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Artificial Intelligence and Future Scenarios in Education

Year 2021, Volume 18, Issue Eğitim Bilimleri Özel Sayısı, 4225 - 4268, 15.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.26466/opus.911444

Abstract

It is feared that artificial intelligence, which develops rapidly as a result of the studies and continues to gain more place in all areas of our lives with its new abilities, will disable people in almost all professions in the future with the new abilities it will acquire. The aim of this research is to reveal scenarios in which artificial intelligence will take place in education in the light of the same concerns and examine these scenarios in line with expert opinions. In the research, qualitative research method was adopted and the opinions of the participants were analyzed in depth with a phenomenological approach. As a data collection tool, semi-structured interview questions prepared by the researchers were used. The study group of the research consists of 10 academic staff who are experts in the field of artificial intelligence, working at various universities in Turkey, reached by snowball sampling method. The data obtained as a result of the interviews were analyzed by descriptive analysis method. In line with the analysis, the data were gathered under the sub-themes of possible benefits, concerns and applicability related to the scenarios. According to the findings, many benefits will be provided in scenarios where artificial intelligence replaces the teacher and takes the role of principal in school management. According to the findings, these scenarios also raise many concerns. According to another finding of the research, artificial intelligence will not be able to replace the teacher or school principal with its current abilities, and it will be more beneficial for the teacher and the school principal to remain in the role of assistant unless necessary developments are made.

References

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  • Aşçı, B. (2017). Olasılık yönetimi: Senaryo analizi. 21.YY’da Eğitim ve Toplum, 6(17), 375-394.
  • Auvinen, T., Sajasalo, P., Sintonen, T., Pekkala, K., Takala, T. and Luoma-aho, V. (2019). Evolution of strategy narration and leadership work in the digital era. Leadership, 15(2), 205-225. doi:10.1177/1742715019826426.
  • Böke, K. (2009). Örnekleme. K. Böke (Der.). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri içinde (s.105-147). İstanbul: Alfa Basım Yayım Dağıtım.
  • Boucher, P. (2019). How artificial intelligence works. EPRS. Panel for the Future of Science and Technology. 1 Kasım 2020 tarihinde http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2019/634420/EPRS_BRI(2019)634420_EN.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • Bryant, J., Heitz, C., Sanghvi, S. and Wagle, D. (2020). How artificial intelligence will impact K-12 teachers. 20 Ocak 2021 tarihinde https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-and-social-sector/our-insights/how-artificial-intelligence-will-impact-k-12-teachers adresinden erişildi.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, E. K., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş. ve Demirel, F. (2018). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Canbek, M. (2020). Artificial intelligence leadership: İmitating mintzberg’s managerial roles. A. Ö. Tunç ve P. Aslan (Der.), Business management and communication perspectives in industry 4.0. içinde (s.173-187) doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-9416-1.ch010
  • Chandra, R. (2015). Classroom management for effective teaching. International Journal of Education and Psychological Research (IJEPR), 4(4), 13-15.
  • Chen, L., Chen, P. and Lin, Z. (2020). Artificial intelligence in education: A review. IEEE Access, 8, 75264 – 75278. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2988510
  • Chernov, A. and Chernova, V. (2019). Artificial intelligence in managemnet: Challenges and opportunıtıes. 38th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development, 133-140.
  • Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks: SAGE. Edwards, B. I. and Cheok, A. D: (2018). Why not robot teachers: Artificial intelligence for addressing teacher shortage. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 32(4), 345-360. doi:10.1080/08839514.2018.1464286
  • Ertel, W. (2011). Introduction to artificial intelligence. London: Springer.
  • Fast, E. and Horvitz, E. (2020). Long-term trends in the public perception of artificial intelligence. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 31(1), 1-7.
  • Felix, C. V. (2021). The role of the teacher and AI in educatıon. Sengupta, E., Blessinger, P. and Makhanya, M.S. (Der.). International perspectives on the role of technology in humanizing higher education (Innovations in higher education teaching and learning, 33), içinde (s.33-48). Emerald Publishing Limited. doi:10.1108/S2055-364120200000033003
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  • Gondal, K. M. (2018). Artificial intelligence and educational leadership. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 24(4), 1-2.
  • Grawemeyer, B., Mavrikis, M., Holmes, W., Santos, S. G., Wiedmann, M. and Rummel, N. (2017). Affective learning: Improving engagement and enhancing learning with affect-aware feedback. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 27, 119-158. doi:10.1007/s11257-017-9188-z
  • Groenewald, T. (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1), 42-55. doi:10.1177/160940690400300104
  • Hu, Z. (2020). Influence of introducing artificial intelligence on autonomous learning in vocational education. Jemal, H. A., Kim-Kwang, R. C., Zheng, X. ve Mohammed A. (Der.), AISC 1244. içinde (s.361-366). Springer doi:10.1007/978-3-030-53980-1_54
  • Huang, Q. ve Shi, L. (2020). Education management reform of private colleges and universities based on artificial intelligence. Jemal, H. A., Kim-Kwang, R. C., Zheng, X. and Mohammed A. (Der.), 2020 International conference on applications and techniques in cyber ıntelligence. AISC 1244. İçinde (s.334-340). Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-53980-1_50
  • Kolbjornsrud, V., Amico, R. and Thomas, R. J. (2016). How artificial intelligence will redefine management. Harvard Business Review, 2, 1-6.
  • Kolchenko, V. (2018). Can modern AI replace teachers? Not so fast! Artificial intelligence and adaptive learning: Personalized education in the AI age. HAPS Educator, 22(3), 249- 252. doi:10.21692/haps.2018.032
  • Komalavalli, K., Hemalatha, R. and Dhanalakshmi, S. (2020). A survey of artificial intelligence in smart phones and its applications among the students of higher education in and around Chennai City. Shanlax Internatıonal Journal of Education, 8(3), 89-95. doi:10.34293/education.v8i3.2379
  • Kshetri, N. (2020). China’s social credit system: data, algorithms and ımplications. IT Professional, 22(2), 14-18. doi:10.1109/MITP.2019.2935662.
  • Lancrin, S. V. and Van Der Vlies, R. (2020). Trustworthy artificial intelligence (AI) in education: Promises and challenges. OECD Education Working Papers, 6, 1-17. doi:10.1787/a6c90fa9-en
  • Luo, S. (2019). Research on the change of educational management in the era of artificial intelligence. 12th International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA). doi:10.1109/ICICTA49267.2019.00101
  • Lynch, M. (2019). Will AI take over educatıonal leadershıp? 10 Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://www.thetechedvocate.org/will-ai-take-over-educational-leadership/ adresinden erişildi.
  • Mathew, A., Arul, A. and Sivakumari, S. (2020). Deep learning techniques: An overview. Abdoul, E. H., roheet, B., ve Ashraf, D. (Der.). International Conference on Advanced machine learning technologies and applications. Içinde (s.599-608) Singapure: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-981-15-3383-9_54
  • MEB. (2020). EBA Akıllı Destek Sistemi. 1 Kasım 2020 tarihinde https://www.meb.gov.tr/1-milyona-yakin-ogrenci-eba-akademik-destek-sistemi-ile-universite-hedefine-ilerliyor/haber/20798/tr adresinden erişildi.
  • Mintzberg, H. (1971). Magagerial work: Analysis from observation. Management Science, 18(2), 97-110. doi:10.1287/mnsc.18.2.B97
  • Moldenhauer, L. and Londt, C. (2019). Leadership, artificial intelligence and the need to redefine future skills development. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 16(1), 155-160. doi:10.33423/jlae.v16i1.1363
  • Noponen, N. (2019). Impact of artificial intelligence on management. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 24(2), 43-50.
  • Obschonka, M. and Audretsch, D. B. (2020). Artificial intelligence and big data entrepreneurship: A new era has begun. Small Business Economics, 55, 529-539. doi:10.1007/s11187-019-00202-4
  • Oliveira, M., Lopes, C., Soares, F., Pinheiro, G. and Guimaraes, P. (2020). What can we expect from the future? The impact of artificial ıntelligence on society. 15th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 1-6. doi:10.23919/CISTI49556.2020.9140903
  • Osetskyi, V., Vitrenko, A., Tatomyr, I., Bilan, S. and Hirnyk, Y. (2020). Artificıal intelligence application in educatıon: Financial implicatıons and prospects. Financial and Credit Activity: Problems of Theory and Practice, 2(33), 574-584. doi:10.18371/fcaptp.v2i33.207246
  • Özgenel, M. ve Aktaş, A. (2020). Okul müdürlerinin liderlik stillerinin öğretmen performansına etkisi. Uluslararası Liderlik Çalışmaları Dergisi: Kuram ve Uygulama, 3(2), 1-18.
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & Evaluation methods. (3rdEdition). Thousands Oaks: SAGE.
  • Premuzic, T. C., Wadei M. and Jordan, J. (2018). As AI makes more decisions, the nature of leadership will change. Harvard Business Review 1, 2-7.
  • Qin, F., Li, K. ve Yan, J. (2020). Understanding user trust in artificial intelligence-based educational systems: Evidence from China. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(5), 1693-1710. doi:10.1111/bjet.12994
  • Russell, S. J. ve Norvig, P. (1995). Artificial intelligence: A modern approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Sanders, P. (1982). Phenomenology: A new way of viewing organizational research. Academy of Management Review, 7(3), 353-360.
  • Schiff, D. (2020). Out of the laboratory and into the classroom: The future of artificial intelligence in education. AI and Society. Springer. doi:10.1007/s00146-020-01033-8
  • Singh, G., Mishra, A. and Sagar, D. (2013). An overwiew of artificial intelligence. SBIT Journal of Scıences and Technology, 2(1), 1-4.
  • Smith, A. M. and Green, M. (2018). Artificial intelligence and the role of leadership. Journal of Leadershıp Studies, 12(3), 1-4. doi:10.1002/jls.21605
  • Strauss, A. ve Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
  • Taneri, G. U. (2020). Artificial intelligence & Higher education: Towards customized teaching and learning, and skills for an AI world of work. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE 6.2020. Center for Studies in Higher Education.
  • Teng, X. (2019). Discussion about artificial ıntelligence’s advantages and disadvantages compete with natural ıntelligence. Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1187, 1-7. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1187/3/032083
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Yapay Zeka ve Eğitimde Gelecek Senaryoları

Year 2021, Volume 18, Issue Eğitim Bilimleri Özel Sayısı, 4225 - 4268, 15.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.26466/opus.911444

Abstract

Yapılan çalışmalar neticesinde hızlı gelişim gösteren, edindiği yeni yeteneklerle hayatımızın her alanında daha fazla yer edinmeye devam eden yapay zekanın, edineceği yeni yeteneklerle gelecekte hemen hemen tüm mesleklerde insanı devre dışı bırakmasından endişe edilmektedir. Bu araştırmanın amacı aynı endişeler ışığında yapay zekanın eğitimde yer alacağı senaryolar ortaya koyarak bu senaryoları uzman görüşleri doğrultusunda incelemektir. Araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemi benimsenmiş olup, katılımcıların görüşleri fenomonolojik bir yaklaşımla derinlemesine analiz edilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak, araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme soruları kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, kartopu örnekleme yöntemi ile ulaşılmış Türkiye’de çeşitli üniversitelerde görevli yapay zekâ alanında uzman 10 akademik personel oluşturmaktadır. Görüşmeler neticesinde elde edilen veriler betimsel analiz yöntemi ile çözümlenmiştir. Çözümlemeler doğrultusunda veriler, senaryolarla ilgili olası faydalar, endişeler ve uygulanabilirlik alt temaları altında toplanmıştır. Bulgulara göre yapay zekânın öğretmenin yerini aldığı ve okul yönetiminde müdür rolünü aldığı senaryolarda birçok fayda sağlanacaktır. Bulgulara göre bu senaryolar aynı zamanda birçok endişeyi beraberinde getirmektedir. Araştırmanın bir diğer bulgusuna göre yapay zekâ günümüzdeki mevcut yetenekleriyle öğretmenin ya da okul müdürünün yerini alamayacaktır ve gerekli gelişimler sağlanmadığı sürece öğretmenin ve okul müdürünün asistanı rolünde kalması daha faydalı olacaktır.

References

  • Ahmad, K., Iqbal, W., Hassan, A., Qadir, J., Benhaddou, D., Ayyash, M. and Fuqaha, A. (2020). Articial intelligence in education: A panoramic review. 1-51. doi:10.35542/osf.io/zvu2n
  • Aşçı, B. (2017). Olasılık yönetimi: Senaryo analizi. 21.YY’da Eğitim ve Toplum, 6(17), 375-394.
  • Auvinen, T., Sajasalo, P., Sintonen, T., Pekkala, K., Takala, T. and Luoma-aho, V. (2019). Evolution of strategy narration and leadership work in the digital era. Leadership, 15(2), 205-225. doi:10.1177/1742715019826426.
  • Böke, K. (2009). Örnekleme. K. Böke (Der.). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri içinde (s.105-147). İstanbul: Alfa Basım Yayım Dağıtım.
  • Boucher, P. (2019). How artificial intelligence works. EPRS. Panel for the Future of Science and Technology. 1 Kasım 2020 tarihinde http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2019/634420/EPRS_BRI(2019)634420_EN.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • Bryant, J., Heitz, C., Sanghvi, S. and Wagle, D. (2020). How artificial intelligence will impact K-12 teachers. 20 Ocak 2021 tarihinde https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-and-social-sector/our-insights/how-artificial-intelligence-will-impact-k-12-teachers adresinden erişildi.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, E. K., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş. ve Demirel, F. (2018). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Canbek, M. (2020). Artificial intelligence leadership: İmitating mintzberg’s managerial roles. A. Ö. Tunç ve P. Aslan (Der.), Business management and communication perspectives in industry 4.0. içinde (s.173-187) doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-9416-1.ch010
  • Chandra, R. (2015). Classroom management for effective teaching. International Journal of Education and Psychological Research (IJEPR), 4(4), 13-15.
  • Chen, L., Chen, P. and Lin, Z. (2020). Artificial intelligence in education: A review. IEEE Access, 8, 75264 – 75278. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2988510
  • Chernov, A. and Chernova, V. (2019). Artificial intelligence in managemnet: Challenges and opportunıtıes. 38th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development, 133-140.
  • Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks: SAGE. Edwards, B. I. and Cheok, A. D: (2018). Why not robot teachers: Artificial intelligence for addressing teacher shortage. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 32(4), 345-360. doi:10.1080/08839514.2018.1464286
  • Ertel, W. (2011). Introduction to artificial intelligence. London: Springer.
  • Fast, E. and Horvitz, E. (2020). Long-term trends in the public perception of artificial intelligence. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 31(1), 1-7.
  • Felix, C. V. (2021). The role of the teacher and AI in educatıon. Sengupta, E., Blessinger, P. and Makhanya, M.S. (Der.). International perspectives on the role of technology in humanizing higher education (Innovations in higher education teaching and learning, 33), içinde (s.33-48). Emerald Publishing Limited. doi:10.1108/S2055-364120200000033003
  • Goel, A. K. ve Polepeddi, L. (2016). Jill Watson: A virtual teaching assistant for online education. 1 Ocak 2021 tarihinde http://hdl.handle.net/1853/59104 adresinden erişildi.
  • Gondal, K. M. (2018). Artificial intelligence and educational leadership. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 24(4), 1-2.
  • Grawemeyer, B., Mavrikis, M., Holmes, W., Santos, S. G., Wiedmann, M. and Rummel, N. (2017). Affective learning: Improving engagement and enhancing learning with affect-aware feedback. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 27, 119-158. doi:10.1007/s11257-017-9188-z
  • Groenewald, T. (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1), 42-55. doi:10.1177/160940690400300104
  • Hu, Z. (2020). Influence of introducing artificial intelligence on autonomous learning in vocational education. Jemal, H. A., Kim-Kwang, R. C., Zheng, X. ve Mohammed A. (Der.), AISC 1244. içinde (s.361-366). Springer doi:10.1007/978-3-030-53980-1_54
  • Huang, Q. ve Shi, L. (2020). Education management reform of private colleges and universities based on artificial intelligence. Jemal, H. A., Kim-Kwang, R. C., Zheng, X. and Mohammed A. (Der.), 2020 International conference on applications and techniques in cyber ıntelligence. AISC 1244. İçinde (s.334-340). Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-53980-1_50
  • Kolbjornsrud, V., Amico, R. and Thomas, R. J. (2016). How artificial intelligence will redefine management. Harvard Business Review, 2, 1-6.
  • Kolchenko, V. (2018). Can modern AI replace teachers? Not so fast! Artificial intelligence and adaptive learning: Personalized education in the AI age. HAPS Educator, 22(3), 249- 252. doi:10.21692/haps.2018.032
  • Komalavalli, K., Hemalatha, R. and Dhanalakshmi, S. (2020). A survey of artificial intelligence in smart phones and its applications among the students of higher education in and around Chennai City. Shanlax Internatıonal Journal of Education, 8(3), 89-95. doi:10.34293/education.v8i3.2379
  • Kshetri, N. (2020). China’s social credit system: data, algorithms and ımplications. IT Professional, 22(2), 14-18. doi:10.1109/MITP.2019.2935662.
  • Lancrin, S. V. and Van Der Vlies, R. (2020). Trustworthy artificial intelligence (AI) in education: Promises and challenges. OECD Education Working Papers, 6, 1-17. doi:10.1787/a6c90fa9-en
  • Luo, S. (2019). Research on the change of educational management in the era of artificial intelligence. 12th International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA). doi:10.1109/ICICTA49267.2019.00101
  • Lynch, M. (2019). Will AI take over educatıonal leadershıp? 10 Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://www.thetechedvocate.org/will-ai-take-over-educational-leadership/ adresinden erişildi.
  • Mathew, A., Arul, A. and Sivakumari, S. (2020). Deep learning techniques: An overview. Abdoul, E. H., roheet, B., ve Ashraf, D. (Der.). International Conference on Advanced machine learning technologies and applications. Içinde (s.599-608) Singapure: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-981-15-3383-9_54
  • MEB. (2020). EBA Akıllı Destek Sistemi. 1 Kasım 2020 tarihinde https://www.meb.gov.tr/1-milyona-yakin-ogrenci-eba-akademik-destek-sistemi-ile-universite-hedefine-ilerliyor/haber/20798/tr adresinden erişildi.
  • Mintzberg, H. (1971). Magagerial work: Analysis from observation. Management Science, 18(2), 97-110. doi:10.1287/mnsc.18.2.B97
  • Moldenhauer, L. and Londt, C. (2019). Leadership, artificial intelligence and the need to redefine future skills development. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 16(1), 155-160. doi:10.33423/jlae.v16i1.1363
  • Noponen, N. (2019). Impact of artificial intelligence on management. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 24(2), 43-50.
  • Obschonka, M. and Audretsch, D. B. (2020). Artificial intelligence and big data entrepreneurship: A new era has begun. Small Business Economics, 55, 529-539. doi:10.1007/s11187-019-00202-4
  • Oliveira, M., Lopes, C., Soares, F., Pinheiro, G. and Guimaraes, P. (2020). What can we expect from the future? The impact of artificial ıntelligence on society. 15th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 1-6. doi:10.23919/CISTI49556.2020.9140903
  • Osetskyi, V., Vitrenko, A., Tatomyr, I., Bilan, S. and Hirnyk, Y. (2020). Artificıal intelligence application in educatıon: Financial implicatıons and prospects. Financial and Credit Activity: Problems of Theory and Practice, 2(33), 574-584. doi:10.18371/fcaptp.v2i33.207246
  • Özgenel, M. ve Aktaş, A. (2020). Okul müdürlerinin liderlik stillerinin öğretmen performansına etkisi. Uluslararası Liderlik Çalışmaları Dergisi: Kuram ve Uygulama, 3(2), 1-18.
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & Evaluation methods. (3rdEdition). Thousands Oaks: SAGE.
  • Premuzic, T. C., Wadei M. and Jordan, J. (2018). As AI makes more decisions, the nature of leadership will change. Harvard Business Review 1, 2-7.
  • Qin, F., Li, K. ve Yan, J. (2020). Understanding user trust in artificial intelligence-based educational systems: Evidence from China. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(5), 1693-1710. doi:10.1111/bjet.12994
  • Russell, S. J. ve Norvig, P. (1995). Artificial intelligence: A modern approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Sanders, P. (1982). Phenomenology: A new way of viewing organizational research. Academy of Management Review, 7(3), 353-360.
  • Schiff, D. (2020). Out of the laboratory and into the classroom: The future of artificial intelligence in education. AI and Society. Springer. doi:10.1007/s00146-020-01033-8
  • Singh, G., Mishra, A. and Sagar, D. (2013). An overwiew of artificial intelligence. SBIT Journal of Scıences and Technology, 2(1), 1-4.
  • Smith, A. M. and Green, M. (2018). Artificial intelligence and the role of leadership. Journal of Leadershıp Studies, 12(3), 1-4. doi:10.1002/jls.21605
  • Strauss, A. ve Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Münevver ÇETİN
MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1203-9098
Türkiye


Abdussamet AKTAŞ (Primary Author)
MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8363-0053
Türkiye

Publication Date September 15, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 18, Issue Eğitim Bilimleri Özel Sayısı

Cite

APA Çetin, M. & Aktaş, A. (2021). Yapay Zeka ve Eğitimde Gelecek Senaryoları . OPUS International Journal of Society Researches , Eğitim Bilimleri Özel Sayısı , 4225-4268 . DOI: 10.26466/opus.911444