Araştırma Makalesi
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ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTIFICATION AND CYBERLOAFING: A RESEARCH ON PUBLIC EMPLOYEES

Yıl 2017, Cilt 4, Sayı 9, 79 - 93, 25.12.2017

Öz

The expansion of the devices which are about internet technology in business life has caused non work related internet using during working hours increasingly. Researches related to cyberloafing has stressed on both negative and positive effects of internet using. The aim of this research is to examine the effects of organizational identification levels of public sector employees on the reasons and sub-dimensions of cyberloafing (non-business internet use during working hours). Survey method was used in the research. The questionnaire was applied to 243 person who are working in one of public sector company in Ankara and selected randomly from this institution. Analysis was based on factor analysis and simple linear regression. As a result, there is a positively, moderately and significant relation between the level of organizational identification of employees and "Developmental / Informational" oriented non-work related internet using. In this context, it is seen that employees with high level of organizational identification use internet for positive purposes such as to improve themselves / gain new skills during working hours, to follow the agenda or to increase their knowledge about the topics they are interested. There is no significant relation between organizational identification and "leisure / self-renewal / addiction" oriented non work related internet using.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmadi, H.,Bagheri, F., Ebrahimi, S.A., Rokni, M.A.N. & Kahrer, M.S. (2011). "Deviant Work Behavior: Explaining Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Cyberloafing as a Deviant Work Behavior." American Journal of Science Research, 24, 103-116.
  • Abidin, R., Abdullah C.S., Hasnan, N., & Bajuri A.L. (2014). "The Relationship Of Cyberloafing Behavior With Big Five Personality Traits." Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci.8(12): 61-66.
  • Alder, G. S., Noel, T. W., & Ambrose, M. L. (2006). "Clarifying the effects of internet monitoring on job attitudes: The mediating role of employee trust." Journal of Information Management, 43(7): 894-903.
  • Ashforth, B. E. & Mael, F. (1989). "Social identity theory and the organization." Academy of Management Journal, 14, 20–39.
  • Blanchard, A. L.,& Henle, C. A. (2008). "Correlates of Different Forms of Cyberloafing: the Role of Norms and External Locus of Control." Computers In Human Behavior, 24, 1067-1084.
  • Blau, G.,Yang, Y., & Ward-Cook, K. (2004). "Testing A Measure of Cyberloafing." Journal of Allied Health, 35(1): 9-17.
  • Boros, S. (2008). "Organizational identification: Theoretical and empirical analyses of competing conceptualizations." Cognition, Brain, Behavior, 7(1): 1-28.
  • Brewer, M.B. ve R.M. Kramer (1986). "Choice Behavior in Social Dilemmas: Effects of Social Identity, Group Size and Decision Framing." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 543-549.
  • Candan, H. & İnce M. (2016). "Siber Kaytarma ve Örgütsel Bağlılık Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesine Yönelik Emniyet Çalışanları Üzerine Bir Araştırma." Niğde Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 9(1): 229-235.
  • Carmeli, A.,Gilat, G., & Waldman, D. A. (2007). "The role of perceived organizational performance in organizational identification, adjustment and job performance." Journal of Management Studies, 44, 972–992.
  • Chak, K., & Leung, L. (2004). "Shyness and, locus of control as predictors of internet addiction and internet use." Cyber Psychology and Behavior, 7(5): 559-570.
  • Cheney, G. (1983). "On the various and changing meanings of organizational membership: A field study of organizational identification." Communication Monographs, 50, 342–362.
  • D'Arcy, J.,Hovav, A., & Galletta, D. (2009). "User awareness of security countermeasures and its impact on information systems misuse: A deterrence approach." Information Systems Research, 20(1): 79–98.
  • de Lara, P. Z. M. (2006). "Fear in organizations: Does intimidation by formal punishment mediate the relationship between interactional justice and workplace internet deviance?" Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(6): 580- 592.
  • Dutton, J. E., Dukerich, J.M. & Harquail, C.V. (1994). "Organizational Images and Member Identification." Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(2): 239–263.
  • Doorn, O.N. (2011). Cyberloafing: A Multi-Dimensional Construct Placed In A Theoretical Framework. (Master Thesis). Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology.
  • Edwards, M.,& Peccei, R. (2007). "Organizational identification: Development and testing of a conceptually grounded measure." European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16(1): 25-57.
  • Ertürk, A., Demircan N. & Ceylan A. (2005). "The Effects of Organizational Communication and Commitment on Organizational Identification: A Sectoral Comparison." Bogazici Journal: of Social, Economic and Administrative Studies, 19(1/2): 81–98.
  • Farh, J., P. C. Earley ve S. Lin, (1997). "Impetusfor Action: A Cultural Analysis of Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Chinese Society." Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 421-444.
  • Field, A. (1989). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, 3.Ed., Sage Publications, California.
  • Green, C. N. (1978). "Identification Modes of Professionals: Relationship With Formalization, Role Strain and Allienation." The Academy of Management Journal, 21(3): 486-492.
  • Güngör, M. (2016). Sanal Kaytarma ve Örgütsel Bağlılık İlişkisi: Kamu ve Özel Sektör Üzerine Bir Araştırma (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Atatürk Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Erzurum.
  • Hirst, G.,VanDick, R., & VanKnippenberg, D. (2009). "A social identity perspective on leadership and employee creativity." Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 963-982.
  • Homburg, C.,Wieseke, J., &Hoyer, W. D. (2009). "Social Identity and the Service–Profit Chain." Journal of Marketing, 73, 38-54.
  • İslamoğlu, H. & Alnıaçık, Ü. (2014). Sosyal Bilimlerde Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri. İstanbul: Beta Yayınevi.
  • Kachchhap L.S. & Ong'uti M.A. (2015). "Linking Personality and Strategic Leadership to Organizational Identification. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 5(8): 243-256.
  • Kaplan, M. & Öğüt, A. (2012). "Algılanan Örgütsel Adalet İle Sanal Kaytarma Arasındaki İlişkinin Analizi: Hastane Çalışanları Örneği." İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 13(1): 1-13.
  • Kramer, R.M. (2006). Social Capital and Cooperative Behavior in the Workplace: A Social Identity Perspective. Advances in Group Processes, 23, 1-30.
  • Lee, H., (2004). "The Role of Competence Based Trust and Organizational Identification in Continuous Improvement." Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(6): 623-639.
  • Lim, V. G. (2002). "The IT Way of Loafing on the Job: Cyberloafing, Neutralizing and Organizational Justice."Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 675-694.
  • Lim, V. K. G., & Teo, T. S. H. (2006). "Cyberloafing and organizational justice: The moderating role of neutralization technique." In M. Anandarajan, T. S. H. Teo, & C. A. Simmers (Eds.), The Internet and workplace transformation (pp. 241-258). New York: ME Sharpe.
  • Lowe, R.H. & S.J. Vodanovich (1995). A Field Study of Distributive and Procedural Justice as Predictors of Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment. Journal of Business and Psychology, 10,99-114.
  • Madjar, N.,Greenberg, E. & Chen, Z. (2011). "Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance." Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4): 730-743.
  • Mael, Fred A. (1988). Organizational Identification: Construct Redefinition and a Field Application with Organizational Alumni, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit.
  • Mahatanankoon, P.,Anandarajan, M., & Igbaria, M. (2004). "Development of A Measure of Personal Web Usage In the Workplace." Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(1): 93-104.
  • Masterson, S.S., Lewis, K., Goldman, B.M. & Taylor M. (2000). "Integrating Justice and Social Exchange: The Different Effects of Fair Procedures and Treatment on Work Relationships." Academy of Management Journal, 43, 738-748.
  • Mastrangelo, P. M.,Everton, W., & Jolton, J. A. (2006). "Personal Use of Work Computers: Distraction Versus Destruction." Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 9(6): 730 741.
  • Moorman, R.H., B.P. Niehoof & D.W. Organ (1993). "Treating Employees Fairly and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Sorting the Effects of Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Procedural Justice." Employee Responsibilities and Journal, 6, 209-225.
  • Niaei, M.,Peidaei M.N., & Nasiripour A.A. (2014). "The Relation Between Staff Cyberloafing and Organizatıonal Commitment In Organization of Environmental Protection." Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 3(7): 59-71.
  • O’Reilly, C. A. & Chatman, J. (1986). "Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effect of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behavior." Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 492–499.
  • Örücü, E. & Yıldız, H. (2014). "İşyerinde Kişisel İnternet ve Teknoloji Kullanımı: Sanal Kaytarma." Ege Akademik Bakış, 14(1): 99-114.
  • Özdemir, H. O. (2007). Çalışanların Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Algılamalarının Örgutsel Özdeşleşme, Örgutsel Bağlılık ve İş Tatminine etkisi: OPET Çalışanlarına Yönelik Uygulama, Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
  • Patchen, M. (1970). Participation, Achievement, and Involvement on the Job. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Phinney, J. S. (1991). "Ethnic identity and self-esteem: A review and integration." Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13(2): 193–208.
  • Polat, M. (2009). Örgütsel Özdeşleşmenin Öncülleri ve Ardılları Üzerine Bir Saha Çalışması (Doktora Tezi). Uludağ Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Bursa.
  • Riketta, M. (2005). "Organizational identification: A meta-analysis." Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2): 358-384.
  • Robinson, S. L.,& Bennett, R. J. (1995). "A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multidimensional scaling study." Academy of Management Journal, 38 (2): 555-572.
  • Sass, J.S. & D.J. Canary, (1991). "Organizational Commitment and Identification: An Examination of Conceptual and Operational Convergence." Western Journal of Speech Communication, 55, 275-293.
  • Sawitri, Hunik Sri Runing. (2010). Interaction of Commitment and Work Stressor on Cyberloafing Employee Behavior. Competitive Research Program of Sebelasmaret University Surakarta. Not Published.
  • Spector, P. E., Fox, S., Penney, L. M., Bruursema, K., Goh, A., & Kessler, S. (2006). "The Dimensionality of Counterproductivity: Are All Counterproductive Behaviors Created Equal?" Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68(3): 446-460.
  • Staffmonitoring.com (2017). "Staff monitoring software solutions, Office slacker stats." https://staffmonitoring.com/p32/stats.htm, (Erişim Tarihi: 07.10.2017).
  • Tajfel, H. (1978). Differentiation Between Social Groups. Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: AcademicPress.
  • Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. C. (1986). The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behaviour. In: S. Worchel & W. G. Austin, eds. Psychology of Intergroup Relations, pp. 7–24. Chicago: Nelson.
  • Turner, J. C.,Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D. & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group. A Self-CategorizationTheory. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Urbaczewski, A. & Jessup, L. M. (2002). "Does electronic monitoring of employee Internet usage work?" Communications of the ACM, 45(1): 80-83.
  • Ünal, Ö.F., Tekdemir, S. & Yaldızbaş S. (2015). Kamu Çalışanlarının Sanal Kaytarma Amaçları Üzerine Ampirik Bir Araştırma. Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 6(2): 515-534.
  • Van Dick, R.,Grojean, M.W., Christ, O.and Wieseke, J. (2006). "Identity and the extra-mile: Relationships between organizational identification and organizational citizenship behaviour." British Journal of Management, 17, 283-301.
  • Vault.com (2005). "Results of Vault.com survey of internet use in the workplace.", http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20050810005554/en/Employees-Addicted- Net-Surfing-New-Vault-Survey, (Erişim Tarihi: 07.10.2017).
  • Weiseke, J.,Ahearne, M., Lam, S. K., & VonDick, R. (2008). "The Role of Leaders in Internal Marketing: A Multilevel Examination Through the Lens of Social Identity Theory." Journal of Marketing, 73(2): 123-146.
  • Zoghbi, P. (2009). "Inequity, Conflict, and Compliance Dilemma as Causes of Cyberloafing. International."Journal of Conflict Management, 20(2): 188-201.

ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

Yıl 2017, Cilt 4, Sayı 9, 79 - 93, 25.12.2017

Öz

İnternet teknolojisi ile ilgili cihazların iş ortamında yaygınlaşması çalışanların, iş saatlerinde gittikçe artan oranlarda iş dışı amaçlarla internet kullanımına sebebiyet vermiştir. Konu ile ilgili araştırmalarda mesai saatlerinde iş dışı amaçlarla internet kullanımının olumlu ve olumsuz yönlerine dikkat çekilmektedir. Bu araştırmanın amacı, kamu sektörü çalışanlarının örgütsel özdeşleşme düzeylerinin, sanal kaytarma (mesai saatlerinde iş dışı internet kullanımı) gerekçeleri ve alt boyutlarına olan etkilerinin incelenmesidir. Araştırmada anket yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Anket formu, Ankara'da kamu sektöründe faaliyet yürüten bir kuruma bağlı dikimevinde çalışan ve bu kurumdan rastlantısal olarak seçilmiş 243 kişiye uygulanmıştır. Analizler aşamasında faktör analizinden ve basit doğrusal regresyondan yararlanılmıştır. Sonuç olarak çalışanların örgütsel özdeşleşme düzeyi ile "Gelişimsel/Bilgisel" gerekçeli iş dışı internet kullanımı arasında pozitif yönde, orta kuvvette ve anlamlı ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Bu bağlamda örgütsel özdeşleşme düzeyi yüksek olan çalışanların mesai saatlerinde daha çok kendini geliştirmek / yeni beceriler kazanmak, gündemi takip etmek veya merak ettiği / ilgi duyduğu konularla ilgili bilgi birikimini artırmak gibi olumlu amaçlarla internet kullandıkları görülmektedir. Örgütsel özdeşleşme ile "Eğlence/Kendini Yenileme/Bağımlılık" gerekçeli iş dışı internet kullanımı arasında anlamlı ilişki tespit edilmemiştir. 

Kaynakça

  • Ahmadi, H.,Bagheri, F., Ebrahimi, S.A., Rokni, M.A.N. & Kahrer, M.S. (2011). "Deviant Work Behavior: Explaining Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Cyberloafing as a Deviant Work Behavior." American Journal of Science Research, 24, 103-116.
  • Abidin, R., Abdullah C.S., Hasnan, N., & Bajuri A.L. (2014). "The Relationship Of Cyberloafing Behavior With Big Five Personality Traits." Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci.8(12): 61-66.
  • Alder, G. S., Noel, T. W., & Ambrose, M. L. (2006). "Clarifying the effects of internet monitoring on job attitudes: The mediating role of employee trust." Journal of Information Management, 43(7): 894-903.
  • Ashforth, B. E. & Mael, F. (1989). "Social identity theory and the organization." Academy of Management Journal, 14, 20–39.
  • Blanchard, A. L.,& Henle, C. A. (2008). "Correlates of Different Forms of Cyberloafing: the Role of Norms and External Locus of Control." Computers In Human Behavior, 24, 1067-1084.
  • Blau, G.,Yang, Y., & Ward-Cook, K. (2004). "Testing A Measure of Cyberloafing." Journal of Allied Health, 35(1): 9-17.
  • Boros, S. (2008). "Organizational identification: Theoretical and empirical analyses of competing conceptualizations." Cognition, Brain, Behavior, 7(1): 1-28.
  • Brewer, M.B. ve R.M. Kramer (1986). "Choice Behavior in Social Dilemmas: Effects of Social Identity, Group Size and Decision Framing." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 543-549.
  • Candan, H. & İnce M. (2016). "Siber Kaytarma ve Örgütsel Bağlılık Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesine Yönelik Emniyet Çalışanları Üzerine Bir Araştırma." Niğde Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 9(1): 229-235.
  • Carmeli, A.,Gilat, G., & Waldman, D. A. (2007). "The role of perceived organizational performance in organizational identification, adjustment and job performance." Journal of Management Studies, 44, 972–992.
  • Chak, K., & Leung, L. (2004). "Shyness and, locus of control as predictors of internet addiction and internet use." Cyber Psychology and Behavior, 7(5): 559-570.
  • Cheney, G. (1983). "On the various and changing meanings of organizational membership: A field study of organizational identification." Communication Monographs, 50, 342–362.
  • D'Arcy, J.,Hovav, A., & Galletta, D. (2009). "User awareness of security countermeasures and its impact on information systems misuse: A deterrence approach." Information Systems Research, 20(1): 79–98.
  • de Lara, P. Z. M. (2006). "Fear in organizations: Does intimidation by formal punishment mediate the relationship between interactional justice and workplace internet deviance?" Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(6): 580- 592.
  • Dutton, J. E., Dukerich, J.M. & Harquail, C.V. (1994). "Organizational Images and Member Identification." Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(2): 239–263.
  • Doorn, O.N. (2011). Cyberloafing: A Multi-Dimensional Construct Placed In A Theoretical Framework. (Master Thesis). Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology.
  • Edwards, M.,& Peccei, R. (2007). "Organizational identification: Development and testing of a conceptually grounded measure." European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16(1): 25-57.
  • Ertürk, A., Demircan N. & Ceylan A. (2005). "The Effects of Organizational Communication and Commitment on Organizational Identification: A Sectoral Comparison." Bogazici Journal: of Social, Economic and Administrative Studies, 19(1/2): 81–98.
  • Farh, J., P. C. Earley ve S. Lin, (1997). "Impetusfor Action: A Cultural Analysis of Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Chinese Society." Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 421-444.
  • Field, A. (1989). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, 3.Ed., Sage Publications, California.
  • Green, C. N. (1978). "Identification Modes of Professionals: Relationship With Formalization, Role Strain and Allienation." The Academy of Management Journal, 21(3): 486-492.
  • Güngör, M. (2016). Sanal Kaytarma ve Örgütsel Bağlılık İlişkisi: Kamu ve Özel Sektör Üzerine Bir Araştırma (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Atatürk Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Erzurum.
  • Hirst, G.,VanDick, R., & VanKnippenberg, D. (2009). "A social identity perspective on leadership and employee creativity." Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 963-982.
  • Homburg, C.,Wieseke, J., &Hoyer, W. D. (2009). "Social Identity and the Service–Profit Chain." Journal of Marketing, 73, 38-54.
  • İslamoğlu, H. & Alnıaçık, Ü. (2014). Sosyal Bilimlerde Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri. İstanbul: Beta Yayınevi.
  • Kachchhap L.S. & Ong'uti M.A. (2015). "Linking Personality and Strategic Leadership to Organizational Identification. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 5(8): 243-256.
  • Kaplan, M. & Öğüt, A. (2012). "Algılanan Örgütsel Adalet İle Sanal Kaytarma Arasındaki İlişkinin Analizi: Hastane Çalışanları Örneği." İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 13(1): 1-13.
  • Kramer, R.M. (2006). Social Capital and Cooperative Behavior in the Workplace: A Social Identity Perspective. Advances in Group Processes, 23, 1-30.
  • Lee, H., (2004). "The Role of Competence Based Trust and Organizational Identification in Continuous Improvement." Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(6): 623-639.
  • Lim, V. G. (2002). "The IT Way of Loafing on the Job: Cyberloafing, Neutralizing and Organizational Justice."Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 675-694.
  • Lim, V. K. G., & Teo, T. S. H. (2006). "Cyberloafing and organizational justice: The moderating role of neutralization technique." In M. Anandarajan, T. S. H. Teo, & C. A. Simmers (Eds.), The Internet and workplace transformation (pp. 241-258). New York: ME Sharpe.
  • Lowe, R.H. & S.J. Vodanovich (1995). A Field Study of Distributive and Procedural Justice as Predictors of Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment. Journal of Business and Psychology, 10,99-114.
  • Madjar, N.,Greenberg, E. & Chen, Z. (2011). "Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance." Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4): 730-743.
  • Mael, Fred A. (1988). Organizational Identification: Construct Redefinition and a Field Application with Organizational Alumni, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit.
  • Mahatanankoon, P.,Anandarajan, M., & Igbaria, M. (2004). "Development of A Measure of Personal Web Usage In the Workplace." Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(1): 93-104.
  • Masterson, S.S., Lewis, K., Goldman, B.M. & Taylor M. (2000). "Integrating Justice and Social Exchange: The Different Effects of Fair Procedures and Treatment on Work Relationships." Academy of Management Journal, 43, 738-748.
  • Mastrangelo, P. M.,Everton, W., & Jolton, J. A. (2006). "Personal Use of Work Computers: Distraction Versus Destruction." Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 9(6): 730 741.
  • Moorman, R.H., B.P. Niehoof & D.W. Organ (1993). "Treating Employees Fairly and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Sorting the Effects of Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Procedural Justice." Employee Responsibilities and Journal, 6, 209-225.
  • Niaei, M.,Peidaei M.N., & Nasiripour A.A. (2014). "The Relation Between Staff Cyberloafing and Organizatıonal Commitment In Organization of Environmental Protection." Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 3(7): 59-71.
  • O’Reilly, C. A. & Chatman, J. (1986). "Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effect of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behavior." Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 492–499.
  • Örücü, E. & Yıldız, H. (2014). "İşyerinde Kişisel İnternet ve Teknoloji Kullanımı: Sanal Kaytarma." Ege Akademik Bakış, 14(1): 99-114.
  • Özdemir, H. O. (2007). Çalışanların Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Algılamalarının Örgutsel Özdeşleşme, Örgutsel Bağlılık ve İş Tatminine etkisi: OPET Çalışanlarına Yönelik Uygulama, Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
  • Patchen, M. (1970). Participation, Achievement, and Involvement on the Job. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Phinney, J. S. (1991). "Ethnic identity and self-esteem: A review and integration." Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13(2): 193–208.
  • Polat, M. (2009). Örgütsel Özdeşleşmenin Öncülleri ve Ardılları Üzerine Bir Saha Çalışması (Doktora Tezi). Uludağ Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Bursa.
  • Riketta, M. (2005). "Organizational identification: A meta-analysis." Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2): 358-384.
  • Robinson, S. L.,& Bennett, R. J. (1995). "A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multidimensional scaling study." Academy of Management Journal, 38 (2): 555-572.
  • Sass, J.S. & D.J. Canary, (1991). "Organizational Commitment and Identification: An Examination of Conceptual and Operational Convergence." Western Journal of Speech Communication, 55, 275-293.
  • Sawitri, Hunik Sri Runing. (2010). Interaction of Commitment and Work Stressor on Cyberloafing Employee Behavior. Competitive Research Program of Sebelasmaret University Surakarta. Not Published.
  • Spector, P. E., Fox, S., Penney, L. M., Bruursema, K., Goh, A., & Kessler, S. (2006). "The Dimensionality of Counterproductivity: Are All Counterproductive Behaviors Created Equal?" Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68(3): 446-460.
  • Staffmonitoring.com (2017). "Staff monitoring software solutions, Office slacker stats." https://staffmonitoring.com/p32/stats.htm, (Erişim Tarihi: 07.10.2017).
  • Tajfel, H. (1978). Differentiation Between Social Groups. Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: AcademicPress.
  • Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. C. (1986). The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behaviour. In: S. Worchel & W. G. Austin, eds. Psychology of Intergroup Relations, pp. 7–24. Chicago: Nelson.
  • Turner, J. C.,Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D. & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group. A Self-CategorizationTheory. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Urbaczewski, A. & Jessup, L. M. (2002). "Does electronic monitoring of employee Internet usage work?" Communications of the ACM, 45(1): 80-83.
  • Ünal, Ö.F., Tekdemir, S. & Yaldızbaş S. (2015). Kamu Çalışanlarının Sanal Kaytarma Amaçları Üzerine Ampirik Bir Araştırma. Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 6(2): 515-534.
  • Van Dick, R.,Grojean, M.W., Christ, O.and Wieseke, J. (2006). "Identity and the extra-mile: Relationships between organizational identification and organizational citizenship behaviour." British Journal of Management, 17, 283-301.
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Ayrıntılar

Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makale
Yazarlar

Selma KARATEPE
İNÖNÜ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Mustafa GÜNGÖR
İNÖNÜ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-6738-1704
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 25 Aralık 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 4, Sayı 9

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { assam349932, journal = {ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi}, issn = {2148-5879}, address = {Yakuplu Mahallesi Hürriyet Bulvarı Newport Sitesi No: 155 1. Blok Kat 7 D.55 Beylikdüzü İstanbul}, publisher = {Adaleti Savunanlar Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Derneği}, year = {2017}, volume = {4}, number = {9}, pages = {79 - 93}, title = {ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA}, key = {cite}, author = {Karatepe, Selma and Güngör, Mustafa} }
APA Karatepe, S. & Güngör, M. (2017). ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA . ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi , 4 (9) , 79-93 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/assam/issue/33151/349932
MLA Karatepe, S. , Güngör, M. "ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA" . ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi 4 (2017 ): 79-93 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/assam/issue/33151/349932>
Chicago Karatepe, S. , Güngör, M. "ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA". ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi 4 (2017 ): 79-93
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA AU - Selma Karatepe , Mustafa Güngör Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 79 EP - 93 VL - 4 IS - 9 SN - 2148-5879- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA %A Selma Karatepe , Mustafa Güngör %T ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA %D 2017 %J ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi %P 2148-5879- %V 4 %N 9 %R %U
ISNAD Karatepe, Selma , Güngör, Mustafa . "ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA". ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi 4 / 9 (Aralık 2017): 79-93 .
AMA Karatepe S. , Güngör M. ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA. ASSAM-UHAD. 2017; 4(9): 79-93.
Vancouver Karatepe S. , Güngör M. ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA. ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi. 2017; 4(9): 79-93.
IEEE S. Karatepe ve M. Güngör , "ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE SANAL KAYTARMA: KAMU ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA", ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi, c. 4, sayı. 9, ss. 79-93, Ara. 2017

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