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.07.016
  • Senthil Kumar, P., and Yaashikaa, P. R. (2019). Date Palm as a Healthy Food. In M. Naushad and E. Lichtfouse (Eds.), Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 34 - Date Palm for Food, Medicine and the Environment (pp. 1–17). Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11345-2_1
  • Septembre-Malaterre, A., Stanislas, G., Douraguia, E., and Gonthier, M. P. (2016). Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant properties of the tropical fruits banana, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple cultivated in Réunion French Island. Food Chemistry, 212, 225–233. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.147
  • Shahdadi, F., Mirzaei, H. O., and Daraei Garmakhany, A. (2015). Study of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of date fruit as a function of ripening stages and drying process. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(3), 1814–1819. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1177-6
  • Shahdadi, F., Mirzaei, H. O., Daraei Garmakhany, A., Mirzaei, H., and Ghafori Khosroshahi, A. (2013). Effect of drying process on antioxidant properties of date palm fruits. Minerva Biotecnologica, 25(4), 235–243.
  • Singh, C. S., Paswan, V. K., and Rai, D. C. (2019). Process optimization of spray dried Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) pulp powder. LWT, 109, 1–6. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.04.011
  • Singh, R. P., Chidambara Murthy, K. N., and Jayaprakasha, G. K. (2002). Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed Extracts using in vitro models. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(1), 81–86. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010865b
  • Singh, V., Guizani, N., Essa, M. M., Hakkim, F. L., and Rahman, M. S. (2012). Comparative analysis of total phenolics, flavonoid content and antioxidant profile of different date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) From Sultanate of Oman. International Food Research Journal, 19(3), 1063–1070.
  • Singleton, V. L., and Rossi, J. A. J. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16(3), 144 LP – 158. Retrieved from http://www.ajevonline.org/content/16/3/144.abstract
  • Sola Agboola, O., and Lateef Adejumo, A. (2013). Nutritional Composition of the Fruit of the Nigerian Wild Date Palm, Phoenix dactylifera. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences, 8(2), 196–200. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wjdfs.2013.8.2.81178
  • Souli, I., Jemni, M., Rodríguez-Verástegui, L. L., Chaira, N., Artés, F., and Ferchichi, A. (2018). Phenolic composition profiling of Tunisian 10 varieties of common dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) at tamar stage using LC-ESI-MS and antioxidant activity. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 42(6), 1–10. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12634
  • Sulieman, A. M. E., Masaad, M. K., and Ali, A. O. (2011). Effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with date powder on biscuit quality. Gezira Journal of Agricultural Science, 9(2). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.294
  • Tang, Z.-X., Shi, L.-E., and Aleid, S. M. (2013). Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(10), 2351–2361. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6154
  • Teunou, E., Fitzpatrick, J. ., and Synnott, E. . (1999). Characterisation of food powder flowability. Journal of Food Engineering, 39(1), 31–37. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(98)00140-X
  • Tonon, R. V., Brabet, C., Pallet, D., Brat, P., and Hubinger, M. D. (2009). Physicochemical and morphological characterisation of açai (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) powder produced with different carrier agents. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44(10), 1950–1958. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02012.x
  • Turker, G., Kizilkaya, B., Cevik, N., and Gonuz, A. (2012). Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content of edible wild fruits from Kazdagi (Ida Mountains), Turkey. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(36), 4989–4994. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr12.393
  • Tze, N. L., Han, C. P., Yusof, Y. A., Ling, C. N., Talib, R. A., Taip, F. S., and Aziz, M. G. (2012). Physicochemical and nutritional properties of spray-dried pitaya fruit powder as natural colorant. Food Science and Biotechnology, 21(3), 675–682. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-012-0088-z
  • Vardin, H., and Yasar, M. (2012). Optimisation of pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) juice spray-drying as affected by temperature and maltodextrin content. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47(1), 167–176. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02823.x
  • Vinita, V., and Punia, D. (2016). Nutritional composition of fruit of four date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars grown in Haryana, India. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, 35(4), 331–334. Doi: https://doi.org/10.18805/ajdfr.v35i4.6635
  • Waterhouse, G. I. N., Sun-Waterhouse, D., Su, G., Zhao, H., and Zhao, M. (2017). Spray-Drying of Antioxidant-Rich Blueberry Waste Extracts; Interplay Between Waste Pretreatments and Spray-Drying Process. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 10(6), 1074–1092. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-017-1880-9
  • Yang, J., and Xu, Y. (2018). Functional Carbohydrate Polymers: Prebiotics. In T. J. Gutiérrez (Ed.), Polymers for Food Applications (pp. 651–691). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-94625-2_24
  • Zotarelli, M. F., Durigon, A., da Silva, V. M., Hubinger, M. D., and Laurindo, J. B. (2020). Rehydration of mango powders produced by cast-tape drying, freeze drying, and spray drying. Drying Technology, 1–13. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2020.1777562
Primary Language en
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Published Date March 2021
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-6184-4755
Author: Zeynep AKSOYLU ÖZBEK (Primary Author)
Institution: MANİSA CELÂL BAYAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-6807-6472
Author: Kıvılcım ÇELİK
Institution: MANİSA CELÂL BAYAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-4993-7219
Author: Pelin GUNC ERGONUL
Institution: MANİSA CELÂL BAYAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : October 20, 2020
Acceptance Date : February 23, 2021
Publication Date : March 31, 2021

APA Aksoylu Özbek, Z , Çelik, K , Gunc Ergonul, P . (2021). Effect of inulin concentration on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of date powders obtained by hot-air tray dryer . International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences , 5 (1) , 92-106 . DOI: 10.31015/jaefs.2021.1.13