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Raw Materials Used in Confectionery Products and Functional Soft Confectionery

Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 65 - 78, 16.01.2022

Öz

Functional confectionery sector has started to develop in order to give confectionery a healthier form due to the harmful effects of confectionery consumption such as tooth decay, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. In order to give a confectionery a functional feature, methods such as increasing the nutrient content with bioactive ingredients, reducing the components that are not beneficial to health or replacing them with a more valuable nutrient component are applied.. Production of functional products begins with the creation of a appropriate recipe. It should be decided which type of confectionery will be used for the production of functional confectionery and it should be determined under which conditions the functional components may be affected in the production process of the product. Any component that is removed or reduced for the addition of functional ingredients should not cause major changes in the taste, shelf life and quality of the product. It should also be determined how the functional component will affect the quality parameters of final product (moisture content, total solids, equilibrium relative humidity, pH value, gel strength, viscosity, texture or crystallization degree etc.). In this study, it is aimed to present general information about confectionery and approaches in functional soft confectionery production.

Kaynakça

  • Anderson, G.H. (1997). Sugars and health: a review, Nutrition Research, 17(9), 1485–1498.
  • Assous, M.T.M., Abdel-Hady, M.M., Medany, G.M. (2014). Evaluation of red pigment extracted from purple carrots and its utilization as antioxidant and natural food colorants. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 59(1), 1–7. DOI:10.1016/j.aoas.2014.06.001
  • Aydın, M. (2019). Doğal bitki ekstraktlarının yumuşak jöle tipi şekerlemede fizikokimyasal ve duyusal özellikler üzerine etkileri. Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Konya. DOI:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
  • Ballali, S., Vecchio, M.G., Chiffi, D., Gafare, C.E., Gregori, D. (2013). The contribution of confectionery to the global obesity epidemic: A review. Open Obesity Journal, 5(Special Issue 1), 43-46.
  • Basciano, H., Federico, L., Adeli, K. (2005). Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutrition & Metabolism, 5(2), 1-14. DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-5
  • Candy Industry (2020). 2020 Global Top 100 Candy Companies. https://www.candyindustry.com/2020/global-top-100-candy-companies
  • Cappa, C., Lavelli, V., Mariotti, M. (2015). Fruit candies enriched with grape skin powders: Physicochemical properties. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 62(1), 569–575. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2014.07.039
  • Delgado, P., Bañón, S. (2018). Effects of replacing starch by inulin on the physicochemical, texture and sensory characteristics of gummy jellies. CYTA - Journal of Food, 16(1), 1–10. DOI:10.1080/19476337.2017.1327462
  • DeMars, L.L., Ziegler, G.R. (2001). Texture and structure of gelatin/pectin based gummy confections. Food Hydrocolloids, 15(2001), 643-653.
  • Dorn, G.A., Savenkova, T.V., Sidorova, O.S., Golub, O.V. (2015). Confectionery goods for healthy diet. Foods and Raw Materials, 3(1), 70–76. DOI:10.12737/11240
  • EastAgri (2009). Handbook Agribusiness: Sugar Beet White Sugar. http://www.eastagri.org/publications/pub_docs/4_Sugar_web.pdf
  • Edwards, W. (2015). The Science of Sugar Confectionery. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=vmsoDwAAQBAJ&dq=sugar+confectionery& hl=tr&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  • Edwards, W. P. (2009). Caramels, fondants and jellies as centres and fillings. In: Talbot, G. (Ed.), Science and Technology of Enrobed and Filled Chocolate, Confectionery and Bakery Products (pp. 123–151). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing. DOI:10.1533/9781845696436.1.123
  • Global Confectionery Market Report (2019). Confectionery Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Type(Chocolate, Sugar and Gums) and Distribution Channel( Hypermarket/Supermarket, Convenience Stores, Departmental Storesand Online Retails) and Regional Forecast. https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/industry-reports/confectionery-market-100542. DOI: 10.1007%2F978-1-4613-1129-4_11
  • Godshall, M.A. (2016). Candies and Sweets: Sugar and Chocolate Confectionery. In: Caballero, B., Finglas, P.M., Toldrá, F. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Health (pp.621-627). Oxford: Academic Press. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-384947-2.00679-6.
  • Grembecka, M. (2015). Sugar alcohols—their role in the modern world of sweeteners: a review. European Food Research and Technology, 241(1), 1–14. DOI:10.1007/s00217-015-2437-7
  • Güneş, R., Palabıyık, İ., Kurultay, Ş. (2018). Şekerleme teknolojisinde fonksiyonel ürün üretimi. GIDA, 43(6), 984-1001. DOI: 10.15237/gida.GD18088
  • Güvemli, O. (2018). Türkiye’nin yaşayan en eski işletmesi: Hacı Bekir Şekerleme 1777-2018. Muhasebe ve Finans Tarihi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 09/2018, 74–104.
  • Hartel, R.W., Elbe, J.H.V., Hofberger, R. (2017). Confectionery Science and Technology. New York: Springer. Hayoğlu, İ., İzol, G., Gümüş, A., Göncü, B., Çevik, G.B. (2010). Menengicin şekerleme üretiminde kullanım olanakları. Harran Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 14(4), 57–62.
  • Hinkova, A., Bubnik, Z., Kadlec, P. (2015). Chemical composition of sugar and confectionery products, Handbook of Food Chemistry. pp 585-626. New York: Springer.
  • Hull, P. (2010). Glucose Syrups: Technology and Applications. Wiley Online Library. DOI:10.1002/9781444314748
  • Işın P.M., Çakmak, M. (2020). Şark Şekerciliği, Friedrich Unger- Yunanistan Kralı I. Otto’nun Şekerbaşısı. (pp. 33-47). Istanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Ibrahim, R.M., Abdel-Salam, F.F., Farahat, E. (2020). Utilization of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Extract as functional ingredient in some confectionery products. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 11(08), 757–772. DOI:10.4236/fns.2020.118054
  • Kotilainen, L., Rajalahti, R., Ragasa, C, Pehu, E. (2006). Health Enhancing Foods: Opportunities for Strengthening the Sector in Developing Countries. Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 30, World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • Martiş (Petrut), G., Muste, S., Mureşan, A., Vlaic, R., Pop, A., Ungur, R., Pusças, A., Bordean, M.E., Mureşan, V. (2020). Gelled confectionery product supplemented with Guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth) Powder. Development and Characterization. Hop and Medicinal Plants, 28(1–2), 202–210.
  • Minifie, B. W. (1989). Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery: Science and Technology (3rd Ed.). New York: Springer.
  • Miranda, J.S., Costa, B.V., de Oliveira, I.V., de Lima, D.C.N., Martins, E.M.F., de Castro Leite Júnior, B.R., Almeida do Nascimento Benevenuto, W.C., Campelo de Queiroz, I., Ribeiro da Silva, R., Martins, M.L. (2020). Probiotic jelly candies enriched with native Atlantic Forest fruits and Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 6086. LWT, Food Science and Technology, 126, 109275.
  • Mudgil, D., Barak, S., Khatkar, B.S. (2011). Food additives in confectionery ındustry: An overview. Indian Food Packer, 65(3), 80–83.
  • Mutlu, C., Tontul, S.A., Erbaş, M. (2018). Production of a minimally processed jelly candy for children using honey instead of sugar. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 93, 499–505. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2018.03.064
  • Narsimhan, G., Wang, Z., Xiang, N. (2019). Guidelines for Processing Emulsion-Based Foods. In: Hartel, R.W., Hasenhuettle, G.L. (Ed.) Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications. (pp 435-501). New Jersey: Springer
  • Palabıyık, İ., Demircan, A., Demirci, A.Ş. (2019). İnülin içeri̇kli̇ jelly ti̇pi̇ yumuşak şekerleme üreti̇mi̇ ve bi̇leşen opti̇mi̇zasyonu. GIDA, 44, 759–769. DOI:10.15237/gida.gd19061
  • Pickford, E.F., Jardine, N.J. (2000). Functional confectionery. In: Gibson, G.R., Williams, C.M. (Eds.), Functional Foods (pp. 259–286). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited. DOI:10.1533/9781855736436.3.259
  • Prakash, N., Priya, S. (2016). Development of Novel Functional Confectionery Using Low Reduced Sugar. Indian Journal of Drugs, 4(4), 141–148.
  • Ranken, M.D. (1997). Sugar and Chocolate Confectionery. In: Ranken, M.D., Kill, R.C., Baker, C. (Eds.) Food Industrial Manual. (pp. 406-443). Boston: Springer
  • Suman, Kaushal, M., Gupta, A., Vaidya, D., Kaushik, R. (2021). Standardization of formulation for the preparation of ginger supplemented jelly candies. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 10(2), 608–613.
  • Wolf, B. (2016). Confectionery and Sugar-Based Foods. In: Reference Module in Food Science. (pp: 1-3). Elsevier. DOI:10.1016/b978-0-08-100596-5.03452-1
  • Yılmaz, F.M., Yıldırım, E., Karakuş, M. (2019). Doğal renk maddesi katkılı sert şekerleme üretimi: Farklı karbonhidrat formülasyonlarının renk, camsı geçiş, higroskopite, karbonhidrat kompozisyonu ve duyusal özellikler üzerine etkileri. GIDA, 44 (2), 357-368. DOI: 10.15237/gida.GD18117

Şekerleme Üretiminde Kullanılan Hammaddeler ve Fonksiyonel Yumuşak Şekerleme Üretimi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 65 - 78, 16.01.2022

Öz

Şekerleme tüketiminin diş çürümesi, Tip 2 diyabet, kardiyovasküler hastalıklar ve metabolik sendrom gibi sağlığa zararlı etkilerinden dolayı günümüzde şekerlemelere daha sağlıklı bir form kazandırmak için fonksiyonel şekerleme sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Bir şekerleme ürününe işlevsel bir özellik kazandırmak için besin içeriğinin biyoaktif bileşenlerle arttırılması, sağlığa yararlı olmayan bileşenlerin azaltılması veya daha değerli bir besin bileşeni ile değiştirilmesi gibi yöntemler uygulanmaktadır. Fonksiyonel ürün üretimi uygun reçetenin oluşturulmasıyla başlamaktadır. Fonksiyonel şekerleme üretimi için hangi şekerleme çeşidinin kullanılacağına karar verilmelidir ve bu ürünün üretim prosesinde fonksiyonel bileşenlerin hangi koşullardan etkilenebileceği belirlenmelidir. Fonksiyonel bileşenlere yer açmak için çıkarılan veya azaltılan herhangi bir bileşenin ürünün tadında, raf ömründe ve kalitesinde çok büyük değişikliklere yol açmaması gerekmektedir. Ayrıca fonksiyonel bileşenin son ürün kalite parametrelerini (nem içeriği, toplam katı madde, denge bağıl nemi, pH değeri, jel mukavemeti, viskozite, doku veya kristalleşme derecesi vb.) nasıl etkileyeceği de belirlenmelidir. Bu çalışmada şekerlemeler hakkında genel bilgilerin ve fonksiyonel yumuşak şekerleme üretimindeki yaklaşımların sunulması amaçlanmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Anderson, G.H. (1997). Sugars and health: a review, Nutrition Research, 17(9), 1485–1498.
  • Assous, M.T.M., Abdel-Hady, M.M., Medany, G.M. (2014). Evaluation of red pigment extracted from purple carrots and its utilization as antioxidant and natural food colorants. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 59(1), 1–7. DOI:10.1016/j.aoas.2014.06.001
  • Aydın, M. (2019). Doğal bitki ekstraktlarının yumuşak jöle tipi şekerlemede fizikokimyasal ve duyusal özellikler üzerine etkileri. Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Konya. DOI:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
  • Ballali, S., Vecchio, M.G., Chiffi, D., Gafare, C.E., Gregori, D. (2013). The contribution of confectionery to the global obesity epidemic: A review. Open Obesity Journal, 5(Special Issue 1), 43-46.
  • Basciano, H., Federico, L., Adeli, K. (2005). Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutrition & Metabolism, 5(2), 1-14. DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-5
  • Candy Industry (2020). 2020 Global Top 100 Candy Companies. https://www.candyindustry.com/2020/global-top-100-candy-companies
  • Cappa, C., Lavelli, V., Mariotti, M. (2015). Fruit candies enriched with grape skin powders: Physicochemical properties. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 62(1), 569–575. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2014.07.039
  • Delgado, P., Bañón, S. (2018). Effects of replacing starch by inulin on the physicochemical, texture and sensory characteristics of gummy jellies. CYTA - Journal of Food, 16(1), 1–10. DOI:10.1080/19476337.2017.1327462
  • DeMars, L.L., Ziegler, G.R. (2001). Texture and structure of gelatin/pectin based gummy confections. Food Hydrocolloids, 15(2001), 643-653.
  • Dorn, G.A., Savenkova, T.V., Sidorova, O.S., Golub, O.V. (2015). Confectionery goods for healthy diet. Foods and Raw Materials, 3(1), 70–76. DOI:10.12737/11240
  • EastAgri (2009). Handbook Agribusiness: Sugar Beet White Sugar. http://www.eastagri.org/publications/pub_docs/4_Sugar_web.pdf
  • Edwards, W. (2015). The Science of Sugar Confectionery. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=vmsoDwAAQBAJ&dq=sugar+confectionery& hl=tr&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  • Edwards, W. P. (2009). Caramels, fondants and jellies as centres and fillings. In: Talbot, G. (Ed.), Science and Technology of Enrobed and Filled Chocolate, Confectionery and Bakery Products (pp. 123–151). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing. DOI:10.1533/9781845696436.1.123
  • Global Confectionery Market Report (2019). Confectionery Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Type(Chocolate, Sugar and Gums) and Distribution Channel( Hypermarket/Supermarket, Convenience Stores, Departmental Storesand Online Retails) and Regional Forecast. https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/industry-reports/confectionery-market-100542. DOI: 10.1007%2F978-1-4613-1129-4_11
  • Godshall, M.A. (2016). Candies and Sweets: Sugar and Chocolate Confectionery. In: Caballero, B., Finglas, P.M., Toldrá, F. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Health (pp.621-627). Oxford: Academic Press. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-384947-2.00679-6.
  • Grembecka, M. (2015). Sugar alcohols—their role in the modern world of sweeteners: a review. European Food Research and Technology, 241(1), 1–14. DOI:10.1007/s00217-015-2437-7
  • Güneş, R., Palabıyık, İ., Kurultay, Ş. (2018). Şekerleme teknolojisinde fonksiyonel ürün üretimi. GIDA, 43(6), 984-1001. DOI: 10.15237/gida.GD18088
  • Güvemli, O. (2018). Türkiye’nin yaşayan en eski işletmesi: Hacı Bekir Şekerleme 1777-2018. Muhasebe ve Finans Tarihi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 09/2018, 74–104.
  • Hartel, R.W., Elbe, J.H.V., Hofberger, R. (2017). Confectionery Science and Technology. New York: Springer. Hayoğlu, İ., İzol, G., Gümüş, A., Göncü, B., Çevik, G.B. (2010). Menengicin şekerleme üretiminde kullanım olanakları. Harran Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 14(4), 57–62.
  • Hinkova, A., Bubnik, Z., Kadlec, P. (2015). Chemical composition of sugar and confectionery products, Handbook of Food Chemistry. pp 585-626. New York: Springer.
  • Hull, P. (2010). Glucose Syrups: Technology and Applications. Wiley Online Library. DOI:10.1002/9781444314748
  • Işın P.M., Çakmak, M. (2020). Şark Şekerciliği, Friedrich Unger- Yunanistan Kralı I. Otto’nun Şekerbaşısı. (pp. 33-47). Istanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Ibrahim, R.M., Abdel-Salam, F.F., Farahat, E. (2020). Utilization of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Extract as functional ingredient in some confectionery products. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 11(08), 757–772. DOI:10.4236/fns.2020.118054
  • Kotilainen, L., Rajalahti, R., Ragasa, C, Pehu, E. (2006). Health Enhancing Foods: Opportunities for Strengthening the Sector in Developing Countries. Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 30, World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • Martiş (Petrut), G., Muste, S., Mureşan, A., Vlaic, R., Pop, A., Ungur, R., Pusças, A., Bordean, M.E., Mureşan, V. (2020). Gelled confectionery product supplemented with Guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth) Powder. Development and Characterization. Hop and Medicinal Plants, 28(1–2), 202–210.
  • Minifie, B. W. (1989). Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery: Science and Technology (3rd Ed.). New York: Springer.
  • Miranda, J.S., Costa, B.V., de Oliveira, I.V., de Lima, D.C.N., Martins, E.M.F., de Castro Leite Júnior, B.R., Almeida do Nascimento Benevenuto, W.C., Campelo de Queiroz, I., Ribeiro da Silva, R., Martins, M.L. (2020). Probiotic jelly candies enriched with native Atlantic Forest fruits and Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 6086. LWT, Food Science and Technology, 126, 109275.
  • Mudgil, D., Barak, S., Khatkar, B.S. (2011). Food additives in confectionery ındustry: An overview. Indian Food Packer, 65(3), 80–83.
  • Mutlu, C., Tontul, S.A., Erbaş, M. (2018). Production of a minimally processed jelly candy for children using honey instead of sugar. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 93, 499–505. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2018.03.064
  • Narsimhan, G., Wang, Z., Xiang, N. (2019). Guidelines for Processing Emulsion-Based Foods. In: Hartel, R.W., Hasenhuettle, G.L. (Ed.) Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications. (pp 435-501). New Jersey: Springer
  • Palabıyık, İ., Demircan, A., Demirci, A.Ş. (2019). İnülin içeri̇kli̇ jelly ti̇pi̇ yumuşak şekerleme üreti̇mi̇ ve bi̇leşen opti̇mi̇zasyonu. GIDA, 44, 759–769. DOI:10.15237/gida.gd19061
  • Pickford, E.F., Jardine, N.J. (2000). Functional confectionery. In: Gibson, G.R., Williams, C.M. (Eds.), Functional Foods (pp. 259–286). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited. DOI:10.1533/9781855736436.3.259
  • Prakash, N., Priya, S. (2016). Development of Novel Functional Confectionery Using Low Reduced Sugar. Indian Journal of Drugs, 4(4), 141–148.
  • Ranken, M.D. (1997). Sugar and Chocolate Confectionery. In: Ranken, M.D., Kill, R.C., Baker, C. (Eds.) Food Industrial Manual. (pp. 406-443). Boston: Springer
  • Suman, Kaushal, M., Gupta, A., Vaidya, D., Kaushik, R. (2021). Standardization of formulation for the preparation of ginger supplemented jelly candies. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 10(2), 608–613.
  • Wolf, B. (2016). Confectionery and Sugar-Based Foods. In: Reference Module in Food Science. (pp: 1-3). Elsevier. DOI:10.1016/b978-0-08-100596-5.03452-1
  • Yılmaz, F.M., Yıldırım, E., Karakuş, M. (2019). Doğal renk maddesi katkılı sert şekerleme üretimi: Farklı karbonhidrat formülasyonlarının renk, camsı geçiş, higroskopite, karbonhidrat kompozisyonu ve duyusal özellikler üzerine etkileri. GIDA, 44 (2), 357-368. DOI: 10.15237/gida.GD18117

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Gıda Bilimi ve Teknolojisi
Yayınlanma Tarihi 2022/01
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Hazel ÖNDER Bu kişi benim
MANİSA CELÂL BAYAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1267-5051
Türkiye


Alev Yüksel AYDAR (Sorumlu Yazar)
MANISA CELAL BAYAR UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9780-0917
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 16 Ocak 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Önder, H. & Aydar, A. Y. (2022). Şekerleme Üretiminde Kullanılan Hammaddeler ve Fonksiyonel Yumuşak Şekerleme Üretimi . Aydın Gastronomy , 6 (1) , 65-78 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/aydingas/issue/68106/902779



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