Review
BibTex RIS Cite

The 4 Epochs of the Metaverse

Year 2023, Volume: 3 Issue: 2, 152 - 165, 31.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.57019/jmv.1294970

Abstract

The concept of the Metaverse has attracted considerable attention since 2021, primarily due to the rebranding of “Fakebook” to “Meta” and its promise of delivering a more immersive online experience. However, the origins of this term can be traced back to Neal Stephenson's sci-fi novel, “Snow Crash”, published in 1992. In the current study, an extensive articles review has been conducted, including academic sources, technology blogs, business reports, and social media posts. The main goal is to create a comprehensive timeline of the Metaverse and its underlying technologies. By categorizing 26 significant milestones into four distinct periods, the study introduces a framework called "4 Epochs of the Metaverse." The suggested framework challenges previously established linear timelines found in literature by identifying time periods that are based on content, rather than on chronological order. The findings emphasize that the Metaverse is not a new phenomenon, but, rather, a concept that has evolved over time since 1905 and can be classified under 4 dynamic periods, which are named Epochs. The study provides an in-depth description of the origins and evolution of the Metaverse, serving a dual purpose for researchers and practitioners: it provides insights into the transformative potential and future possibilities of the metaverse, while it lays the groundwork for further exploration and innovation in this phygital (physical + digital) environment.

References

  • Akour, I. A., Al-Maroof, R. S., Alfaisal, R., Salloum, S. A. (2022) A conceptual framework for determining metaverse adoption in higher institutions of gulf area: An empirical study using hybrid SEM-ANN approach. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 3, 100052. Doi:10.1016/j.caeai.2022.100052
  • Allam, Z., Sharifi, A., Bibri, S. E., Jones, D. S., Krogstie, J. (2022) The Metaverse as a Virtual Form of Smart Cities: Opportunities and Challenges for Environmental, Economic, and Social Sustainability in Urban Futures. Smart Cities, 5(3), 771–801. Doi:10.3390/smartcities5030040
  • Almoqbel, M. Y., Naderi, A., Wohn, D. Y., Goyal, N. (2022) The Metaverse: A Systematic Literature Review to Map Scholarly Definitions. Companion Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, 80–84. Doi:10.1145/3500868.3559448
  • Alvarez-Risco, A., Del-Aguila-Arcentales, S., Rosen, M. A., & Yáñez, J. A. (2022). Social Cognitive Theory to Assess the Intention to Participate in the Facebook Metaverse by Citizens in Peru during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 8(3), 142. Doi:10.3390/joitmc8030142
  • Anderson, J., & Rainie, L. (2022) The Metaverse in 2040. Pew Research Org Report. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2022/06/PI_2022.06.30_Metaverse-Predictions_FINAL.pdf Accessed 10 November 2022
  • Ante, L. (2021) Smart contracts on the blockchain – A bibliometric analysis and review. Telematics and Informatics, 57.101519. Doi:10.1016/j.tele.2020.101519
  • Aurigi, A (2022) Smart cities, metaverses, and the relevance of place. IET Smart Cities, 4(3), 157–159. Doi:10.1049/smc2.12030
  • Bale, A. S., Ghorpade, N., Hashim, M. F., Vaishnav, J., Almaspoor, Z. (2022) A Comprehensive Study on Metaverse and Its Impacts on Humans. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2022, e3247060. Doi:10.1155/2022/3247060
  • Barricelli, B. R., Casiraghi, E., Fogli, D. (2019) A Survey on Digital Twin: Definitions, Characteristics, Applications, and Design Implications. IEEE Access, 7, 167653–167671. Doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2953499
  • Basso, A. (2017) Advantages, Critics and Paradoxes of Virtual Reality Applied to Digital Systems of Architectural Prefiguration, the Phenomenon of Virtual Migration. Proceedings, 1, 915. Doi:10.3390/proceedings1090915
  • Bayram, A. (2022) Metaleisure: Leisure Time Habits to be Changed with Metaverse. Journal of Metaverse, 2(1), 1-7. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jmv/issue/67967/1065227 Accessed 11 November 2022
  • Belk, R., Humayun, M., Brouard, M. (2022) Money, possessions, and ownership in the Metaverse: NFTs, cryptocurrencies, Web3 and Wild Markets. Journal of Business Research, 153, 198–205. Doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2022.08.031
  • Bibri, S. E. (2022) The Social Shaping of the Metaverse as an Alternative to the Imaginaries of Data-Driven Smart Cities: A Study in Science, Technology, and Society. Smart Cities, 5(3), 832–874. Doi:10.3390/smartcities5030043
  • Bouraga, S. (2021) A taxonomy of blockchain consensus protocols: A survey and classification framework. Expert Systems with Applications, 168, 114384. Doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2020.114384
  • Bourlakis, M., Papagiannidis, S., Li, F. (2009). Retail spatial evolution: Paving the way from traditional to metaverse retailing. Electronic Commerce Research, 9(1), 135–148. Doi:10.1007/s10660-009-9030-8
  • Buhalis, D., Lin, M. & Leung, D. (2023). Metaverse as a Driver for Customer Experience and Value Co-Creation: Implications for Hospitality and Tourism Management and Marketing. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 35(2), 701-716. Doi:10.1108/IJCHM-05-2022-0631
  • Castronova, E. (2001). Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier. SSRN Electronic Journal. Doi:10.2139/ssrn.294828
  • CNBCTV18. (2022). Explained: The history of Metaverse. cnbctv18.com. Retrieved on 28/11/2022 from https://www.cnbctv18.com/technology/explained-the-history-of-metaverse-12015212.htm
  • Collins, C. (2008) Looking to the Future: Higher Education in the Metaverse. EDUCAUSE Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2008/9/looking-to-the-future-higher-education-in-the-metaverse Accessed 16 November 2022
  • Cornell.edu. (2007). Cornell Chronicle. News.cornell.edu. https://news.cornell.edu/stories/2007/10/johnson-school-professor-uses-virtual-reality-class Accessed 03 December 2022
  • Cultural Reader. (2012) Simulacra and Simulation by Jean Baudrillard – Summary. Cultural Reader. https://culturalstudiesnow.blogspot.com/2012/10/simulacra-and-simulation-by-jean.html Accessed 19 November 2022
  • Damar, M. (2021) Metaverse Shape of Your Life for Future: A bibliometric snapshot. Journal of Metaverse, 1(1), 1-8. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jmv/issue/67581/1051371 Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Daskalakis, N., Georgitseas, P. (2020) An Introduction to cryptocurrencies: The crypto market ecosystem. London: Routledge.
  • Decentraland. (2022). Twitter post on 06/11/2022, 15:00. https://twitter.com/RLTY_Live/status/1577992293147185152?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1578007954049191938%7Ctwgr%5E736124a63b93f7d4d5305dd858dddfe5b75e711f%7Ctwcon%5Es3_&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fdailycoin.com%2Fmacron-shows-up-on-decentraland-first-presidential-speech-in-the-metaverse%2F Accessed 11 December 2022
  • Dhelim, S., Kechadi, T., Chen, L., Aung, N., Ning, H., Atzori, L. (2022) Edge-enabled Metaverse: The Convergence of Metaverse and Mobile Edge Computing. TechRxiv. Doi:10.36227/techrxiv.19606954.v1
  • Dionisio, J. D. N., Iii, W. G. B., Gilbert, R. (2013) 3D Virtual worlds and the metaverse: Current status and future possibilities. ACM Computing Surveys, 45(3), 1–38. Doi:10.1145/2480741.2480751
  • Duan, H., Li, J., Fan, S., Lin, Z., Wu, X., Cai, W. (2021) Metaverse for Social Good: A University Campus Prototype. Proceedings of the 29th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, 153–161. Doi:10.1145/3474085.3479238
  • Dubey, V., Mokashi, A., Pradhan, R., Gupta, P., Walimbe, R. (2022) Metaverse and Banking Industry – 2023 The Year of Metaverse Adoption. Technium: Romanian Journal of Applied Sciences and Technology, 4(10), Article 10. Doi:10.47577/technium.v4i10.7774
  • Duranske, B. (2007) Metanomics launches, Announces 2007 speakers. Virtuallyblind.com. http://virtuallyblind.com/2007/09/13/metanomics-07-speakers/ Accessed 11 November 2022
  • Dwivedi, Y. K., Hughes, L., Baabdullah, A. M., Ribeiro-Navarrete, S., Giannakis, M., Al-Debei, M. M., Dennehy, D., Metri, B., Buhalis, D., Cheung, … Wamba, S. F. (2022). Metaverse beyond the hype: Multidisciplinary perspectives on emerging challenges, opportunities, and agenda for research, practice and policy. International Journal of Information Management, 66, 102542. Doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2022.102542
  • Edwards, B. (2022) There is no Metaverse (yet). HowtoGeek.com. https://www.howtogeek.com/777037/there-is-no-metaverse-yet/ Accessed 04 December 2022
  • EUBlockchain. (2022) Metaverse. European Union Blockchain Observatory & Forum. https://www.eublockchainforum.eu/sites/default/files/reports/Metaverse_Report_Final_1.pdf Accessed 11 November 2022
  • EY webpage. (2023). What’s possible for the gaming industry in the next dimension? Ey.com. Retrieved on 02/-5/2023 from https://www.ey.com/en_us/tmt/what-s-possible-for-the-gaming-industry-in-the-next-dimension
  • Fan, Z., Chen, C., & Huang, H. (2022). Immersive cultural heritage digital documentation and information service for historical figure metaverse: A case of Zhu Xi, Song Dynasty, China. Heritage Science, 10(1), 148. Doi:10.1186/s40494-022-00749-8
  • Faraboschi, P., Frachtenberg, E., Laplante, P., Milojicic, D., Saracco, R. (2022) Virtual Worlds (Metaverse): From Skepticism, to Fear, to Immersive Opportunities. Computer, 55(10), 100–106. Doi:10.1109/MC.2022.3192702
  • Felluga, D. (2002) Modules on Baudrillard: On Simulation. Introductory Guide to Critical Theory. https://cla.purdue.edu/academic/english/theory/postmodernism/modules/baudrillardsimulation.html Accessed 16 November 2022
  • Flaherty, S. (2020) ‘The Machine Stops’: E.M. Forster’s Esoteric critique of H.G. Wells ‘A Modern Utopia’. History, 105(366), 422-445. Doi:10.1111/1468-229X.13022
  • Forbes (2022) There is no Metaverse today, but be prepared. Forbes.com. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forrester/2022/03/31/there-is-no-metaverse-today-but-be-prepared/?sh=1dbb639b236b Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Forster, E.M. (2015). The Machine Stops. New Delhi: Prabhat Prakashan, kindle version.
  • Gadekallu, T. R., Yenduri, G., Ranaweera, P., Pham, Q.-V., Huynh-The, T., Wang, W., da Costa, D. B., Liyanage, M. (2022) Blockchain for the Metaverse: A Review. arXiv2203.09738 Doi:10.48550/arXiv.2203.09738
  • Gelernter, D. (1992). Mirror worlds: Or the day software puts the universe in a shoebox…How it will happen and what it will mean. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gibson, W. (1984) Neuromancer. New York, ACE
  • Grieves, M., & Vickers, J. (2017) Digital Twin: Mitigating Unpredictable, Undesirable Emergent Behavior in Complex Systems. In: Kahlen, J., Flumerfelt, S., Alves, A. (eds) Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Complex Systems. Cha, Springer Doi:10.1007/978-3-319-38756-7_4
  • Guo, J., Chow, A., Wigand, R. T. (2011) Virtual wealth protection through virtual money exchange. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 10(3), 313–330. Doi:10.1016/j.elerap.2010.10.003
  • Gursoy, D., Malodia, S., Dhir, A. (2022) The metaverse in the hospitality and tourism industry: An overview of current trends and future research directions. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 31(5), 527–534. Doi:10.1080/19368623.2022.2072504
  • Hannekes, B. (2022) A brief history of NFTs. Web3 University webpage. Retrieved on 27/11/2022 from https://www.web3.university/tracks/build-your-first-nft/brief-history-of-nfts
  • Harley, D. (2022) ‘’This would be sweet in VR”: On the discursive newness of virtual reality. New Media & Society, (ahead-of-print). Doi:10.1177/14614448221084655
  • Harris, J.W. (2021) When did E.M. Forster’s ‘The Machine Stops’ become science fiction?. Classics of Science Fiction. https://classicsofsciencefiction.com/2020/08/21/when-did-e-m-forsters-the-machine-stops-become-science-fiction/ Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Hartmann, D., & Van der Auweraer, H. (2021) Digital Twins. In: Cruz, M., Parés, C., Quintela, P. (eds) Progress in Industrial Mathematics: Success Stories. Cham, Springer. Doi:10.1007/978-3-030-61844-5_1
  • Hewa, T., Ylianttila, M., Liyanage, M. (2021) Survey on blockchain based smart contracts: Applications, opportunities and challenges. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 177, 102857. Doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2020.102857
  • Hollensen, S., Kotler, P., Opresnik, M. O. (2022) Metaverse – the new marketing universe. Journal of Business Strategy. 44(3), 119-125. Doi:10.1108/JBS-01-2022-0014
  • Hudson-Smith, A., & Batty, M. (2022) Ubiquitous geographic information in the emergent Metaverse. Transactions in GIS, 26(3), 1147–1157. Doi:10.1111/tgis.12932
  • Huggett, J. (2020). Virtually real or really virtual: Towards a heritage metaverse. Studies in digital heritage, 4(1), 1-15. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7535-9312
  • Huynh-The, T., Pham, Q.-V., Pham, X.-Q., Nguyen, T. T., Han, Z., Kim, D.-S. (2022) Artificial Intelligence for the Metaverse: A Survey (arXiv:2202.10336). arXiv. http://arxiv.org/abs/2202.10336
  • Interesting Literature (2021) A summary and analysis of E.M. Forster’s ‘The Machine Stops’. InterstingLiteracture.com. https://interestingliterature.com/2021/02/em-forster-the-machine-stops-summary-analysis/ Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Ioannidis, S. A. (2023). A Blockchain-Based Tourism Industry: How Promising Can It Be?. In G. Kurubacak, R. Sharma, & H. Yıldırım (Eds.), Glocal Policy and Strategies for Blockchain: Building Ecosystems and Sustainability (pp. 27-50). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-6684-4153-4.ch002
  • Ioannidis, S. and Kontis, A.P. (2023). The Emergence of Metaverse in Tourism Lierature: A Mixed Content Analysis. Proceedings MTCON2023. 15-18 March, Istanbul. (ahead-of-print)
  • Ioannidis, S. and Kontis, A.P. (2023). Metaverse for tourists and tourism destinations. Information Technology & Tourism. (ahead-of-print) Doi:10.1007/s40558-023-00271-y
  • Jack Morton WorldWide (2021) The Metaverse Creation. Metaverse timeline. https://metaverse-timeline.com/ Accessed 01 December 2022
  • Jones, M.S (2022) Virtual World History. Part I. matthewscottjones.com. https://matthewscottjones.com/history-of-virtual-worlds Accessed 11 November 2022
  • Katz, J. (2022). Gaming in the Metaverse: online safety in another dimension. Public.io. Retrived on 02/05/2023 from https://www.public.io/blog-post/gaming-in-the-metaverse-online-safety-in-another-dimension
  • Kim, J. (2021) Advertising in the Metaverse: Research Agenda. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 21(3), 141–144. Doi:10.1080/15252019.2021.2001273
  • Koo, C., Kwon, J., Chung, N., Kim, J. (2022) Metaverse tourism: Conceptual framework and research propositions. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-7. Doi:10.1080/13683500.2022.2122781
  • Kumar, S., Chhugani, J., Kim, C., Kim, D., Nguyen, A., Dubey, P., Bienia, C., Kim, Y. (2008) Second Life and the New Generation of Virtual Worlds. Computer, 41(9), 46–53. Doi:10.1109/MC.2008.398
  • Lacity, M., Mullins, J.K., Kuai, L. (2022) What type of metaverse will we create? BcoE Whitepaper of Metaverse. 1-32, University of Arkansas. https://cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/wordpressua.uark.edu/dist/5/444/files/2022/10/2022_02_BCoEWhitePaperMetaverse5493.pdf
  • Lawton, G. (2022) History of the Metaverse Explained. TechTarget website. https://www.techtarget.com/searchcio/tip/History-of-the-metaverse-explained Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Lee, L.-H., Braud, T., Zhou, P., Wang, L., Xu, D., Lin, Z., Kumar, A., Bermejo, C., Hui, P. (2021) All One Needs to Know about Metaverse: A Complete Survey on Technological Singularity, Virtual Ecosystem, and Research Agenda. Journal of Latex Class Files, 14(8), 1-66. http://arxiv.org/abs/2110.05352
  • Lee, S.-G., Trimi, S., Byun, W. K., Kang, M. (2011) Innovation and imitation effects in Metaverse service adoption. Service Business, 5(2), 155–172. Doi:10.1007/s11628-011-0108-8
  • Lim, W. Y. B., Xiong, Z., Niyato, D., Cao, X., Miao, C., Sun, S., Yang, Q. (2022) Realizing the Metaverse with Edge Intelligence: A Match Made in Heaven. IEEE Wireless Comunications, (arXiv:2201.01634). http://arxiv.org/abs/2201.01634
  • MacNeil, J. (2019) The Machine Stops is Published, November 1, 1909. EDN webpage. https://www.edn.com/the-machine-stops-is-published-november-1-1909/ Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Marr, B. (2022) A Short History of the Metaverse. Bernardmarr.com. https://bernardmarr.com/a-short-history-of-the-metaverse/ Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Martin, E. (2022). ‘’When was Dungeons and Dragons invented? A history of D&D’’. Bookriot.com. Accessed 02/02/2023 from https://bookriot.com/when-was-dungeons-and-dragons-invented/
  • Melcher, J. (2022) 5 novels that predicted the metaverse. Exodus.com. https://www.exodus.com/news/novels-that-predicted-the-metaverse Accessed 11 November 2022
  • Messinger, P.R., Stroulia, E., Lyons, K., Bone, M., Niu, R.H., Smirnov, K., Perelgut, S. (2009) Virtual worlds — past, present, and future: New directions in social computing. Decision Support Systems, 47(3), 204–228. Doi:10.1016/j.dss.2009.02.014
  • Meta (2021) Founder’s Letter. Meta.com. https://about.fb.com/news/2021/10/founders-letter Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Moro-Visconti, R. (2022) From physical reality to the Metaverse: A Multilayer Network Valuation. Journal of Metaverse, 2(1), 16–22. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/2247581 Accessed 04 December 2022
  • Mozumder, M. A. I., Sheeraz, M. M., Athar, A., Aich, S., Kim, H.-C. (2022) Overview: Technology Roadmap of the Future Trend of Metaverse based on IoT, Blockchain, AI Technique, and Medical Domain Metaverse Activity. 2022 24th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 256–261. Doi:10.23919/ICACT53585.2022.9728808
  • Mystakidis, S. (2022) Metaverse. Encyclopedia, 2(1), 486–497. Doi:10.3390/encyclopedia2010031
  • Nair, V., Garrido, G. M., Song, D. (2022) Exploring the Unprecedented Privacy Risks of the Metaverse (arXiv:2207.13176). arXiv. http://arxiv.org/abs/2207.13176
  • Narin, N.G. (2021) A Content Analysis of the Metaverse Articles. Journal of Metaverse, 1(1), 17-24. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jmv/issue/67581/1051382 Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Ning, H., Wang, H., Lin, Y., Wang, W., Dhelim, S., Farha, F., Ding, J., Daneshmand, M. (2021) A Survey on Metaverse: The State-of-the-art, Technologies, Applications, and Challenges (arXiv:2111.09673). arXiv. http://arxiv.org/abs/2111.09673
  • Niu, X., & Feng, W. (2022) Immersive Entertainment Environments—From Theme Parks to Metaverse. In N. A. Streitz, S. Konomi (eds.) Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions. Smart Environments, Ecosystems, and Cities (pp. 392–403). Springer International Publishing. Doi:10.1007/978-3-031-05463-1_27
  • Njoku, J. N., Nwakanma, C. I., Amaizu, G. C., Kim, D.-S. (2022) Prospects and challenges of Metaverse application in data-driven intelligent transportation systems. IET Intelligent Transport Systems, n/a(n/a). Doi:10.1049/itr2.12252
  • Onyx (2022) Opportunities in the metaverse. JPMorgan.com. https://www.jpmorgan.com/content/dam/jpm/treasury-services/documents/opportunities-in-the-metaverse.pdf Accessed 02 December 2022
  • Papagiannidis, S., Bourlakis, M., Vafopoulos, M.N. (2008) Banking in Second Life: Marketing Opportunities and Repercussions. 1st Biannual International Conference 'Strategic Developments in Services Marketing’. Doi:10.2139/ssrn.1887570
  • Pokhrel, A., Katta, V., Colomo-Palacios, R. (2020) Digital Twin for Cybersecurity Incident Prediction: A Multivocal Literature Review. Proceedings of the IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering Workshops, 671–678. Doi:10.1145/3387940.3392199
  • Pookulangara, S., Kim, J., Josiam, B., Thombre, A. (2014) Intent to purchase from 3-D virtual environments: An exploratory study. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 5(4), 269–282. Doi:10.1080/20932685.2014.927659
  • Radoff, J. (2021) Books about the Metaverse. Medium.com. https://medium.com/building-the-metaverse/books-about-the-metaverse-b73f033f98f4 Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Rubio-Tamayo, J., Gertrudix Barrio, M., García García, F. (2017) Immersive Environments and Virtual Reality: Systematic Review and Advances in Communication, Interaction and Simulation. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 1(4), 21. Doi:10.3390/mti1040021
  • Russell, P.M. (2005) ‘IMAGINE, IF YOU CAN’: Love, Time and the impossibility of utopia in E.M. Forster’s ‘The Machine Stops’. Critical Survey, 17(1), 56-71. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41556094
  • Sixdegrees (2020) Homepage. http://sixdegrees.com/ Accessed 19 November 2022
  • Smart, J., Cascio, J., Paffendorf, J. (2007) Metaverse Roadmap Overview. Metaverseroadmap.org. https://www.metaverseroadmap.org/overview Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Sotheby’s (2022) Quantum. Sotheby’s Website. https://www.sothebys.com/en/buy/auction/2021/natively-digital-a-curated-nft-sale-2/quantum Accessed 19 November 2022
  • Spence, C. (2020). Senses of place: architectural design for the multisensory mind. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 5(1), 46. Doi:10.1186/s41235-020-00243-4
  • Spence, J. (2008) Demographics of Virtual Worlds. Journal For Virtual Worlds Research, 1(2). https://jvwr-ojs-utexas.tdl.org/jvwr/article/view/360
  • Srivastava, S. (2023). How could metaverse be a game changer for the virtual gaming industry? Appinventiv.com. Retrieved on 02/05/2023 from https://appinventiv.com/blog/metaverse-gaming/
  • Stephenson, N. (1992) Snow Crash. New York, Bantam Books
  • Taylor, C. R. (2022). Research on advertising in the metaverse: A call to action. International Journal of Advertising, 41(3), 383–384. Doi:10.1080/02650487.2022.2058786
  • Thomason, J. (2021) Metahealth – How Will the Metaverse Change Health Care? Journal of Metaverse, 1(1), 13-16. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jmv/issue/67581/1051379 Acessed 19 November 2022
  • van der Merwe, D. F. (2021) The metaverse as virtual heterotopia. Proceedings of The 3rd World Conference on Research in Social Sciences. 3rd World Conference on Research in Social Sciences. Doi:10.33422/3rd.socialsciencesconf.2021.10.61
  • van Rijmenam, M. (2022) Step into the Metaverse. New Jersey, Wiley
  • verdict.co.uk (2022). Metaverse: A recent history in popular literature. Verdict webpage. Accessed 02/01/2021 from https://www.verdict.co.uk/metaverse-literature-fiction
  • Viveiros, L.C., Aikes Junior, J. (2018) Augmented Reality and its aspects: a case study for heating systems. Research Gate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340144636_Augmented_Reality_and_its_aspects_a_case_study_for_heating_systems Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Wang, D. (2022) Kevin McCoy: The metaverse is going to be powered by game engines. Coindesk Webpage. https://www.coindesk.com/layer2/metaverseweek/2022/05/26/kevin-mccoy-the-metaverse-is-going-to-be-powered-by-game-engines/ Accessed 28 November 2022
  • Wang, Y., Su, Z., Zhang, N., Xing, R., Liu, D., Luan, T. H., Shen, X. (2022) A Survey on Metaverse: Fundamentals, Security, and Privacy. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 1–32. Doi:10.1109/COMST.2022.3202047
  • Weinbaum, S.G. (1935) Pygmalion’s Spectacles. New York, Stellar Publishing
  • Wells, H.G. (2022) A Modern Utopia. New York: Sheba Blake Publications Co, kindle version.
  • Wiederhold, B. K. (2022). Ready (or Not) player one: Initial musings on the metaverse. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 25(1), 1-2. Doi:10.1089/cyber.2021.29234.editorial
  • Wiederhold, B., & Riva, G. (2022) Metaverse Creates New Opportunities In Healthcare. In (eds) Wiederhold, B., Riva, G Annals Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine, 20, 3-7. San Diego, Interactive Media Institute.
  • Witt, L., Kperogi, F.A., Sinclair, G.W., Bohrer, C., & Negash, S. (2016). Journalism: How One University Used Virtual Worlds to Tell True Stories. International Symposium On Online Journalism, 6(1), 5-32.
  • Xu, M., Ng, W. C., Lim, W. Y. B., Kang, J., Xiong, Z., Niyato, D., Yang, Q., Shen, X. S., Miao, C. (2022) A Full Dive into Realizing the Edge-enabled Metaverse: Visions, Enabling Technologies,and Challenges. (arXiv:2203.05471), 1-44. http://arxiv.org/abs/2203.05471
  • Yang, Q., Zhao, Y., Huang, H., Xiong, Z., Kang, J., Zheng, Z. (2022) Fusing Blockchain and AI With Metaverse: A Survey. IEEE Open Journal of the Computer Society, 3, 122–136. Doi:10.1109/OJCS.2022.3188249

The 4 Epochs of the Metaverse

Year 2023, Volume: 3 Issue: 2, 152 - 165, 31.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.57019/jmv.1294970

Abstract

The concept of the Metaverse has attracted considerable attention since 2021, primarily due to the rebranding of “Fakebook” to “Meta” and its promise of delivering a more immersive online experience. However, the origins of this term can be traced back to Neal Stephenson's sci-fi novel, “Snow Crash”, published in 1992. In the current study, an extensive articles review has been conducted, including academic sources, technology blogs, business reports, and social media posts. The main goal is to create a comprehensive timeline of the Metaverse and its underlying technologies. By categorizing 26 significant milestones into four distinct periods, the study introduces a framework called "4 Epochs of the Metaverse." The suggested framework challenges previously established linear timelines found in literature by identifying time periods that are based on content, rather than on chronological order. The findings emphasize that the Metaverse is not a new phenomenon, but, rather, a concept that has evolved over time since 1905 and can be classified under 4 dynamic periods, which are named Epochs. The study provides an in-depth description of the origins and evolution of the Metaverse, serving a dual purpose for researchers and practitioners: it provides insights into the transformative potential and future possibilities of the metaverse, while it lays the groundwork for further exploration and innovation in this phygital (physical + digital) environment.

References

  • Akour, I. A., Al-Maroof, R. S., Alfaisal, R., Salloum, S. A. (2022) A conceptual framework for determining metaverse adoption in higher institutions of gulf area: An empirical study using hybrid SEM-ANN approach. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 3, 100052. Doi:10.1016/j.caeai.2022.100052
  • Allam, Z., Sharifi, A., Bibri, S. E., Jones, D. S., Krogstie, J. (2022) The Metaverse as a Virtual Form of Smart Cities: Opportunities and Challenges for Environmental, Economic, and Social Sustainability in Urban Futures. Smart Cities, 5(3), 771–801. Doi:10.3390/smartcities5030040
  • Almoqbel, M. Y., Naderi, A., Wohn, D. Y., Goyal, N. (2022) The Metaverse: A Systematic Literature Review to Map Scholarly Definitions. Companion Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, 80–84. Doi:10.1145/3500868.3559448
  • Alvarez-Risco, A., Del-Aguila-Arcentales, S., Rosen, M. A., & Yáñez, J. A. (2022). Social Cognitive Theory to Assess the Intention to Participate in the Facebook Metaverse by Citizens in Peru during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 8(3), 142. Doi:10.3390/joitmc8030142
  • Anderson, J., & Rainie, L. (2022) The Metaverse in 2040. Pew Research Org Report. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2022/06/PI_2022.06.30_Metaverse-Predictions_FINAL.pdf Accessed 10 November 2022
  • Ante, L. (2021) Smart contracts on the blockchain – A bibliometric analysis and review. Telematics and Informatics, 57.101519. Doi:10.1016/j.tele.2020.101519
  • Aurigi, A (2022) Smart cities, metaverses, and the relevance of place. IET Smart Cities, 4(3), 157–159. Doi:10.1049/smc2.12030
  • Bale, A. S., Ghorpade, N., Hashim, M. F., Vaishnav, J., Almaspoor, Z. (2022) A Comprehensive Study on Metaverse and Its Impacts on Humans. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2022, e3247060. Doi:10.1155/2022/3247060
  • Barricelli, B. R., Casiraghi, E., Fogli, D. (2019) A Survey on Digital Twin: Definitions, Characteristics, Applications, and Design Implications. IEEE Access, 7, 167653–167671. Doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2953499
  • Basso, A. (2017) Advantages, Critics and Paradoxes of Virtual Reality Applied to Digital Systems of Architectural Prefiguration, the Phenomenon of Virtual Migration. Proceedings, 1, 915. Doi:10.3390/proceedings1090915
  • Bayram, A. (2022) Metaleisure: Leisure Time Habits to be Changed with Metaverse. Journal of Metaverse, 2(1), 1-7. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jmv/issue/67967/1065227 Accessed 11 November 2022
  • Belk, R., Humayun, M., Brouard, M. (2022) Money, possessions, and ownership in the Metaverse: NFTs, cryptocurrencies, Web3 and Wild Markets. Journal of Business Research, 153, 198–205. Doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2022.08.031
  • Bibri, S. E. (2022) The Social Shaping of the Metaverse as an Alternative to the Imaginaries of Data-Driven Smart Cities: A Study in Science, Technology, and Society. Smart Cities, 5(3), 832–874. Doi:10.3390/smartcities5030043
  • Bouraga, S. (2021) A taxonomy of blockchain consensus protocols: A survey and classification framework. Expert Systems with Applications, 168, 114384. Doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2020.114384
  • Bourlakis, M., Papagiannidis, S., Li, F. (2009). Retail spatial evolution: Paving the way from traditional to metaverse retailing. Electronic Commerce Research, 9(1), 135–148. Doi:10.1007/s10660-009-9030-8
  • Buhalis, D., Lin, M. & Leung, D. (2023). Metaverse as a Driver for Customer Experience and Value Co-Creation: Implications for Hospitality and Tourism Management and Marketing. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 35(2), 701-716. Doi:10.1108/IJCHM-05-2022-0631
  • Castronova, E. (2001). Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier. SSRN Electronic Journal. Doi:10.2139/ssrn.294828
  • CNBCTV18. (2022). Explained: The history of Metaverse. cnbctv18.com. Retrieved on 28/11/2022 from https://www.cnbctv18.com/technology/explained-the-history-of-metaverse-12015212.htm
  • Collins, C. (2008) Looking to the Future: Higher Education in the Metaverse. EDUCAUSE Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2008/9/looking-to-the-future-higher-education-in-the-metaverse Accessed 16 November 2022
  • Cornell.edu. (2007). Cornell Chronicle. News.cornell.edu. https://news.cornell.edu/stories/2007/10/johnson-school-professor-uses-virtual-reality-class Accessed 03 December 2022
  • Cultural Reader. (2012) Simulacra and Simulation by Jean Baudrillard – Summary. Cultural Reader. https://culturalstudiesnow.blogspot.com/2012/10/simulacra-and-simulation-by-jean.html Accessed 19 November 2022
  • Damar, M. (2021) Metaverse Shape of Your Life for Future: A bibliometric snapshot. Journal of Metaverse, 1(1), 1-8. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jmv/issue/67581/1051371 Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Daskalakis, N., Georgitseas, P. (2020) An Introduction to cryptocurrencies: The crypto market ecosystem. London: Routledge.
  • Decentraland. (2022). Twitter post on 06/11/2022, 15:00. https://twitter.com/RLTY_Live/status/1577992293147185152?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1578007954049191938%7Ctwgr%5E736124a63b93f7d4d5305dd858dddfe5b75e711f%7Ctwcon%5Es3_&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fdailycoin.com%2Fmacron-shows-up-on-decentraland-first-presidential-speech-in-the-metaverse%2F Accessed 11 December 2022
  • Dhelim, S., Kechadi, T., Chen, L., Aung, N., Ning, H., Atzori, L. (2022) Edge-enabled Metaverse: The Convergence of Metaverse and Mobile Edge Computing. TechRxiv. Doi:10.36227/techrxiv.19606954.v1
  • Dionisio, J. D. N., Iii, W. G. B., Gilbert, R. (2013) 3D Virtual worlds and the metaverse: Current status and future possibilities. ACM Computing Surveys, 45(3), 1–38. Doi:10.1145/2480741.2480751
  • Duan, H., Li, J., Fan, S., Lin, Z., Wu, X., Cai, W. (2021) Metaverse for Social Good: A University Campus Prototype. Proceedings of the 29th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, 153–161. Doi:10.1145/3474085.3479238
  • Dubey, V., Mokashi, A., Pradhan, R., Gupta, P., Walimbe, R. (2022) Metaverse and Banking Industry – 2023 The Year of Metaverse Adoption. Technium: Romanian Journal of Applied Sciences and Technology, 4(10), Article 10. Doi:10.47577/technium.v4i10.7774
  • Duranske, B. (2007) Metanomics launches, Announces 2007 speakers. Virtuallyblind.com. http://virtuallyblind.com/2007/09/13/metanomics-07-speakers/ Accessed 11 November 2022
  • Dwivedi, Y. K., Hughes, L., Baabdullah, A. M., Ribeiro-Navarrete, S., Giannakis, M., Al-Debei, M. M., Dennehy, D., Metri, B., Buhalis, D., Cheung, … Wamba, S. F. (2022). Metaverse beyond the hype: Multidisciplinary perspectives on emerging challenges, opportunities, and agenda for research, practice and policy. International Journal of Information Management, 66, 102542. Doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2022.102542
  • Edwards, B. (2022) There is no Metaverse (yet). HowtoGeek.com. https://www.howtogeek.com/777037/there-is-no-metaverse-yet/ Accessed 04 December 2022
  • EUBlockchain. (2022) Metaverse. European Union Blockchain Observatory & Forum. https://www.eublockchainforum.eu/sites/default/files/reports/Metaverse_Report_Final_1.pdf Accessed 11 November 2022
  • EY webpage. (2023). What’s possible for the gaming industry in the next dimension? Ey.com. Retrieved on 02/-5/2023 from https://www.ey.com/en_us/tmt/what-s-possible-for-the-gaming-industry-in-the-next-dimension
  • Fan, Z., Chen, C., & Huang, H. (2022). Immersive cultural heritage digital documentation and information service for historical figure metaverse: A case of Zhu Xi, Song Dynasty, China. Heritage Science, 10(1), 148. Doi:10.1186/s40494-022-00749-8
  • Faraboschi, P., Frachtenberg, E., Laplante, P., Milojicic, D., Saracco, R. (2022) Virtual Worlds (Metaverse): From Skepticism, to Fear, to Immersive Opportunities. Computer, 55(10), 100–106. Doi:10.1109/MC.2022.3192702
  • Felluga, D. (2002) Modules on Baudrillard: On Simulation. Introductory Guide to Critical Theory. https://cla.purdue.edu/academic/english/theory/postmodernism/modules/baudrillardsimulation.html Accessed 16 November 2022
  • Flaherty, S. (2020) ‘The Machine Stops’: E.M. Forster’s Esoteric critique of H.G. Wells ‘A Modern Utopia’. History, 105(366), 422-445. Doi:10.1111/1468-229X.13022
  • Forbes (2022) There is no Metaverse today, but be prepared. Forbes.com. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forrester/2022/03/31/there-is-no-metaverse-today-but-be-prepared/?sh=1dbb639b236b Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Forster, E.M. (2015). The Machine Stops. New Delhi: Prabhat Prakashan, kindle version.
  • Gadekallu, T. R., Yenduri, G., Ranaweera, P., Pham, Q.-V., Huynh-The, T., Wang, W., da Costa, D. B., Liyanage, M. (2022) Blockchain for the Metaverse: A Review. arXiv2203.09738 Doi:10.48550/arXiv.2203.09738
  • Gelernter, D. (1992). Mirror worlds: Or the day software puts the universe in a shoebox…How it will happen and what it will mean. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gibson, W. (1984) Neuromancer. New York, ACE
  • Grieves, M., & Vickers, J. (2017) Digital Twin: Mitigating Unpredictable, Undesirable Emergent Behavior in Complex Systems. In: Kahlen, J., Flumerfelt, S., Alves, A. (eds) Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Complex Systems. Cha, Springer Doi:10.1007/978-3-319-38756-7_4
  • Guo, J., Chow, A., Wigand, R. T. (2011) Virtual wealth protection through virtual money exchange. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 10(3), 313–330. Doi:10.1016/j.elerap.2010.10.003
  • Gursoy, D., Malodia, S., Dhir, A. (2022) The metaverse in the hospitality and tourism industry: An overview of current trends and future research directions. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 31(5), 527–534. Doi:10.1080/19368623.2022.2072504
  • Hannekes, B. (2022) A brief history of NFTs. Web3 University webpage. Retrieved on 27/11/2022 from https://www.web3.university/tracks/build-your-first-nft/brief-history-of-nfts
  • Harley, D. (2022) ‘’This would be sweet in VR”: On the discursive newness of virtual reality. New Media & Society, (ahead-of-print). Doi:10.1177/14614448221084655
  • Harris, J.W. (2021) When did E.M. Forster’s ‘The Machine Stops’ become science fiction?. Classics of Science Fiction. https://classicsofsciencefiction.com/2020/08/21/when-did-e-m-forsters-the-machine-stops-become-science-fiction/ Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Hartmann, D., & Van der Auweraer, H. (2021) Digital Twins. In: Cruz, M., Parés, C., Quintela, P. (eds) Progress in Industrial Mathematics: Success Stories. Cham, Springer. Doi:10.1007/978-3-030-61844-5_1
  • Hewa, T., Ylianttila, M., Liyanage, M. (2021) Survey on blockchain based smart contracts: Applications, opportunities and challenges. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 177, 102857. Doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2020.102857
  • Hollensen, S., Kotler, P., Opresnik, M. O. (2022) Metaverse – the new marketing universe. Journal of Business Strategy. 44(3), 119-125. Doi:10.1108/JBS-01-2022-0014
  • Hudson-Smith, A., & Batty, M. (2022) Ubiquitous geographic information in the emergent Metaverse. Transactions in GIS, 26(3), 1147–1157. Doi:10.1111/tgis.12932
  • Huggett, J. (2020). Virtually real or really virtual: Towards a heritage metaverse. Studies in digital heritage, 4(1), 1-15. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7535-9312
  • Huynh-The, T., Pham, Q.-V., Pham, X.-Q., Nguyen, T. T., Han, Z., Kim, D.-S. (2022) Artificial Intelligence for the Metaverse: A Survey (arXiv:2202.10336). arXiv. http://arxiv.org/abs/2202.10336
  • Interesting Literature (2021) A summary and analysis of E.M. Forster’s ‘The Machine Stops’. InterstingLiteracture.com. https://interestingliterature.com/2021/02/em-forster-the-machine-stops-summary-analysis/ Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Ioannidis, S. A. (2023). A Blockchain-Based Tourism Industry: How Promising Can It Be?. In G. Kurubacak, R. Sharma, & H. Yıldırım (Eds.), Glocal Policy and Strategies for Blockchain: Building Ecosystems and Sustainability (pp. 27-50). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-6684-4153-4.ch002
  • Ioannidis, S. and Kontis, A.P. (2023). The Emergence of Metaverse in Tourism Lierature: A Mixed Content Analysis. Proceedings MTCON2023. 15-18 March, Istanbul. (ahead-of-print)
  • Ioannidis, S. and Kontis, A.P. (2023). Metaverse for tourists and tourism destinations. Information Technology & Tourism. (ahead-of-print) Doi:10.1007/s40558-023-00271-y
  • Jack Morton WorldWide (2021) The Metaverse Creation. Metaverse timeline. https://metaverse-timeline.com/ Accessed 01 December 2022
  • Jones, M.S (2022) Virtual World History. Part I. matthewscottjones.com. https://matthewscottjones.com/history-of-virtual-worlds Accessed 11 November 2022
  • Katz, J. (2022). Gaming in the Metaverse: online safety in another dimension. Public.io. Retrived on 02/05/2023 from https://www.public.io/blog-post/gaming-in-the-metaverse-online-safety-in-another-dimension
  • Kim, J. (2021) Advertising in the Metaverse: Research Agenda. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 21(3), 141–144. Doi:10.1080/15252019.2021.2001273
  • Koo, C., Kwon, J., Chung, N., Kim, J. (2022) Metaverse tourism: Conceptual framework and research propositions. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-7. Doi:10.1080/13683500.2022.2122781
  • Kumar, S., Chhugani, J., Kim, C., Kim, D., Nguyen, A., Dubey, P., Bienia, C., Kim, Y. (2008) Second Life and the New Generation of Virtual Worlds. Computer, 41(9), 46–53. Doi:10.1109/MC.2008.398
  • Lacity, M., Mullins, J.K., Kuai, L. (2022) What type of metaverse will we create? BcoE Whitepaper of Metaverse. 1-32, University of Arkansas. https://cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/wordpressua.uark.edu/dist/5/444/files/2022/10/2022_02_BCoEWhitePaperMetaverse5493.pdf
  • Lawton, G. (2022) History of the Metaverse Explained. TechTarget website. https://www.techtarget.com/searchcio/tip/History-of-the-metaverse-explained Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Lee, L.-H., Braud, T., Zhou, P., Wang, L., Xu, D., Lin, Z., Kumar, A., Bermejo, C., Hui, P. (2021) All One Needs to Know about Metaverse: A Complete Survey on Technological Singularity, Virtual Ecosystem, and Research Agenda. Journal of Latex Class Files, 14(8), 1-66. http://arxiv.org/abs/2110.05352
  • Lee, S.-G., Trimi, S., Byun, W. K., Kang, M. (2011) Innovation and imitation effects in Metaverse service adoption. Service Business, 5(2), 155–172. Doi:10.1007/s11628-011-0108-8
  • Lim, W. Y. B., Xiong, Z., Niyato, D., Cao, X., Miao, C., Sun, S., Yang, Q. (2022) Realizing the Metaverse with Edge Intelligence: A Match Made in Heaven. IEEE Wireless Comunications, (arXiv:2201.01634). http://arxiv.org/abs/2201.01634
  • MacNeil, J. (2019) The Machine Stops is Published, November 1, 1909. EDN webpage. https://www.edn.com/the-machine-stops-is-published-november-1-1909/ Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Marr, B. (2022) A Short History of the Metaverse. Bernardmarr.com. https://bernardmarr.com/a-short-history-of-the-metaverse/ Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Martin, E. (2022). ‘’When was Dungeons and Dragons invented? A history of D&D’’. Bookriot.com. Accessed 02/02/2023 from https://bookriot.com/when-was-dungeons-and-dragons-invented/
  • Melcher, J. (2022) 5 novels that predicted the metaverse. Exodus.com. https://www.exodus.com/news/novels-that-predicted-the-metaverse Accessed 11 November 2022
  • Messinger, P.R., Stroulia, E., Lyons, K., Bone, M., Niu, R.H., Smirnov, K., Perelgut, S. (2009) Virtual worlds — past, present, and future: New directions in social computing. Decision Support Systems, 47(3), 204–228. Doi:10.1016/j.dss.2009.02.014
  • Meta (2021) Founder’s Letter. Meta.com. https://about.fb.com/news/2021/10/founders-letter Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Moro-Visconti, R. (2022) From physical reality to the Metaverse: A Multilayer Network Valuation. Journal of Metaverse, 2(1), 16–22. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/2247581 Accessed 04 December 2022
  • Mozumder, M. A. I., Sheeraz, M. M., Athar, A., Aich, S., Kim, H.-C. (2022) Overview: Technology Roadmap of the Future Trend of Metaverse based on IoT, Blockchain, AI Technique, and Medical Domain Metaverse Activity. 2022 24th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 256–261. Doi:10.23919/ICACT53585.2022.9728808
  • Mystakidis, S. (2022) Metaverse. Encyclopedia, 2(1), 486–497. Doi:10.3390/encyclopedia2010031
  • Nair, V., Garrido, G. M., Song, D. (2022) Exploring the Unprecedented Privacy Risks of the Metaverse (arXiv:2207.13176). arXiv. http://arxiv.org/abs/2207.13176
  • Narin, N.G. (2021) A Content Analysis of the Metaverse Articles. Journal of Metaverse, 1(1), 17-24. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jmv/issue/67581/1051382 Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Ning, H., Wang, H., Lin, Y., Wang, W., Dhelim, S., Farha, F., Ding, J., Daneshmand, M. (2021) A Survey on Metaverse: The State-of-the-art, Technologies, Applications, and Challenges (arXiv:2111.09673). arXiv. http://arxiv.org/abs/2111.09673
  • Niu, X., & Feng, W. (2022) Immersive Entertainment Environments—From Theme Parks to Metaverse. In N. A. Streitz, S. Konomi (eds.) Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions. Smart Environments, Ecosystems, and Cities (pp. 392–403). Springer International Publishing. Doi:10.1007/978-3-031-05463-1_27
  • Njoku, J. N., Nwakanma, C. I., Amaizu, G. C., Kim, D.-S. (2022) Prospects and challenges of Metaverse application in data-driven intelligent transportation systems. IET Intelligent Transport Systems, n/a(n/a). Doi:10.1049/itr2.12252
  • Onyx (2022) Opportunities in the metaverse. JPMorgan.com. https://www.jpmorgan.com/content/dam/jpm/treasury-services/documents/opportunities-in-the-metaverse.pdf Accessed 02 December 2022
  • Papagiannidis, S., Bourlakis, M., Vafopoulos, M.N. (2008) Banking in Second Life: Marketing Opportunities and Repercussions. 1st Biannual International Conference 'Strategic Developments in Services Marketing’. Doi:10.2139/ssrn.1887570
  • Pokhrel, A., Katta, V., Colomo-Palacios, R. (2020) Digital Twin for Cybersecurity Incident Prediction: A Multivocal Literature Review. Proceedings of the IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering Workshops, 671–678. Doi:10.1145/3387940.3392199
  • Pookulangara, S., Kim, J., Josiam, B., Thombre, A. (2014) Intent to purchase from 3-D virtual environments: An exploratory study. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 5(4), 269–282. Doi:10.1080/20932685.2014.927659
  • Radoff, J. (2021) Books about the Metaverse. Medium.com. https://medium.com/building-the-metaverse/books-about-the-metaverse-b73f033f98f4 Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Rubio-Tamayo, J., Gertrudix Barrio, M., García García, F. (2017) Immersive Environments and Virtual Reality: Systematic Review and Advances in Communication, Interaction and Simulation. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 1(4), 21. Doi:10.3390/mti1040021
  • Russell, P.M. (2005) ‘IMAGINE, IF YOU CAN’: Love, Time and the impossibility of utopia in E.M. Forster’s ‘The Machine Stops’. Critical Survey, 17(1), 56-71. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41556094
  • Sixdegrees (2020) Homepage. http://sixdegrees.com/ Accessed 19 November 2022
  • Smart, J., Cascio, J., Paffendorf, J. (2007) Metaverse Roadmap Overview. Metaverseroadmap.org. https://www.metaverseroadmap.org/overview Accessed 14 November 2022
  • Sotheby’s (2022) Quantum. Sotheby’s Website. https://www.sothebys.com/en/buy/auction/2021/natively-digital-a-curated-nft-sale-2/quantum Accessed 19 November 2022
  • Spence, C. (2020). Senses of place: architectural design for the multisensory mind. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 5(1), 46. Doi:10.1186/s41235-020-00243-4
  • Spence, J. (2008) Demographics of Virtual Worlds. Journal For Virtual Worlds Research, 1(2). https://jvwr-ojs-utexas.tdl.org/jvwr/article/view/360
  • Srivastava, S. (2023). How could metaverse be a game changer for the virtual gaming industry? Appinventiv.com. Retrieved on 02/05/2023 from https://appinventiv.com/blog/metaverse-gaming/
  • Stephenson, N. (1992) Snow Crash. New York, Bantam Books
  • Taylor, C. R. (2022). Research on advertising in the metaverse: A call to action. International Journal of Advertising, 41(3), 383–384. Doi:10.1080/02650487.2022.2058786
  • Thomason, J. (2021) Metahealth – How Will the Metaverse Change Health Care? Journal of Metaverse, 1(1), 13-16. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jmv/issue/67581/1051379 Acessed 19 November 2022
  • van der Merwe, D. F. (2021) The metaverse as virtual heterotopia. Proceedings of The 3rd World Conference on Research in Social Sciences. 3rd World Conference on Research in Social Sciences. Doi:10.33422/3rd.socialsciencesconf.2021.10.61
  • van Rijmenam, M. (2022) Step into the Metaverse. New Jersey, Wiley
  • verdict.co.uk (2022). Metaverse: A recent history in popular literature. Verdict webpage. Accessed 02/01/2021 from https://www.verdict.co.uk/metaverse-literature-fiction
  • Viveiros, L.C., Aikes Junior, J. (2018) Augmented Reality and its aspects: a case study for heating systems. Research Gate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340144636_Augmented_Reality_and_its_aspects_a_case_study_for_heating_systems Accessed 21 November 2022
  • Wang, D. (2022) Kevin McCoy: The metaverse is going to be powered by game engines. Coindesk Webpage. https://www.coindesk.com/layer2/metaverseweek/2022/05/26/kevin-mccoy-the-metaverse-is-going-to-be-powered-by-game-engines/ Accessed 28 November 2022
  • Wang, Y., Su, Z., Zhang, N., Xing, R., Liu, D., Luan, T. H., Shen, X. (2022) A Survey on Metaverse: Fundamentals, Security, and Privacy. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 1–32. Doi:10.1109/COMST.2022.3202047
  • Weinbaum, S.G. (1935) Pygmalion’s Spectacles. New York, Stellar Publishing
  • Wells, H.G. (2022) A Modern Utopia. New York: Sheba Blake Publications Co, kindle version.
  • Wiederhold, B. K. (2022). Ready (or Not) player one: Initial musings on the metaverse. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 25(1), 1-2. Doi:10.1089/cyber.2021.29234.editorial
  • Wiederhold, B., & Riva, G. (2022) Metaverse Creates New Opportunities In Healthcare. In (eds) Wiederhold, B., Riva, G Annals Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine, 20, 3-7. San Diego, Interactive Media Institute.
  • Witt, L., Kperogi, F.A., Sinclair, G.W., Bohrer, C., & Negash, S. (2016). Journalism: How One University Used Virtual Worlds to Tell True Stories. International Symposium On Online Journalism, 6(1), 5-32.
  • Xu, M., Ng, W. C., Lim, W. Y. B., Kang, J., Xiong, Z., Niyato, D., Yang, Q., Shen, X. S., Miao, C. (2022) A Full Dive into Realizing the Edge-enabled Metaverse: Visions, Enabling Technologies,and Challenges. (arXiv:2203.05471), 1-44. http://arxiv.org/abs/2203.05471
  • Yang, Q., Zhao, Y., Huang, H., Xiong, Z., Kang, J., Zheng, Z. (2022) Fusing Blockchain and AI With Metaverse: A Survey. IEEE Open Journal of the Computer Society, 3, 122–136. Doi:10.1109/OJCS.2022.3188249

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Information Systems (Other)
Journal Section Reviews
Authors

Stelios IOANNIDIS 0000-0002-9043-8895

Alexios Patapios KONTIS This is me 0000-0003-0868-7612

Early Pub Date October 19, 2023
Publication Date December 31, 2023
Submission Date May 10, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 3 Issue: 2

Cite

APA IOANNIDIS, S., & KONTIS, A. P. (2023). The 4 Epochs of the Metaverse. Journal of Metaverse, 3(2), 152-165. https://doi.org/10.57019/jmv.1294970

Journal of Metaverse
is indexed and abstracted by
Scopus and DOAJ

Publisher
Izmir Academy Association
www.izmirakademi.org