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Doğu Akdeniz'de 'Yumuşak Gerilimler' ve Türk Diplomasisine Yansımaları: 1920 ve 1930'larda Meis ve Samos Adası Vakaları

Year 2021, Volume 52, Issue , 61 - 84, 27.12.2021

Abstract

Bu çalışma Türkiye’nin İki Savaş arası dönemde Doğu Akdenziz’deki iktidar mücadelelerine verdiği diplamatik yanıtlara odaklanmaktadır. 1923 Lozan Antlaşmasından sonra, Tükiye Büyük Güçlerle çözülemeyen kara sınırları sorunuyla uğraşmak durumunda kalmıştır. Özellikle İngiltere’yle olan Musul sorunu ve Fransa’yla olan Hatay sorunu uzunca tartışılmıştır. Ancak aynı dönemdeki deniz sınırı meseleleri akademik düzlemde pek tartışılmamıştır. Ege Denizi’ndeki hassas dengeleri ve bunun İki Savaş arası dönemde Doğu Akdeniz politikası açısından önemini dikkate alan bu çalışma, Türkiye’nin bu meseleye diplomatik yanıtlarını analiz etmektedir. Italya ile Meis (Castellorizo) ve İngiltere’yle Samos vakaları olmak üzere Ege’de iki önemli ‘yumuşak gerilim’ vakası tarihi kaynaklara referansla derinlemesine incelenmiştir. Bu vakalar literatüre yeni bir analitik kavram olarak sunulan ‘yumuşak gerilim’ kavramı çerçevesinde izah edilmiştir. Türk diplmasisinin bu karasuları gerilimleri karşısındaki tavrı ‘savunmacı etkinlik’ kavramı üzerinden tanımlanmıştır. İki Savaş arası dönemin kritik atmosferinde Büyük Güçlerle bu ‘yumuşak gerilimleri’ yönetmenin, uluslararası düzenin yeni aktörlerinden biri olarak Türkiye’nin diplomatik kapasitesini geliştirmesine ve böylece İkinci Dünya Savaşı sürecinde daha yetkin bir strateji izleyebilmesine olanak sağladığı öne sürülmektedir.

References

  • Akşin, Aptülahat. Atatürk’ün Dış Politika İlkeleri ve Diplomasisi. Ankara: TTK Yayınları, 1991.
  • Baker, Robert L. “Turkey in an Anxious Mood.” Current History and Forum 40, (1934): 760-761.
  • Barlas, Dilek. “Friends or Foes? Diplomatic relations between Italy and Turkey, 1923-36.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 36 (2004): 231-252.
  • Clayton, Anthony. The British Empire as a Superpower. London: MacMillan Press, 1986.
  • Colbert, Richard G., and Kenneth R. McGruther. “The Role of Perception in Naval Diplomacy.”Naval War College Review (1974): 3-20.
  • Çelebi, Mevlüt. “Atatürk Dönemi ve Sonrasında Türkiye-İtalya İlişkilerini Etkileyen Faktörler.” Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi 31 (2015): 93-130. Eissler, Eric R., and Gözde Arasıl. “Maritime Boundary Delimitation in the Eastern Mediterranean: A New Conflict between Cyprus, Turkey, Greece and Israel?” The RUSI Journal 159 (2014): 74-80.
  • Ergül, Ali. “Kanapiçe Koyu Olayı.” Kuşadası Yerel Tarih Dergisi, Special Edition (2008): 8-10.
  • Erozan, Ekrem. Tarihi Ege Adalarından Kıbrıs, Girit, Sisam, Rodos, Sakız, Midilli Tarihleri. İzmir: Kardeşler, 1949.
  • Gartzonikas, Panagiotis. Amphibious and Special Operations in the Aegean Sea 1943-1945. Operational Effectiveness and Strategic Implications. PhD diss., Naval Postgraduate School Monterey CA, 2003.
  • Gerolymatos, André. “The Turkish Straits: History, Politics, and Strategic Dilemmas." Ocean Yearbook Online 28, (2014): 58-79.
  • Güçlü, Yücel. “Fascist Italy’ Mare Nostrum Policy and Turkey.” Belleten 228 (1999): 813-845.
  • Gülmez, Seçkin Bariş. “Do Diplomats Matter in Foreign Policy? Sir Percy Loraine and the Turkish-British Rapprochement in the 1930s.” Foreign Policy Analysis 15 (2019): 65-82.
  • Halpern, Paul. The Mediterranean Fleet, 1919–1929. New York; London: Routledge, 2016.
  • İnce, Fuat. “Lozan Barış Antlaşması ve Ege Adaları.” Ankara Üniversitesi Türk İnkılâp Tarihi Enstitüsü Atatürk Yolu Dergisi 53 (2013), 101-128.
  • Kienitz, Otto. “The Emerging Storm: Sir Percy Loraine and Anglo-Turkish Rapprochement, 1934- 1935.” Penn History Review 23 (2016): 5.
  • Koburger, Charles W. Wine-Dark, Blood Red Sea: Naval Warfare in the Aegean, 1941-1946. London: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
  • Mallett, Robert. Mussolini and the origins of the Second World War, 1933-1940. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
  • Mengeş, Yeter. “İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nda Menteşe (Rodos, 12 Ada ve Meis) Adaları. Çağdaş Türkiye Tarihi Araştırmaları Dergisi Journal of Modern Turkish History Studies XVII/34 (2017): 279-318.
  • Millman, Brock. Ill-Made Alliance: Anglo-Turkish Relations, 1934-1940. Montreal; London: McGill-Queen's Press, 1998.
  • Papuççular, Hazal. Türkiye ve Oniki ada 1912-1947. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2019.
  • Pazarcı, Hüseyin. Doğu Ege Adalarının Askerden Arındırılmış Statüsü. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Basın-Yayın Yüksek Okulu, 1986.
  • Raphalides, S. J. “Separate Spheres: An Overview of United States Policy in the Interwar Years towards Greece and Turkey.” The Journal of Modern Hellenism 8 (1991): 117-130.
  • Rodogno, Davide. Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Rumelili, Bahar. “Liminality and Perpetuation of Conflicts: Turkish-Greek relations in the context of community-building by the EU.” European Journal of International Relations 9 (2003): 213-248.
  • Selby, Jan. “Engaging Foucault: Discourse, liberal governance and the limits of Foucauldian IR.” International Relations 21 (2007): 324-345.
  • Soyak, Hasan Rıza. Atatürk’ten Hatıralar II. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Bankası Yayınları, 1973.
  • Soysal, İsmail. Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Siyasal Antlaşmaları (1920-1945). Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, 1989.
  • Tamkin, Nicholas. Britain, Turkey and the Soviet Union, 1940–45: Strategy, Diplomacy and Intelligence in the Eastern Mediterranean. New York; London: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Tocci, Nathalie, Meliha Benli Altunişik and Kemal Kirişci, “Turkey as a “Mediterranean Power” German Marshall Fund of the United States (2011). 60-73.
  • Vafeas, Nikos. “Banditry and Separatism in the Greek Island of Samos (1914-1925).” Chronica Mundi 11 (2016): 171-197.
  • Wiegand, Krista Eileen. Enduring Territorial Disputes: Strategies of bargaining, coercive diplomacy, and settlement. Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 2011.

‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s

Year 2021, Volume 52, Issue , 61 - 84, 27.12.2021

Abstract

This study focuses on the diplomatic responses of Turkey to the power struggles on the Eastern Mediterranean during the interwar period. After the Lausanne Treaty in 1923, Turkey had to tackle with the unsettled territorial border questions with the Great Powers. Specifically, the Mousul dispute with Britain and Alexandria dispute with France have long been discussed. However, the maritime border questions in the same period have not attracted much scholarly attention. Taking into account the delicate balances on the Aegean Sea and its significance for the Eastern Mediterranean politics in the interwar period, this study analyzes the diplomatic responses of Turkey to this issue. Two major ‘soft tension’ cases on the Aegean are examined in depth in reference to the historical sources, namely the Meis Island (Castellorizo) tension with Italy and Samos incident with Britain. These cases are elucidated in the framework of the “soft tension” notion, which is introduced to the literature as a new analyical instrument. The Turkish diplomatic attitude in regard to these maritime tensions is described in reference to a position which is called “defensive proactivity”. It is argued that managing these soft tensions with the Great Powers during the critical atmosphere of the interwar era contributed to the diplomatic competences of Turkey as one of the new actors of the international order. So that it was able to follow a more competent strategy during the Second World War.

References

  • Akşin, Aptülahat. Atatürk’ün Dış Politika İlkeleri ve Diplomasisi. Ankara: TTK Yayınları, 1991.
  • Baker, Robert L. “Turkey in an Anxious Mood.” Current History and Forum 40, (1934): 760-761.
  • Barlas, Dilek. “Friends or Foes? Diplomatic relations between Italy and Turkey, 1923-36.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 36 (2004): 231-252.
  • Clayton, Anthony. The British Empire as a Superpower. London: MacMillan Press, 1986.
  • Colbert, Richard G., and Kenneth R. McGruther. “The Role of Perception in Naval Diplomacy.”Naval War College Review (1974): 3-20.
  • Çelebi, Mevlüt. “Atatürk Dönemi ve Sonrasında Türkiye-İtalya İlişkilerini Etkileyen Faktörler.” Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi 31 (2015): 93-130. Eissler, Eric R., and Gözde Arasıl. “Maritime Boundary Delimitation in the Eastern Mediterranean: A New Conflict between Cyprus, Turkey, Greece and Israel?” The RUSI Journal 159 (2014): 74-80.
  • Ergül, Ali. “Kanapiçe Koyu Olayı.” Kuşadası Yerel Tarih Dergisi, Special Edition (2008): 8-10.
  • Erozan, Ekrem. Tarihi Ege Adalarından Kıbrıs, Girit, Sisam, Rodos, Sakız, Midilli Tarihleri. İzmir: Kardeşler, 1949.
  • Gartzonikas, Panagiotis. Amphibious and Special Operations in the Aegean Sea 1943-1945. Operational Effectiveness and Strategic Implications. PhD diss., Naval Postgraduate School Monterey CA, 2003.
  • Gerolymatos, André. “The Turkish Straits: History, Politics, and Strategic Dilemmas." Ocean Yearbook Online 28, (2014): 58-79.
  • Güçlü, Yücel. “Fascist Italy’ Mare Nostrum Policy and Turkey.” Belleten 228 (1999): 813-845.
  • Gülmez, Seçkin Bariş. “Do Diplomats Matter in Foreign Policy? Sir Percy Loraine and the Turkish-British Rapprochement in the 1930s.” Foreign Policy Analysis 15 (2019): 65-82.
  • Halpern, Paul. The Mediterranean Fleet, 1919–1929. New York; London: Routledge, 2016.
  • İnce, Fuat. “Lozan Barış Antlaşması ve Ege Adaları.” Ankara Üniversitesi Türk İnkılâp Tarihi Enstitüsü Atatürk Yolu Dergisi 53 (2013), 101-128.
  • Kienitz, Otto. “The Emerging Storm: Sir Percy Loraine and Anglo-Turkish Rapprochement, 1934- 1935.” Penn History Review 23 (2016): 5.
  • Koburger, Charles W. Wine-Dark, Blood Red Sea: Naval Warfare in the Aegean, 1941-1946. London: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
  • Mallett, Robert. Mussolini and the origins of the Second World War, 1933-1940. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
  • Mengeş, Yeter. “İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nda Menteşe (Rodos, 12 Ada ve Meis) Adaları. Çağdaş Türkiye Tarihi Araştırmaları Dergisi Journal of Modern Turkish History Studies XVII/34 (2017): 279-318.
  • Millman, Brock. Ill-Made Alliance: Anglo-Turkish Relations, 1934-1940. Montreal; London: McGill-Queen's Press, 1998.
  • Papuççular, Hazal. Türkiye ve Oniki ada 1912-1947. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2019.
  • Pazarcı, Hüseyin. Doğu Ege Adalarının Askerden Arındırılmış Statüsü. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Basın-Yayın Yüksek Okulu, 1986.
  • Raphalides, S. J. “Separate Spheres: An Overview of United States Policy in the Interwar Years towards Greece and Turkey.” The Journal of Modern Hellenism 8 (1991): 117-130.
  • Rodogno, Davide. Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Rumelili, Bahar. “Liminality and Perpetuation of Conflicts: Turkish-Greek relations in the context of community-building by the EU.” European Journal of International Relations 9 (2003): 213-248.
  • Selby, Jan. “Engaging Foucault: Discourse, liberal governance and the limits of Foucauldian IR.” International Relations 21 (2007): 324-345.
  • Soyak, Hasan Rıza. Atatürk’ten Hatıralar II. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Bankası Yayınları, 1973.
  • Soysal, İsmail. Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Siyasal Antlaşmaları (1920-1945). Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, 1989.
  • Tamkin, Nicholas. Britain, Turkey and the Soviet Union, 1940–45: Strategy, Diplomacy and Intelligence in the Eastern Mediterranean. New York; London: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Tocci, Nathalie, Meliha Benli Altunişik and Kemal Kirişci, “Turkey as a “Mediterranean Power” German Marshall Fund of the United States (2011). 60-73.
  • Vafeas, Nikos. “Banditry and Separatism in the Greek Island of Samos (1914-1925).” Chronica Mundi 11 (2016): 171-197.
  • Wiegand, Krista Eileen. Enduring Territorial Disputes: Strategies of bargaining, coercive diplomacy, and settlement. Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 2011.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Political Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Emine Tutku VARDAĞLI> (Primary Author)
İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi
0000-0001-6466-7881
Türkiye

Publication Date December 27, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 52, Issue

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tyir928104, journal = {The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations}, issn = {0544-1943}, eissn = {2667-5382}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara University}, year = {2021}, volume = {52}, pages = {61 - 84}, title = {‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s}, key = {cite}, author = {Vardağlı, Emine Tutku} }
APA Vardağlı, E. T. (2021). ‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s . The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations , 52 , 61-84 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tyir/issue/67361/928104
MLA Vardağlı, E. T. "‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s" . The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations 52 (2021 ): 61-84 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tyir/issue/67361/928104>
Chicago Vardağlı, E. T. "‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s". The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations 52 (2021 ): 61-84
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - ‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s AU - Emine Tutku Vardağlı Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 61 EP - 84 VL - 52 IS - SN - 0544-1943-2667-5382 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations ‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s %A Emine Tutku Vardağlı %T ‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s %D 2021 %J The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations %P 0544-1943-2667-5382 %V 52 %N %R %U
ISNAD Vardağlı, Emine Tutku . "‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s". The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations 52 / (December 2021): 61-84 .
AMA Vardağlı E. T. ‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s. The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations. 2021; 52: 61-84.
Vancouver Vardağlı E. T. ‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s. The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations. 2021; 52: 61-84.
IEEE E. T. Vardağlı , "‘Soft Tensions’ on the Eastern Mediterranean and Reflections on Turkish Diplomacy: Meis and Samos Island Cases in the 1920-1930s", The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, vol. 52, pp. 61-84, Dec. 2021