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Doğu Akdeniz'de Deniz Yetki Alanlarının Sınırlandırılması Uyuşmazlığı: Hakkaniyet İlkelerine Dayalı Türk Tezi

Year 2021, Volume 52, Issue , 85 - 112, 27.12.2021

Abstract

2000'li yılların başından itibaren hidrokarbon rezervlerinin keşfedilmesiyle Doğu Akdeniz, küresel ve bölgesel aktörlerin ilgi odağı haline gelmiştir. Petrol ve doğalgaz kaynaklarının keşfedilmesinin ardından, bazı kıyı devletleri deniz sınırlandırma anlaşmaları imzalamıştır. Ancak, bölgenin coğrafi olarak dar bir deniz olması nedeniyle tarafların ihtilaflı deniz yetki alanları çeşitli siyasi sorunlara neden olmuştur. Doğu Akdeniz’deki siyasi sorunların (Kıbrıs sorunu, Arap-İsrail çatışması, vb.) önemli bir boyutu da Türkiye, Yunanistan, Kıbrıs (GKRY ve KKTC), İsrail, Mısır, Libya, Suriye, Lübnan ve Birleşik Krallık’ın Doğu Akdeniz’deki tartışmalı deniz yetki alanları ile ilgilidir. Bu husus Kıbrıs Adası çevresinde açık deniz doğalgaz ve petrol arama faaliyetleri nedeniyle daha da önemli bir hal almıştır. Bu çerçevede, bu makale bölgedeki deniz alanlarının sınırlandırılmasını ve son zamanlardaki hidrokarbon arama faaliyetlerini analiz edecektir. Uluslararası deniz hukuku ilkeleri açısından Doğu Akdeniz’de deniz yetki alanlarının sınırlandırılmasında daha çok Türk tezi üzerinden bir değerlendirme yapılacaktır.

References

  • Acer, Y. “Doğu Akdeniz’de Deniz Yetki Alanları ve Türkiye-Libya Mutabakatı”, Seta Analiz, No. 301, 2019, p. 1-15.
  • Acer, Y., “Doğu Akdeniz’de Yunanistan-Mısır Deniz Sınırı Antlaşması ve Türkiye”, Adalet Dergisi, Vol. 65, 2020, p. 13-26.
  • Antreasyan, A. “Gas Finds in the Eastern Mediterranean: Gaza, Israel, and Other Conflicts”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2013, p. 29-47.
  • Aoude, I. G. “Conflict Over Oil and Gas in the Mediterranean: Israeli Expansionism in Lebanon”, Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2019.
  • Başeren, S. “Akdeniz Türkiye’ye Kapatılmak İsteniyor”, Cumhuriyet Strateji, 14 May 2007, <https://egazete.cumhuriyet.com.tr/katalog/4926/2007/5/14/1>, Accessed on 13 August 2021.
  • Başeren, S., “Doğu Akdeniz’de Deniz Yetki Alanları ve Yeni Enerji Politikaları”, Deniz Hukuku Sempozyumu Bildiriler Kitabı, Çağ Üniversitesi, Mersin, 2011.
  • Biresselioğlu, M. E., “Clashing Interests in the Eastern Mediterranean: What about Turkey?”, Insight Turkey, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2019, p. 115-134.
  • Blake, G. “Coastal State Sovereignty in the Mediterranean Sea: The Case of Malta”, GeoJournal, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1997, p. 173-180.
  • Caminos, H. (Ed.), Law of the Sea, Surrey: Ashgate Publishers, 2001.
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  • Kliot, N., “Cooperation and Conflicts in Maritime Issues in the Mediterranean Basin”, Geo Journal, Vol 18, No. 3, 1989, p. 263-272.
  • Kyris, G., “Europeanisation and Conflict Resolution: The Case of Cyprus”, IBEI (Institut Barcelona d'Estudis Internacionals) Working Papers, No. 39, 2013.
  • Öğütçü, M., “Rivalry in the Eastern Mediterranean”, The Turkish Dimension-Mediterranean Policy Program Report, The German Marshall Fund of the United States, Washington D.C, 2012.
  • Rothwell, D. R. (Ed), Law of the Sea, Chelthenham: Edward Elgar Publishers, 2003.
  • Schenk, C.J., et al, Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, 2010.
  • Shaffer, B. “Eastern Mediterranean Energy: A Decade After The Major Discoveries”, Turkish Policy, 27 November 2018, <http://turkishpolicy.com/article/936/eastern-mediterranean-energy-a-decade-after-the-major%20discoveries>, Accessed on 5 August 2021.
  • Sözen, A. and Özersay, K., “The Annan Plan: State Succession or Continuity”, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2007, p. 125-141.
  • Stocker, J., “No EEZ Solution: The Politics of Oil and Gas in the Eastern Mediterranean”, Middle East Journal, Vol. 66, No. 4, 2012, p. 579-597.
  • “Strategic, Legal Aspects of Turkey-Libya Deal”, Analysis, Anatolian Agency Website, 13 December 2019, <https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/analysis-strategic-legal-aspects-of-turkey-libya-deal/ 1673079>, Accessed on 13 May 2021.
  • Tagliapietra, S., “Towards a New Eastern Mediterranean Energy Corridor? Natural Gas Developments Between Market Opportunities and Geopolitical Risks”, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) Report, 2013.
  • Tanaka, Y., The International Law of the Sea, Cambridge University Press, 3rd Edition, 2019.
  • TRNC Ministry of Foreign Affairs Website, <https://mfa.gov.ct.tr>.

The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles

Year 2021, Volume 52, Issue , 85 - 112, 27.12.2021

Abstract

With the exploration of hydrocarbon reserves since the early 2000s, the Eastern Mediterranean has become the focus of attention of global and regional actors. Following the exploration of oil and gas resources, some littoral states signed maritime delimitation agreements. However, due to the fact that the region is geographically a narrow sea, the disputed maritime jurisdiction areas of the parties caused several political problems. One important aspect of the political disputes in the Eastern Mediterranean (Cyprus problem, Arab-Israeli conflict, etc) is related with the undecided maritime jurisdiction areas in the region. This dispute is between Greece, Turkey, Cyprus (North and South), Israel, Egypt, Libya, Syria, Lebanon and the UK in the Eastern Mediterranean. This problem has become more important with the offshore hydrocarbon explorations (oil and gas) carried out around Cyprus. In this context, this article will analyse the delimitation of the maritime areas in the region and the recent hydrocarbon exploration activities. It will mostly focus on the Turkish view about the delimitation of maritime jurisdiction areas in the Eastern Mediterranean in terms of principles of international law of the sea.

References

  • Acer, Y. “Doğu Akdeniz’de Deniz Yetki Alanları ve Türkiye-Libya Mutabakatı”, Seta Analiz, No. 301, 2019, p. 1-15.
  • Acer, Y., “Doğu Akdeniz’de Yunanistan-Mısır Deniz Sınırı Antlaşması ve Türkiye”, Adalet Dergisi, Vol. 65, 2020, p. 13-26.
  • Antreasyan, A. “Gas Finds in the Eastern Mediterranean: Gaza, Israel, and Other Conflicts”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2013, p. 29-47.
  • Aoude, I. G. “Conflict Over Oil and Gas in the Mediterranean: Israeli Expansionism in Lebanon”, Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2019.
  • Başeren, S. “Akdeniz Türkiye’ye Kapatılmak İsteniyor”, Cumhuriyet Strateji, 14 May 2007, <https://egazete.cumhuriyet.com.tr/katalog/4926/2007/5/14/1>, Accessed on 13 August 2021.
  • Başeren, S., “Doğu Akdeniz’de Deniz Yetki Alanları ve Yeni Enerji Politikaları”, Deniz Hukuku Sempozyumu Bildiriler Kitabı, Çağ Üniversitesi, Mersin, 2011.
  • Biresselioğlu, M. E., “Clashing Interests in the Eastern Mediterranean: What about Turkey?”, Insight Turkey, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2019, p. 115-134.
  • Blake, G. “Coastal State Sovereignty in the Mediterranean Sea: The Case of Malta”, GeoJournal, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1997, p. 173-180.
  • Caminos, H. (Ed.), Law of the Sea, Surrey: Ashgate Publishers, 2001.
  • Churchill, R.R. and Lowe, A.V. (2002), The Law of the Sea (3rd Edition), Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Coufoudakis, V., “The Solution of the Cyprus Problem and Its Security Implications for the U. S. and Europe”, in A. Ioannou, A. Theophanous and N. Peristianis (Eds.), The Cyprus Problem: Its Solution and the Day After, Nicosia: Intercollege Press, 1998.
  • Dessi, A. “Europe and The Eastern Mediterranean: Navigating Complexity, Mitigating Conflict(s) and Fishing for Compromise”, in M. Tanchum (Ed.), Eastern Mediterranean in Uncharted Waters: Perspectives on Emerging Geopolitical Realities Report, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 2021.
  • Ediger, Ş. V., Devlen, B. and Mcdonald, B. D., “Levant’ta Büyük Oyun: Doğu Akdeniz’in Enerji Jeopolitiği”, Uluslararası İlişkiler, 2012, Vol. 9, No. 33, p. 73-92.
  • El-Katiri, L. “Political Dialogue to Facilitate the Development of Energy Resources in the East Mediterranean”, S. Colombo and N. Sartori (Eds.), The OSCE’s Contribution to Energy Governance, New Med Research Network, 2016.
  • Ellinas, C, “Hydrocarbon Developments in the Eastern Mediterranean: The Case for Pragmatism”, Washington: Atlantic Council, Global Energy Center and Dinu Patriciu Eurasia Center, 2016.
  • Ellinas, C. “Cyprus As an East Med Gas Trading Hub - Centre of Attraction”, In-Cyprus, 24 January 2020, <http://in-cyprus.com/40174-2>, Accessed on 20 August 2020.
  • Energy Information Administration, (EIA), “Overview of Oil and Natural Gas in the Eastern Mediterranean Region”, <https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis_includes/regions_of_interest/Eastern_Mediterranean/eastern-mediterranean.pdf>,Accessed on 5 August 2021.
  • Hodgson, N, “Petroleum Systems of the Levant”, Spectrum Report, 2015, <http://d8d673da5f0d55e3ea5a-6496b70fad7e6663b590babbc0242de1.r89.cf1.rackcdn.com/FP%2020.10.2015%20Neil%20Hodgson_Spectrum%20presentation.pdf>, Accessed on 5 January 2021.
  • Kliot, N., “Cooperation and Conflicts in Maritime Issues in the Mediterranean Basin”, Geo Journal, Vol 18, No. 3, 1989, p. 263-272.
  • Kyris, G., “Europeanisation and Conflict Resolution: The Case of Cyprus”, IBEI (Institut Barcelona d'Estudis Internacionals) Working Papers, No. 39, 2013.
  • Öğütçü, M., “Rivalry in the Eastern Mediterranean”, The Turkish Dimension-Mediterranean Policy Program Report, The German Marshall Fund of the United States, Washington D.C, 2012.
  • Rothwell, D. R. (Ed), Law of the Sea, Chelthenham: Edward Elgar Publishers, 2003.
  • Schenk, C.J., et al, Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, 2010.
  • Shaffer, B. “Eastern Mediterranean Energy: A Decade After The Major Discoveries”, Turkish Policy, 27 November 2018, <http://turkishpolicy.com/article/936/eastern-mediterranean-energy-a-decade-after-the-major%20discoveries>, Accessed on 5 August 2021.
  • Sözen, A. and Özersay, K., “The Annan Plan: State Succession or Continuity”, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2007, p. 125-141.
  • Stocker, J., “No EEZ Solution: The Politics of Oil and Gas in the Eastern Mediterranean”, Middle East Journal, Vol. 66, No. 4, 2012, p. 579-597.
  • “Strategic, Legal Aspects of Turkey-Libya Deal”, Analysis, Anatolian Agency Website, 13 December 2019, <https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/analysis-strategic-legal-aspects-of-turkey-libya-deal/ 1673079>, Accessed on 13 May 2021.
  • Tagliapietra, S., “Towards a New Eastern Mediterranean Energy Corridor? Natural Gas Developments Between Market Opportunities and Geopolitical Risks”, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) Report, 2013.
  • Tanaka, Y., The International Law of the Sea, Cambridge University Press, 3rd Edition, 2019.
  • TRNC Ministry of Foreign Affairs Website, <https://mfa.gov.ct.tr>.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Political Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Levent KIRVAL>
İSTANBUL TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8884-5427
Türkiye


Arda ÖZKAN> (Primary Author)
ANKARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6369-0748
Türkiye

Publication Date December 27, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 52, Issue

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tyir1018836, journal = {The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations}, issn = {0544-1943}, eissn = {2667-5382}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara University}, year = {2021}, volume = {52}, pages = {85 - 112}, title = {The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles}, key = {cite}, author = {Özkan, Arda} }
APA Kırval, L. & Özkan, A. (2021). The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles . The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations , 52 , 85-112 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tyir/issue/67361/1018836
MLA Kırval, L. , Özkan, A. "The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles" . The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations 52 (2021 ): 85-112 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tyir/issue/67361/1018836>
Chicago Kırval, L. , Özkan, A. "The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles". The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations 52 (2021 ): 85-112
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles AU - Levent Kırval , Arda Özkan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 85 EP - 112 VL - 52 IS - SN - 0544-1943-2667-5382 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles %A Levent Kırval , Arda Özkan %T The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles %D 2021 %J The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations %P 0544-1943-2667-5382 %V 52 %N %R %U
ISNAD Kırval, Levent , Özkan, Arda . "The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles". The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations 52 / (December 2021): 85-112 .
AMA Kırval L. , Özkan A. The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles. The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations. 2021; 52: 85-112.
Vancouver Kırval L. , Özkan A. The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles. The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations. 2021; 52: 85-112.
IEEE L. Kırval and A. Özkan , "The Delimitation Dispute of the Maritime Jurisdiction Areas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Turkish Perspective Based on the Equitable Principles", The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, vol. 52, pp. 85-112, Dec. 2021