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ARAP VE YAHUDİ KAMUOYUNUN KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ANALİZİ: 2008 GAZZE SAVAŞI

Yıl 2020, Sayı 36, 918 - 954, 31.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.14520/adyusbd.681136

Öz

Endüstri Devrimi sadece ekonomik yaşamın yapısını değil aynı zamanda sosyo-politik yaşamın yapısını da etkiledi. Sosyo-politik yapıdaki dönüşümün sonucu kitle toplumunun ve takiben kitle iletişim araçlarının ortaya çıkışı oldu. Bu iki yeniliği kamuoyu kavramının ortaya çıkışı takip etti. Zira kitleler kendi başlarına siyasi bir güç haline geldiler. Artık halk siyasetçilerin bir seçimi kazanmasında ya da kitle iletişim araçları vasıtasıyla oluşturulan kamuoyu desteğiyle yeni bir siyasi gerçekliğin yaratılmasında önemli bir unsurdu. Bu arka plan ışığında, bu makalede vaka olarak Filistin-İsrail sorunu ele alınmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı her iki tarafın da diğerini medyada olumsuz şekilde ve dezavantajlı bir pozisyonda resmettiğini ve böylelikle birbirleri hakkında olumsuz bir kamuoyu yarattığını göstermektir. Bu hipotezi doğrulamak için ise 27 Aralık 2008 tarihinde başlayan Gazze Savaşı’nı takip eden süreç seçilmiştir. Olay hakkında o dönemdeki seçilmiş Filistin ve İsrail medyasında çıkan haberlerin karşılaştırmalı bir analizi yapılacaktır.

Kaynakça

  • Arutz Sheva Challenges Haaretz's Editorial Policy. (2008). Retrieved September 22, 2019 from Israel National News: http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/116294
  • Bektaş, A. (1996). Kamuoyu, İletişim ve Demokrasi. İstanbul: Bağlam Yayınları.
  • Baum, B. (2001). Freedom, Power and Public Opinion: J.S. Mill on The Public Sphere. History of Political Thought, 22(3), 501-524.
  • BBC News. (1999, 24 February). Israel legalises religious pirate radios. Retrieved September 22, 2019 from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/285610.stm
  • Bronner, E. (2008, December 19). Gaza Truce may be Revived by Necessity. The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/20/world/middleeast/20mideast.html
  • B’Tselem. (2009). Guidelines for Israel’s Investigation into Operation Cast Lead. Jerusalem: B’Tselem. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from https://www.btselem.org/download/200902_operation_cast_lead_position_paper_eng.pdf
  • Champagne, P. (1990). Faire l’Opinion. Paris: Minuit.
  • Cohen, H. (2015). Year Zero of the Arab-Israeli Conflict 1929. Boston: Brandeis University Press.
  • Entman, R. (1993, August ). Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm. Journal of Communication, 51-58.
  • Erdoğan, İ., & Alemdar, K. (2002). Öteki Kuram. Ankara : Erk .
  • Gans, H. (1979). Deciding What’s News. Illinois: Northwestern University Press.
  • Girard, A., & Stoetzel, J. (1979). Les Sondages d’Opinion Publique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  • Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2008, December 28). Israel Strikes Back against Hamas Terror Infrastructure in Gaza. Retrieved 20 June 2019, from Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs: www.mfa.gov.il Lazar, J. (1995). L’Opinion Publique. Paris: Editions Sirey.
  • Lazarsfeld, P. (1968). The People's Choice: How the Voter Makes Up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Lippmann, W. (1997). Public Opinion. New York: Free Press.
  • Machiavelli, N. (2004). Prens. (N. Güvenç, Çev.) İstanbul: Anahtar Kitaplar.
  • McCombs, M., & I.Ghanem, S. (2011). The Convergence of Agenda Setting and Framing. S. D. Reese içinde, Framing Public Life (s. 67-82). New Jersey: LEA.
  • McQuail, D., & Windahl, S. (2005). İletişim Modelleri. (K. Yumlu, Çev.) Ankara: İmge.
  • Morris, B. (1987). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947-1949. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Noelle-Neumann, E. (1998). Kamuoyu: Suskunluk Sarmalının Keşfi. (M. Özkök, Çev.) Ankara: Dost Kitabevi.
  • Ovendale, R. (2004). The Origins of Arab-Israeli Wars. London: Routledge.
  • Pappe, I. (2006). The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.
  • Perloff, R. M. (1998). Political Communicaiton. New Jersey: LEA.
  • Pilger, J. (2014 ). Breaking the last taboo - Gaza and the threat of world war.
  • Robinson, J. (1976, Autumn). Interpersonal Influence in Election Campaignes: Two Step Flow Hypotheses”. Public Opinion Quarterly, 40(3), s. 304-319.
  • Shlaim, A. (2000). The Iron Wall. London: Penguin.
  • Shlaim, A. (2009). How Israel brought Gaza to the brink of humanitarian catastrophe. The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jan/07/gaza-israel-palestine
  • Speier, H. (1950, January). Historical Development of Public Opinion. The American Journal of Sociology, 55(4), 376-388.
  • The Economist. (2009, January 10). The Arabs and Israel: The Hundred Year's War. The Economist. Retrieved August 2019, from https://www.economist.com/leaders/2009/01/08/the-hundred-years-war
  • The Guardian. (2009, January 2). Israeli warplanes destroy Gaza houses and mosque as air strikes continue. Retrieved June 20, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jan/02/israel-gaza-attacks
  • The June 2008 Gaza Ceasefire. (2009). Retrieved September 22, 2019 from the Carter Center: https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/peace/conflict_resolution/Gaza_movement_and_fatalities_report%20FINAL%201%2022%2009.pdf
  • Tocqueville, A. d. (1990). De la Démocratie en Amérique. Paris: Libraire Philosophique J.VRIN.
  • Van Dijk, T. (1988). News Analysis. London: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Van Dijk, T. (2006). Discourse and Manipulation. Discourse and Society, 17(3), 359-383.
  • Yüksel, E. (2001). Medyanın Gündem Belirleme Gücü. Konya: Çizgi Kitapevi Yayınları.

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PALESTINIAN AND JEWISH PUBLIC OPINIONS: THE CASE OF 2008 GAZA WAR

Yıl 2020, Sayı 36, 918 - 954, 31.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.14520/adyusbd.681136

Öz

Industrial revolution has influenced not only the structure of economic life but also that of socio-political life. The consequences regarding socio-political structure were the creation of mass society and then mass communication. These two breakthroughs are followed by the emergence of the concept of public opinion since the masses has become a political force by themselves; hence the people were important components for the politicians to win the elections or to reproduce a new political reality with the support of public opinion. In line with this background, this article examines as the case study the Palestinian - Israeli conflict. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that two camps of the conflict attempt to represent the actions of other in a negative manner, in a disadvantaged position in the media and thus help to create a public opinion unfavorable vis-à-vis each other. To verify this hypothesis, the process after the Gaza War which took place on 27 December 2008 would be analyzed through the comparison of the news appeared on the chosen Palestinian and the Jewish media networks in that period.

Kaynakça

  • Arutz Sheva Challenges Haaretz's Editorial Policy. (2008). Retrieved September 22, 2019 from Israel National News: http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/116294
  • Bektaş, A. (1996). Kamuoyu, İletişim ve Demokrasi. İstanbul: Bağlam Yayınları.
  • Baum, B. (2001). Freedom, Power and Public Opinion: J.S. Mill on The Public Sphere. History of Political Thought, 22(3), 501-524.
  • BBC News. (1999, 24 February). Israel legalises religious pirate radios. Retrieved September 22, 2019 from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/285610.stm
  • Bronner, E. (2008, December 19). Gaza Truce may be Revived by Necessity. The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/20/world/middleeast/20mideast.html
  • B’Tselem. (2009). Guidelines for Israel’s Investigation into Operation Cast Lead. Jerusalem: B’Tselem. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from https://www.btselem.org/download/200902_operation_cast_lead_position_paper_eng.pdf
  • Champagne, P. (1990). Faire l’Opinion. Paris: Minuit.
  • Cohen, H. (2015). Year Zero of the Arab-Israeli Conflict 1929. Boston: Brandeis University Press.
  • Entman, R. (1993, August ). Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm. Journal of Communication, 51-58.
  • Erdoğan, İ., & Alemdar, K. (2002). Öteki Kuram. Ankara : Erk .
  • Gans, H. (1979). Deciding What’s News. Illinois: Northwestern University Press.
  • Girard, A., & Stoetzel, J. (1979). Les Sondages d’Opinion Publique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  • Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2008, December 28). Israel Strikes Back against Hamas Terror Infrastructure in Gaza. Retrieved 20 June 2019, from Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs: www.mfa.gov.il Lazar, J. (1995). L’Opinion Publique. Paris: Editions Sirey.
  • Lazarsfeld, P. (1968). The People's Choice: How the Voter Makes Up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Lippmann, W. (1997). Public Opinion. New York: Free Press.
  • Machiavelli, N. (2004). Prens. (N. Güvenç, Çev.) İstanbul: Anahtar Kitaplar.
  • McCombs, M., & I.Ghanem, S. (2011). The Convergence of Agenda Setting and Framing. S. D. Reese içinde, Framing Public Life (s. 67-82). New Jersey: LEA.
  • McQuail, D., & Windahl, S. (2005). İletişim Modelleri. (K. Yumlu, Çev.) Ankara: İmge.
  • Morris, B. (1987). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947-1949. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Noelle-Neumann, E. (1998). Kamuoyu: Suskunluk Sarmalının Keşfi. (M. Özkök, Çev.) Ankara: Dost Kitabevi.
  • Ovendale, R. (2004). The Origins of Arab-Israeli Wars. London: Routledge.
  • Pappe, I. (2006). The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.
  • Perloff, R. M. (1998). Political Communicaiton. New Jersey: LEA.
  • Pilger, J. (2014 ). Breaking the last taboo - Gaza and the threat of world war.
  • Robinson, J. (1976, Autumn). Interpersonal Influence in Election Campaignes: Two Step Flow Hypotheses”. Public Opinion Quarterly, 40(3), s. 304-319.
  • Shlaim, A. (2000). The Iron Wall. London: Penguin.
  • Shlaim, A. (2009). How Israel brought Gaza to the brink of humanitarian catastrophe. The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jan/07/gaza-israel-palestine
  • Speier, H. (1950, January). Historical Development of Public Opinion. The American Journal of Sociology, 55(4), 376-388.
  • The Economist. (2009, January 10). The Arabs and Israel: The Hundred Year's War. The Economist. Retrieved August 2019, from https://www.economist.com/leaders/2009/01/08/the-hundred-years-war
  • The Guardian. (2009, January 2). Israeli warplanes destroy Gaza houses and mosque as air strikes continue. Retrieved June 20, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jan/02/israel-gaza-attacks
  • The June 2008 Gaza Ceasefire. (2009). Retrieved September 22, 2019 from the Carter Center: https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/peace/conflict_resolution/Gaza_movement_and_fatalities_report%20FINAL%201%2022%2009.pdf
  • Tocqueville, A. d. (1990). De la Démocratie en Amérique. Paris: Libraire Philosophique J.VRIN.
  • Van Dijk, T. (1988). News Analysis. London: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Van Dijk, T. (2006). Discourse and Manipulation. Discourse and Society, 17(3), 359-383.
  • Yüksel, E. (2001). Medyanın Gündem Belirleme Gücü. Konya: Çizgi Kitapevi Yayınları.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Tuğçe ERSOY CEYLAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İzmir Demokrasi Üniversitesi
0000-0001-5478-3539
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 36

Kaynak Göster

APA Ersoy Ceylan, T. (2020). A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PALESTINIAN AND JEWISH PUBLIC OPINIONS: THE CASE OF 2008 GAZA WAR . Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , (36) , 918-954 . DOI: 10.14520/adyusbd.681136