Research Article
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Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises?

Year 2021, Volume 52, Issue , 37 - 60, 27.12.2021

Abstract

Drawing on the notion of “safe area” not only as a geographical but also a social construct, this article argues that the efforts of aiding civilians at risk through confining them to bordered areas increase the insecurities experienced both inside and outside of these areas by multiple actors. Exemplifying four cases – Iraq, Bosnia, Rwanda, and Syria – it revokes Agamben’s concept of homo sacer to display how the civilians are reduced to bare lives who are excluded from the political sphere and whose killing has been excluded from political and judicial scrutiny. A comparative study on the four situations indicates widening and deepening insecurities for the civilian populations who lose their manoeuvre capacity to respond to security threats and who become dependent particularly on external aid to survive. While revisiting the main causes of failure to protect civilians at risk during armed conflicts, the article suggests that safe areas should be treated as spatial domains with multiple actors holding competing concerns and interests, and encourages reconsideration of the implications of constructing confined spaces during humanitarian crises without full political and military commitment and liability.

References

  • Agamben, Giorgio, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1998.
  • Agamben, Giorgio The State of Exception, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 2005.
  • Akonor, Kwame, UN Peacekeeping in Africa: A Critical Examination and Recommendations for Improvement, Cham, Springer, 2017.
  • Bellamy, Alex J., Williams, Paul D. and Griffin, Stuart, Understanding Peacekeeping, Cambridge, Polity, 2010.
  • Bellamy, Alex J., Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • Cook, David Noble, Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492-1650, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Curran, David, “More than Fighting for Peace”, Conflict Resolution, UN Peacekeeping, and the Role of Training Military Personnel, Cham, Springer, 2017.
  • Çetinkaya, Lokman B., Safe Zone: A Response to Large-Scale Refugee Outflows and Human Suffering, Cham, Springer, 2017.
  • Dubernet, Cecile, The International Containment of Displaced Persons: Humanitarian Spaces without Exit, New York, Routledge, 2017.
  • Findlay, Trevor, “The New Peacekeeping and the New Peacekeepers”, Challenges for the New Peacekeepers, SIPRI Research Report No: 12, Findlay, Trevor (ed.), Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 1-31.
  • Gordon, Stuart, “A Recipe for Making Safe Areas Unsafe”, Aspects of Peacekeeping, Gordon, D. S. and Toase, F. H. (eds.), New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 213-230.
  • Howard, Lise Morjé, UN Peacekeeping in Civil Wars, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Kaldor, Mary, New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era, Cambridge, Polity, 2012.
  • Maass, Peter, Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War, New York, Vintage, 1997.
  • Maus, Sylvia, “Human Rights in UN Peacekeeping Missions: A Framework for Humanitarian Obligations?”, International Law and Humanitarian Assistance: A Crosscut through Legal Issues Pertaining to Humanitarianism, Heintze, Hans-Joachim and Zwitter, Andrej (eds.), London, Springer, 2011, pp. 103-128.
  • Mcqueen, Carol, Humanitarian Intervention and Safety Zones: Iraq, Bosnia and Rwanda, London, Palgrave, 2005.
  • Nsia-Pepra, Kofi, UN Robust Peacekeeping: Civilian Protection in Violent Civil Wars, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
  • Pichat, Stephen Kinloch, A UN 'Legion': Between Utopia and Reality, New York, Frank Cass, 2005.
  • Rader, Steven R., “NATO”, Challenges for the New Peacekeepers, SIPRI Research Report No: 12, Findlay, Trevor (ed.), Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 142-158.
  • Ratner, Steven R., The New UN Peacekeeping: Building Peace in Lands of Conflict after the Cold War, London, Macmillan, 1996.
  • Schwartz, Michael, War without End: The Iraq War in Context, Chicago, Haymarket Books, 2016.
  • Seaman, Kate, UN-Tied Nations: The United Nations, Peacekeeping and Global Governance, New York, Routledge, 2016.
  • Shapiro, Michael J., Violent Cartographies: Mapping Cultures of War, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1997.
  • Sitkowski, Andrzej, UN Peacekeeping: Myth and Reality, Westport, Praeger, 2006.
  • Uzonyi, Gary, Finding Soldiers of Peace: Three Dilemmas for UN Peacekeeping Missions, Washington D.C., Georgetown University Press, 2020.
  • Yamashita, Hikaru, Humanitarian Space and International Politics: The Creation of Safe Areas, London, Taylor & Francis, 2017.
  • Adar, Sinem, “Repatriation to Turkey’s ‘Safe Zone’ in Northeast Syria”, German Institute for International and Security Affairs, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-4.
  • Akashi, Yasushi, “The Use of Force in a United Nations Peace-Keeping Operation: Lessons Learnt from the Safe Areas Mandate”, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 19, No: 2, 1995, pp. 312-323.
  • Benard, Alexander, “Lessons from Iraq and Bosnia on the Theory and Practice of No-fly Zones”, Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2004, pp. 454-478.
  • Birnie, Rutger and Welsh, Jennifer, “Displacement, Protection and Responsibility: A Case for Safe Areas”, Global Responsibility to Protect, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2018, pp. 332-361.
  • Bugnion, François, “The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Development of International Humanitarian Law”, Chicago Journal of International Law, Vol. 5, 2004, pp. 191-215.
  • Cockayne, James and Malone, David, “Creeping Unilateralism: How Operation Provide Comfort and the No-Fly Zones in 1991 and 1992 Paved the Way for the Iraq Crisis of 2003”, Security Dialogue, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2006, pp. 123-141.
  • Dalay, Galip and Keyman, Fuat, “Turkish-US Strategic Decoupling through the Prism of Syria”, GMF, No: 4, 2019, pp. 1-4.
  • Demirtas-Bagdonas, Özlem, “Reading Turkey's Foreign Policy on Syria: The AKP's Construction of a Great Power Identity and the Politics of Grandeur”, Turkish Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2014, pp. 139-155.
  • Elewa, Mohamed S., “Genocide at the Safe Area of Srebrenica: A Search for a New Strategy for Protecting Civilians in Contemporary Armed Conflict”, Michigan State University Detroit College of Law’s Journal of International Law, Vol. 10, No: 3, 2001, pp. 429-464.
  • Englbrecht, Walpurga, “Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Kosovo: Voluntary Return in Safety and Dignity?”, Refugee Survey Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2004, pp. 100-148.
  • Fiskesjö, Magnus, “Outlaws, Barbarians, Slaves: Critical Reflections on Agamben’s Homo Sacer,” HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012, pp. 161-180.
  • Frelick, Bill, “Unsafe Havens”, Harvard International Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1997, pp. 40, 41, 43, 68, 69.
  • Gray, Christine, “From Unity to Polarization: International Law and the Use of Force against Iraq”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2002, pp. 1-19.
  • Gunter, Michael M., “The KDP-PUK Conflict in Northern Iraq”, The Middle East Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, 1996, pp. 224-241.
  • Hamid, Shadi, “What is Policy Research for? Reflections on the United States’ Failures in Syria”, Middle East Law and Governance, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2015, pp. 373-386.
  • Harunoğlu, Nur Çetinoğlu, “A Turkish Perspective on the Ethics of ‘Safe Zone’: The Evolution of the Concept in Turkish–American relations from Iraq (1991–2003) to Syria (2012–2016)”, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2019, pp. 427-462.
  • Hyndman, Jennifer, “Preventive, Palliative, or Punitive? Safe Spaces in Bosnia‐Herzegovina, Somalia, and Sri Lanka”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2003, pp. 167-185.
  • Kaufman, Joyce, “NATO and the Former Yugoslavia: Crisis, Conflict and the Atlantic Alliance”, Journal of Conflict Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1999, pp. 5-38.
  • Landgren, Karin, “Safety Zones and International Protection: A Dark Grey Area”, International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1995, pp. 436-458.
  • Leenders, Reinoud and Mansour, Kholoud, “Humanitarianism, State Sovereignty, and Authoritarian Regime Maintenance in the Syrian War”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 133, No. 2, 2018, pp. 225-257.
  • Livi‐Bacci, Massimo, “The Depopulation of Hispanic America after the Conquest”, Population and Development Review, 2006, Vol. 32, No.2, pp. 199-232.
  • Long, Katy, “In Search of Sanctuary: Border Closures, ‘Safe’ Zones and Refugee Protection”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2013, pp. 458-476.
  • Orchard, Phil, “Revisiting Humanitarian Safe Areas for Civilian Protection”, Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2014, pp. 55-75.
  • Posen, Barry R., “Military Responses to Refugee Disasters”, International Security, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996, pp. 72-111.
  • Rajaram, Prem Kumar and Grundy‐Warr, Carl, “The Irregular Migrant as Homo Sacer: Migration and Detention in Australia, Malaysia, and Thailand,” International Migration, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2004, pp. 33-64.
  • Schinkel, Willem and Van den Berg, Marguerite, “City of Exception: The Dutch Revanchist City and the Urban Homo Sacer,” Antipode, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1911-1938.
  • Schulte, Gregory L., “Former Yugoslavia and the New NATO”, Survival, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1997, pp. 19-42.
  • Subedi, Surya P., “The Legal Competence of the International Community to Create ‘Safe Havens’ in ‘Zones of Turmoil’”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1999, pp. 23-35.
  • Tharoor, Shashi, “The Changing Face of Peace-Keeping and Peace-Enforcement”, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 19, 1995, pp. 408-426.
  • Williams, Paul R., Ulbrick, J. Trevor and Worboys, Jonathan, “Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes: The Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crisis”, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Vol. 45, No. 1, 2012, pp. 473-503.
  • United Nations 2014, “Middle East”, S/RES/2165, 14 July 2014.
  • United Nations 2020, “The Situation in the Middle East”, S/RES/2504, 10 January 2020.
  • United Nations 1991, “On the Situation between Iraq and Kuwait”, Security Council Resolution 688, UN Doc. S/RES/688, 5 April 1991.
  • United Nations 1993a, “Bosnia and Herzegovina”, Security Council Resolution 819, UN Doc.S/RES/819, 16 April 1993.
  • United Nations 1993b, “Bosnia and Herzegovina”, Security Council Resolution 824, UN Doc.S/RES/824, 6 May 1993.
  • United Nations 1993c, “Bosnia and Herzegovina”, Security Council Resolution 836, UN Doc.S/RES/836, 4 June 1993.
  • United Nations 1993d, “Rwanda”, Security Council Resolution 872, UN Doc.S/RES/872, 5 October 1993.
  • United Nations 1994a, “The Expansion of the Mandate of the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda and Imposition of an Arms Embargo on Rwanda”, S/RES/918, 17 May 1994.
  • United Nations 1994b, “Establishment of a Temporary Multinational Operation for Humanitarian Purposes in Rwanda until the Deployment of the Expanded UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda”, S/RES/929, 22 June 1994.
  • Barnard, Anne, Gordon, Michael R. and Schmitt, Eric, “Turkey and U.S. Plan to Create Syria 'Safe Zone' Free of ISIS”, New York Times, 27 July 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/28/world/middleeast/turkey-and-us-agree-on-plan-to-clear-isis-from-strip-of-northern-syria.html (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Coleman, Sarah, “Sex for Food Scandal”, World Press Review, 49 (5), 2002, https://www.worldpress.org/print_article.cfm?article_id=612&dont=yes (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Dowden, Richard, “Boutros-Ghali Accepts UN’s Limitations”, The Independent, 27 October 1994, https://odihpn.org/magazine/boutros-ghali-accepts-uns-limitations/ (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Human Rights Watch, “We’ll Kill You If You Cry: Sexual Violence in the Sierra Leone Conflict”, 15 (1), January 2003, https://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/sierraleone/sierleon0103.pdf (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Lister, Tim, “Trump Wants ‘Safe Zones’ Set Up in Syria. But Do They Work?”, CNN, 27 January 2017, https://edition.cnn.com/2017/01/27/middleeast/trump-syria-safe-zone-explained/index.html (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Machel, Graca, “Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children: Impact of Armed Conflict on Children”, U.N. Doc. A/51/306, 26 August 1996, https://sites.unicef.org/graca/a51-306_en.pdf (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Meininghaus, Esther and Heinemann-Grüder, Andreas, “Safe Zone for Syria: Mitigating the Humanitarian Crisis”, BICC Policy Brief, 1/2017, Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), 2017, https://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/62056 (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Wintour, Patrick and Syal, Rajeev, “France and UK to Propose Kabul Safe Zone at UN Meeting, Says Macron”, Guardian, 29 August 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/aug/29/france-and-uk-to-propose-kabul-safe-zone-at-un-meeting-says-macron (last visited 29.08.2021).

Güvenli Bölge Teorisi ve Pratiği: Siviller İçin Güvenlik Mi Yoksa İnsani Krizlerde Yeni İstisna Durumları Mı?

Year 2021, Volume 52, Issue , 37 - 60, 27.12.2021

Abstract

Güvenli bölge kavramının sadece coğrafi anlamda sınırlarla tanımlı bir alan değil, sosyal bir yapı olduğu noktasından hareketle bu çalışmada, silahlı çatışma durumunda risk altındaki sivillerin sınırlı bir alanda tutulmasının güvenlik sorunlarını arttırabileceği tartışılmaktadır. Irak, Bosna, Ruanda ve Suriye örneklerini Agamben’in homo sacer kavramı etrafında ele alan çalışma, çatışma durumunda bu bölgelerdeki sivillerin nasıl çıplak hayat kavramı ile tanımlandığını, öldürülmeleri durumunda bu hayatların politik ve hukuki denetimden mahrum bırakıldığını tartışacaktır. Dört örnek olayın karşılaştırmalı bir analizi ile sivillerin güvenlik tehditlerine karşı koyabilme kapasitelerinin ortadan kalktığı ve özellikle dış yardıma bağımlı hale geldikleri, dolayısıyla da yaşadıkları güvenlik sorunlarının genişlediği ve derinleştiği ortaya konulacaktır. Silahlı çatışma durumunda sivilllerin korunması noktasındaki başarısızlıkların nedenlerinin irdelenmesinin yanısıra, güvenli bölgelerin farklı çıkar ve sorunları olan çeşitli aktörler barındıran bir alan olduğunun altı çizilecek; insani krizlerde tam bir askeri ve siyasi yükümlülüğün olmadığı durumlarda risk altında insan gruplarının kapalı alanda kalmalarının doğuracağı olumsuz sonuçlar tartışılacaktır.

References

  • Agamben, Giorgio, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1998.
  • Agamben, Giorgio The State of Exception, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 2005.
  • Akonor, Kwame, UN Peacekeeping in Africa: A Critical Examination and Recommendations for Improvement, Cham, Springer, 2017.
  • Bellamy, Alex J., Williams, Paul D. and Griffin, Stuart, Understanding Peacekeeping, Cambridge, Polity, 2010.
  • Bellamy, Alex J., Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • Cook, David Noble, Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492-1650, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Curran, David, “More than Fighting for Peace”, Conflict Resolution, UN Peacekeeping, and the Role of Training Military Personnel, Cham, Springer, 2017.
  • Çetinkaya, Lokman B., Safe Zone: A Response to Large-Scale Refugee Outflows and Human Suffering, Cham, Springer, 2017.
  • Dubernet, Cecile, The International Containment of Displaced Persons: Humanitarian Spaces without Exit, New York, Routledge, 2017.
  • Findlay, Trevor, “The New Peacekeeping and the New Peacekeepers”, Challenges for the New Peacekeepers, SIPRI Research Report No: 12, Findlay, Trevor (ed.), Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 1-31.
  • Gordon, Stuart, “A Recipe for Making Safe Areas Unsafe”, Aspects of Peacekeeping, Gordon, D. S. and Toase, F. H. (eds.), New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 213-230.
  • Howard, Lise Morjé, UN Peacekeeping in Civil Wars, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Kaldor, Mary, New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era, Cambridge, Polity, 2012.
  • Maass, Peter, Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War, New York, Vintage, 1997.
  • Maus, Sylvia, “Human Rights in UN Peacekeeping Missions: A Framework for Humanitarian Obligations?”, International Law and Humanitarian Assistance: A Crosscut through Legal Issues Pertaining to Humanitarianism, Heintze, Hans-Joachim and Zwitter, Andrej (eds.), London, Springer, 2011, pp. 103-128.
  • Mcqueen, Carol, Humanitarian Intervention and Safety Zones: Iraq, Bosnia and Rwanda, London, Palgrave, 2005.
  • Nsia-Pepra, Kofi, UN Robust Peacekeeping: Civilian Protection in Violent Civil Wars, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
  • Pichat, Stephen Kinloch, A UN 'Legion': Between Utopia and Reality, New York, Frank Cass, 2005.
  • Rader, Steven R., “NATO”, Challenges for the New Peacekeepers, SIPRI Research Report No: 12, Findlay, Trevor (ed.), Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 142-158.
  • Ratner, Steven R., The New UN Peacekeeping: Building Peace in Lands of Conflict after the Cold War, London, Macmillan, 1996.
  • Schwartz, Michael, War without End: The Iraq War in Context, Chicago, Haymarket Books, 2016.
  • Seaman, Kate, UN-Tied Nations: The United Nations, Peacekeeping and Global Governance, New York, Routledge, 2016.
  • Shapiro, Michael J., Violent Cartographies: Mapping Cultures of War, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1997.
  • Sitkowski, Andrzej, UN Peacekeeping: Myth and Reality, Westport, Praeger, 2006.
  • Uzonyi, Gary, Finding Soldiers of Peace: Three Dilemmas for UN Peacekeeping Missions, Washington D.C., Georgetown University Press, 2020.
  • Yamashita, Hikaru, Humanitarian Space and International Politics: The Creation of Safe Areas, London, Taylor & Francis, 2017.
  • Adar, Sinem, “Repatriation to Turkey’s ‘Safe Zone’ in Northeast Syria”, German Institute for International and Security Affairs, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-4.
  • Akashi, Yasushi, “The Use of Force in a United Nations Peace-Keeping Operation: Lessons Learnt from the Safe Areas Mandate”, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 19, No: 2, 1995, pp. 312-323.
  • Benard, Alexander, “Lessons from Iraq and Bosnia on the Theory and Practice of No-fly Zones”, Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2004, pp. 454-478.
  • Birnie, Rutger and Welsh, Jennifer, “Displacement, Protection and Responsibility: A Case for Safe Areas”, Global Responsibility to Protect, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2018, pp. 332-361.
  • Bugnion, François, “The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Development of International Humanitarian Law”, Chicago Journal of International Law, Vol. 5, 2004, pp. 191-215.
  • Cockayne, James and Malone, David, “Creeping Unilateralism: How Operation Provide Comfort and the No-Fly Zones in 1991 and 1992 Paved the Way for the Iraq Crisis of 2003”, Security Dialogue, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2006, pp. 123-141.
  • Dalay, Galip and Keyman, Fuat, “Turkish-US Strategic Decoupling through the Prism of Syria”, GMF, No: 4, 2019, pp. 1-4.
  • Demirtas-Bagdonas, Özlem, “Reading Turkey's Foreign Policy on Syria: The AKP's Construction of a Great Power Identity and the Politics of Grandeur”, Turkish Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2014, pp. 139-155.
  • Elewa, Mohamed S., “Genocide at the Safe Area of Srebrenica: A Search for a New Strategy for Protecting Civilians in Contemporary Armed Conflict”, Michigan State University Detroit College of Law’s Journal of International Law, Vol. 10, No: 3, 2001, pp. 429-464.
  • Englbrecht, Walpurga, “Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Kosovo: Voluntary Return in Safety and Dignity?”, Refugee Survey Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2004, pp. 100-148.
  • Fiskesjö, Magnus, “Outlaws, Barbarians, Slaves: Critical Reflections on Agamben’s Homo Sacer,” HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012, pp. 161-180.
  • Frelick, Bill, “Unsafe Havens”, Harvard International Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1997, pp. 40, 41, 43, 68, 69.
  • Gray, Christine, “From Unity to Polarization: International Law and the Use of Force against Iraq”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2002, pp. 1-19.
  • Gunter, Michael M., “The KDP-PUK Conflict in Northern Iraq”, The Middle East Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, 1996, pp. 224-241.
  • Hamid, Shadi, “What is Policy Research for? Reflections on the United States’ Failures in Syria”, Middle East Law and Governance, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2015, pp. 373-386.
  • Harunoğlu, Nur Çetinoğlu, “A Turkish Perspective on the Ethics of ‘Safe Zone’: The Evolution of the Concept in Turkish–American relations from Iraq (1991–2003) to Syria (2012–2016)”, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2019, pp. 427-462.
  • Hyndman, Jennifer, “Preventive, Palliative, or Punitive? Safe Spaces in Bosnia‐Herzegovina, Somalia, and Sri Lanka”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2003, pp. 167-185.
  • Kaufman, Joyce, “NATO and the Former Yugoslavia: Crisis, Conflict and the Atlantic Alliance”, Journal of Conflict Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1999, pp. 5-38.
  • Landgren, Karin, “Safety Zones and International Protection: A Dark Grey Area”, International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1995, pp. 436-458.
  • Leenders, Reinoud and Mansour, Kholoud, “Humanitarianism, State Sovereignty, and Authoritarian Regime Maintenance in the Syrian War”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 133, No. 2, 2018, pp. 225-257.
  • Livi‐Bacci, Massimo, “The Depopulation of Hispanic America after the Conquest”, Population and Development Review, 2006, Vol. 32, No.2, pp. 199-232.
  • Long, Katy, “In Search of Sanctuary: Border Closures, ‘Safe’ Zones and Refugee Protection”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2013, pp. 458-476.
  • Orchard, Phil, “Revisiting Humanitarian Safe Areas for Civilian Protection”, Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2014, pp. 55-75.
  • Posen, Barry R., “Military Responses to Refugee Disasters”, International Security, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996, pp. 72-111.
  • Rajaram, Prem Kumar and Grundy‐Warr, Carl, “The Irregular Migrant as Homo Sacer: Migration and Detention in Australia, Malaysia, and Thailand,” International Migration, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2004, pp. 33-64.
  • Schinkel, Willem and Van den Berg, Marguerite, “City of Exception: The Dutch Revanchist City and the Urban Homo Sacer,” Antipode, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1911-1938.
  • Schulte, Gregory L., “Former Yugoslavia and the New NATO”, Survival, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1997, pp. 19-42.
  • Subedi, Surya P., “The Legal Competence of the International Community to Create ‘Safe Havens’ in ‘Zones of Turmoil’”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1999, pp. 23-35.
  • Tharoor, Shashi, “The Changing Face of Peace-Keeping and Peace-Enforcement”, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 19, 1995, pp. 408-426.
  • Williams, Paul R., Ulbrick, J. Trevor and Worboys, Jonathan, “Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes: The Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crisis”, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Vol. 45, No. 1, 2012, pp. 473-503.
  • United Nations 2014, “Middle East”, S/RES/2165, 14 July 2014.
  • United Nations 2020, “The Situation in the Middle East”, S/RES/2504, 10 January 2020.
  • United Nations 1991, “On the Situation between Iraq and Kuwait”, Security Council Resolution 688, UN Doc. S/RES/688, 5 April 1991.
  • United Nations 1993a, “Bosnia and Herzegovina”, Security Council Resolution 819, UN Doc.S/RES/819, 16 April 1993.
  • United Nations 1993b, “Bosnia and Herzegovina”, Security Council Resolution 824, UN Doc.S/RES/824, 6 May 1993.
  • United Nations 1993c, “Bosnia and Herzegovina”, Security Council Resolution 836, UN Doc.S/RES/836, 4 June 1993.
  • United Nations 1993d, “Rwanda”, Security Council Resolution 872, UN Doc.S/RES/872, 5 October 1993.
  • United Nations 1994a, “The Expansion of the Mandate of the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda and Imposition of an Arms Embargo on Rwanda”, S/RES/918, 17 May 1994.
  • United Nations 1994b, “Establishment of a Temporary Multinational Operation for Humanitarian Purposes in Rwanda until the Deployment of the Expanded UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda”, S/RES/929, 22 June 1994.
  • Barnard, Anne, Gordon, Michael R. and Schmitt, Eric, “Turkey and U.S. Plan to Create Syria 'Safe Zone' Free of ISIS”, New York Times, 27 July 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/28/world/middleeast/turkey-and-us-agree-on-plan-to-clear-isis-from-strip-of-northern-syria.html (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Coleman, Sarah, “Sex for Food Scandal”, World Press Review, 49 (5), 2002, https://www.worldpress.org/print_article.cfm?article_id=612&dont=yes (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Dowden, Richard, “Boutros-Ghali Accepts UN’s Limitations”, The Independent, 27 October 1994, https://odihpn.org/magazine/boutros-ghali-accepts-uns-limitations/ (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Human Rights Watch, “We’ll Kill You If You Cry: Sexual Violence in the Sierra Leone Conflict”, 15 (1), January 2003, https://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/sierraleone/sierleon0103.pdf (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Lister, Tim, “Trump Wants ‘Safe Zones’ Set Up in Syria. But Do They Work?”, CNN, 27 January 2017, https://edition.cnn.com/2017/01/27/middleeast/trump-syria-safe-zone-explained/index.html (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Machel, Graca, “Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children: Impact of Armed Conflict on Children”, U.N. Doc. A/51/306, 26 August 1996, https://sites.unicef.org/graca/a51-306_en.pdf (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Meininghaus, Esther and Heinemann-Grüder, Andreas, “Safe Zone for Syria: Mitigating the Humanitarian Crisis”, BICC Policy Brief, 1/2017, Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), 2017, https://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/62056 (last visited 20.08.2021).
  • Wintour, Patrick and Syal, Rajeev, “France and UK to Propose Kabul Safe Zone at UN Meeting, Says Macron”, Guardian, 29 August 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/aug/29/france-and-uk-to-propose-kabul-safe-zone-at-un-meeting-says-macron (last visited 29.08.2021).

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Political Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Gözde TURAN> (Primary Author)
ANTALYA BİLİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4307-6924
Türkiye

Publication Date December 27, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 52, Issue

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tyir1004027, journal = {The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations}, issn = {0544-1943}, eissn = {2667-5382}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara University}, year = {2021}, volume = {52}, pages = {37 - 60}, title = {Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises?}, key = {cite}, author = {Turan, Gözde} }
APA Turan, G. (2021). Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises? . The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations , 52 , 37-60 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tyir/issue/67361/1004027
MLA Turan, G. "Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises?" . The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations 52 (2021 ): 37-60 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tyir/issue/67361/1004027>
Chicago Turan, G. "Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises?". The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations 52 (2021 ): 37-60
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises? AU - Gözde Turan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 37 EP - 60 VL - 52 IS - SN - 0544-1943-2667-5382 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises? %A Gözde Turan %T Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises? %D 2021 %J The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations %P 0544-1943-2667-5382 %V 52 %N %R %U
ISNAD Turan, Gözde . "Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises?". The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations 52 / (December 2021): 37-60 .
AMA Turan G. Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises?. The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations. 2021; 52: 37-60.
Vancouver Turan G. Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises?. The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations. 2021; 52: 37-60.
IEEE G. Turan , "Safe Area Theory and Practice: Security for Civilians or Creating New States of Exception during Humanitarian Crises?", The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, vol. 52, pp. 37-60, Dec. 2021