Araştırma Makalesi
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Attitudes towards Lesbians and Gay Men among Turkish Mental Health Providers

Yıl 2019, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 149 - 168, 20.06.2019
https://doi.org/10.31682/ayna.425368

Öz

Studies on attitudes towards homosexuality in Turkey have revealed that university students and people within various occupations generally have negative attitudes. Studies exploring attitudes of mental health workers are very scarce. Accordingly, this study explored attitudes of Turkish psychologists and psychological counselors' toward lesbians and gay men and identified demographic and occupational factors that are related to those attitudes. With this aim, participants completed questions on demographic and occupational variables, and questionnaires assessing attitudes toward homosexuality, as well as social desirability. Results showed that participants had positive attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in general. Furthermore, their attitudes did not differ based on gender, marital status, and education level. Age and religiosity significantly predicted more negative attitudes towards lesbians and gay men. Results were discussed in the light of the previous research and recommendations for working with sexual minorities were provided. Future studies may benefit from using implicit measures to assess attitudes, and are suggested to recruit more representative samples in terms of demographic variables.

Kaynakça

  • Adamczyk, A., & Pitt, C. (2009). Shaping attitudes about homosexuality: The role of religion and cultural context. Social Science Research, 38, 338-351.
  • American Psychological Association (2000). Guidelines for psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. American Psychologist, 55, 1440–1451.
  • Annesley, P., & Coyne, A. (1995). Clinical psychologists’ attitudes to lesbians. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 327-331.
  • Bieschke, K. J., & Matthews, C. (1996). Career counselor attitudes and behaviors toward gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48(2), 243-255.
  • Breen, A. B., & Karpinski, A. (2013). Implicit and explicit attitudes toward gay males and lesbians among heterosexual males and females. The Journal of Social Psychology, 153(3), 351-374.
  • Chakraborty, A., McManus, S., Brugha, T.S., Bebbington, P., King, M. (2011). Mental health of the nonheterosexual population of England. British Journal of Psychiatry, 198, 143–148.
  • Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of consulting psychology, 24(4), 349.
  • Crowne, D. P. & Marlowe, D. (1964). The Approval Motive: Studies in Evaluative Dependence. New York: Wiley.
  • Çabuk, D. (2010). Tıp Öğrencilerinin ve Hekimlerin Eşcinsellik Hakkındaki Tutumları ve Gey ve Lezbiyenlerin Sağlık Hizmeti Deneyimleri. (Yayımlanmamış tıpta uzmanlık tezi). Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara.
  • Çırakoğlu, O. C. (2006). Perception of homosexuality among Turkish university students: The roles of labels, gender, and prior contact. The Journal of Social Psychology, 146(3), 293-305.
  • Dunn, M. S. (2005). The relationship between religiosity, employment, and political beliefs on substance use among high school seniors. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 49(1), 73.
  • Duyan, V., & Gelbal, S. (2004). Lezbiyen ve geylere yönelik tutum (LGYT) ölçeği: Güvenirlik ve geçerlik çalışması. Türk HIV/AIDS Dergisi, 7(3), 106-112.
  • Garfinkle, E. M., & Morin, S. F. (1978). Psychologists' attitudes toward homosexual psychotherapy clients. Journal of Social Issues, 34(3), 101-112.
  • Gelbal, S., & Duyan, V. (2006). Attitudes of university students toward lesbians and gay men in Turkey. Sex Roles, 55, 573-579.
  • Gonsiorek, J. C. (1995). Gay male identities: Concepts and issues. In A. R. D'Augelli & C. J. Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay and bisexual identities over the lifespan: Psychological perspectives (pp. 24-47). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464.
  • Herek, G. M. (1998). The Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLG) scale. In: Davis C.M., Yarber W.H., Bauserman R., Schreer, G. ve Davis, S.L. (Der.). Handbook of Sexuality-related measures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications,
  • Herek, G. M. (2002). Heterosexuals' attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39(4), 264-274.
  • Herek, G. M. (1988). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 451-477.
  • Herman-Stahl, M. A., Krebs, C. P., Kroutil, L. A., & Heller, D. C. (2006). Risk and protective factors for nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and methamphetamine among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(3), 374-380.
  • Hudson, W. W., & Ricketts, W. A. (1980). A strategy for the measurement of homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality, 5(4), 357-372.
  • Inglehart, R., Haerpfer, C., Moreno, A., Welzel, C., Kizilova, K., Diez-Medrano, J., ... & Puranen, B. (2014). World Values Survey: Round Six-Country-Pooled Datafile 2010-2014. JD Systems Institute, Madrid.
  • International Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans and Intersex Association (2013). 2013 Progress Report on Turkey. 20 Mayıs 2018 tarihinde http://www.ilgaeurope.org/home/guide_europe/country_by_country/turkey/ilga_europe_s_submission_to_2013_progress_report_turkey adresinden erişildi.
  • Johnson, S. D. (2012). Gay affirmative psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: Implications for contemporary psychotherapy research. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(4), 516–522.
  • Matthews, C. R., Selvidge, M. M., & Fisher, K. (2005). Addictions counselors' attitudes and behaviors toward gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, 83(1), 57.
  • Mayock, P., Bryan, A., Carr, N., & Kitching, K. (2009). Supporting LGBT Lives: A Study of the Mental Health and Well-being of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People. Dublin: Gay and Lesbian Equality Network.
  • Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health is lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674−697.
  • Mitrani-Akdaş, A.T., (2008). Eşcinsellere yönelik olumsuz tutumlar: Meslek grupları ve ilişkili özellikler. Adli Bilimler Dergisi, 7(4), 23-30.
  • Norris, E. Ponarin & B. Puranen et al. (Der.). (2014). World Values Survey: All Rounds-CountryPooled Datafile 1981-2014. Madrid: JD Systems Institute. Okutan, N., & Sunal, A. B. (2011). Eşcinsellere yönelik tutumlar, cinsiyetçilik ve romantik ilişkilerle ilgili kalıp yargılar: Yetişkin bağlanma biçimleri açısından bir değerlendirme. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 14(27), 69-77.
  • Raja, S., & Stokes, J. P. (1998). Assessing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: The modern homophobia scale. Journal of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity, 3(2), 113-134.
  • Sakallı, N. (2002a). The relationship between sexism and attitudes toward homosexuality in a sample of Turkish college students. Journal of Homosexuality, 42, 53-63.
  • Sakallı, N. (2002b). The relationship between sexism and attitudes toward homosexuality in a sample of Turkish college students. Journal of Homosexuality, 42, 53-63.
  • Sakallı, N. (2003). Pictures of male homosexuals in the heads of Turkish college students. Journal of Homosexuality, 43(2), 111-126.
  • Sakallı-Uğurlu, N. (2006). Eşcinsellere ilişkin tutumlar: Türkiye'de yapılan görgül çalışmalar. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 9(17), 53-69.
  • Sakallı, N., & Uğurlu, O. (2001). Effects of social contact with homosexuals on heterosexual Turkish university students' attitudes towards homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 42(1), 53-62.
  • Saraç, L. (2012). Attittudes of future physical education teachers in Turkey toward lesbians and gay men. Psychological Reports: Sociocultural Issues in Psychology, 111(3), 765- 775.
  • Saraç, L. (2015). Relationships between religiosity level and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among Turkish university students. Journal of Homosexuality, 62, 481-494.
  • Schulte, L. & Battle, J. (2004). The relative importance of ethnicity and religion in predicting attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 47(2), 127-142.
  • Siraj, A. (2009). The construction of the homosexual ‘other’by British Muslim heterosexuals. Contemporary Islam, 3(1), 41-57.
  • Steffens, M. C. (2005). Implicit and explicit attitudes towards lesbians and gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 49(2), 39-66.
  • Taşdemir, N., & Sakallı-Uğurlu, N. (2010). The relationships between ambivalent sexism and religiosity among Turkish university students. Sex Roles, 62(7-8), 420-426
  • Twenge, J.M., Sherman, R.A, & Wells, B. E. (2016). Changes in American adults' sexual behavior and attitudes, 1973-2014. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(7), 1713-1730.
  • Ural, T. & Özbirecikli, M. (2006). Is ethical judgement influenced by social desirability in responding? An analyse on Turkish accountants. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 15(1), 393-410.
  • Wills, G., & Crawford, R. (1999). Attitudes toward homosexuality in Shreveport-Bossier City, Louisiana. Journal of Homosexuality, 38 (3), 97-116.
  • Yüksek, B. (2016). Investigation of attitudes towards homosexuality and transgenderism among heterosexual psychologists in Turkey and examination of these attitudes through some personal and professional variables. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Bilgi Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
  • Yüzgün, A. (1993). Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey. Journal of Homosexuality, 24(3-4), 159-169.

Türkiye’de Ruh Sağlığı Çalışanlarının Gey ve Lezbiyenlere Yönelik Tutumları

Yıl 2019, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 149 - 168, 20.06.2019
https://doi.org/10.31682/ayna.425368

Öz

Eşcinsellere yönelik tutumlar üzerine yapılan çalışmalar Türkiye'de üniversite öğrencileri ve çeşitli meslek grupları arasında cinsel azınlıklara yönelik genellikle olumsuz tutumların yaygın olduğunu göstermektedir. Ruh sağlığı çalışanlarının tutumlarını inceleyen çalışma sayısı ise oldukça azdır. Bu araştırma Türkiye'de hizmet veren psikolog ve psikolojik danışmanların gey ve lezbiyenlere yönelik tutumlarını ve bu tutumları yordayan değişkenleri ele almayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaçla katılımcılardan demografik ve mesleki bilgi formlarının yanı sıra eşcinsellere yönelik tutumları ve sosyal arzu edilirlik düzeylerini ölçen ölçekleri doldurmaları istenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre, katılımcıların eşcinsellere yönelik genel olarak olumlu tutumlara sahip olduğu bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, cinsiyet, medeni durum ve eğitim düzeyine göre kişilerin tutumları arasında fark bulunmamıştır. Tutumları yordayan değişkenlere bakıldığında, yaş ve dindarlık seviyesi arttıkça eşcinselliğe yönelik olumsuz tutumların da arttığı bulunmuştur. Sonuçlar geçmiş çalışmalar ışığında tartışılmış ve cinsel azınlıklarla çalışırken göz önünde bulundurulması gereken bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Gelecekteki çalışmaların tutumları ölçerken örtük ölçümlerden de yararlanmaları ve demografik değişkenlerin dağılımı açısından daha kapsayıcı örneklemler kullanmaları önerilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Adamczyk, A., & Pitt, C. (2009). Shaping attitudes about homosexuality: The role of religion and cultural context. Social Science Research, 38, 338-351.
  • American Psychological Association (2000). Guidelines for psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. American Psychologist, 55, 1440–1451.
  • Annesley, P., & Coyne, A. (1995). Clinical psychologists’ attitudes to lesbians. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 327-331.
  • Bieschke, K. J., & Matthews, C. (1996). Career counselor attitudes and behaviors toward gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48(2), 243-255.
  • Breen, A. B., & Karpinski, A. (2013). Implicit and explicit attitudes toward gay males and lesbians among heterosexual males and females. The Journal of Social Psychology, 153(3), 351-374.
  • Chakraborty, A., McManus, S., Brugha, T.S., Bebbington, P., King, M. (2011). Mental health of the nonheterosexual population of England. British Journal of Psychiatry, 198, 143–148.
  • Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of consulting psychology, 24(4), 349.
  • Crowne, D. P. & Marlowe, D. (1964). The Approval Motive: Studies in Evaluative Dependence. New York: Wiley.
  • Çabuk, D. (2010). Tıp Öğrencilerinin ve Hekimlerin Eşcinsellik Hakkındaki Tutumları ve Gey ve Lezbiyenlerin Sağlık Hizmeti Deneyimleri. (Yayımlanmamış tıpta uzmanlık tezi). Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara.
  • Çırakoğlu, O. C. (2006). Perception of homosexuality among Turkish university students: The roles of labels, gender, and prior contact. The Journal of Social Psychology, 146(3), 293-305.
  • Dunn, M. S. (2005). The relationship between religiosity, employment, and political beliefs on substance use among high school seniors. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 49(1), 73.
  • Duyan, V., & Gelbal, S. (2004). Lezbiyen ve geylere yönelik tutum (LGYT) ölçeği: Güvenirlik ve geçerlik çalışması. Türk HIV/AIDS Dergisi, 7(3), 106-112.
  • Garfinkle, E. M., & Morin, S. F. (1978). Psychologists' attitudes toward homosexual psychotherapy clients. Journal of Social Issues, 34(3), 101-112.
  • Gelbal, S., & Duyan, V. (2006). Attitudes of university students toward lesbians and gay men in Turkey. Sex Roles, 55, 573-579.
  • Gonsiorek, J. C. (1995). Gay male identities: Concepts and issues. In A. R. D'Augelli & C. J. Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay and bisexual identities over the lifespan: Psychological perspectives (pp. 24-47). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464.
  • Herek, G. M. (1998). The Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLG) scale. In: Davis C.M., Yarber W.H., Bauserman R., Schreer, G. ve Davis, S.L. (Der.). Handbook of Sexuality-related measures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications,
  • Herek, G. M. (2002). Heterosexuals' attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39(4), 264-274.
  • Herek, G. M. (1988). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 451-477.
  • Herman-Stahl, M. A., Krebs, C. P., Kroutil, L. A., & Heller, D. C. (2006). Risk and protective factors for nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and methamphetamine among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(3), 374-380.
  • Hudson, W. W., & Ricketts, W. A. (1980). A strategy for the measurement of homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality, 5(4), 357-372.
  • Inglehart, R., Haerpfer, C., Moreno, A., Welzel, C., Kizilova, K., Diez-Medrano, J., ... & Puranen, B. (2014). World Values Survey: Round Six-Country-Pooled Datafile 2010-2014. JD Systems Institute, Madrid.
  • International Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans and Intersex Association (2013). 2013 Progress Report on Turkey. 20 Mayıs 2018 tarihinde http://www.ilgaeurope.org/home/guide_europe/country_by_country/turkey/ilga_europe_s_submission_to_2013_progress_report_turkey adresinden erişildi.
  • Johnson, S. D. (2012). Gay affirmative psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: Implications for contemporary psychotherapy research. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(4), 516–522.
  • Matthews, C. R., Selvidge, M. M., & Fisher, K. (2005). Addictions counselors' attitudes and behaviors toward gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, 83(1), 57.
  • Mayock, P., Bryan, A., Carr, N., & Kitching, K. (2009). Supporting LGBT Lives: A Study of the Mental Health and Well-being of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People. Dublin: Gay and Lesbian Equality Network.
  • Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health is lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674−697.
  • Mitrani-Akdaş, A.T., (2008). Eşcinsellere yönelik olumsuz tutumlar: Meslek grupları ve ilişkili özellikler. Adli Bilimler Dergisi, 7(4), 23-30.
  • Norris, E. Ponarin & B. Puranen et al. (Der.). (2014). World Values Survey: All Rounds-CountryPooled Datafile 1981-2014. Madrid: JD Systems Institute. Okutan, N., & Sunal, A. B. (2011). Eşcinsellere yönelik tutumlar, cinsiyetçilik ve romantik ilişkilerle ilgili kalıp yargılar: Yetişkin bağlanma biçimleri açısından bir değerlendirme. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 14(27), 69-77.
  • Raja, S., & Stokes, J. P. (1998). Assessing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: The modern homophobia scale. Journal of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity, 3(2), 113-134.
  • Sakallı, N. (2002a). The relationship between sexism and attitudes toward homosexuality in a sample of Turkish college students. Journal of Homosexuality, 42, 53-63.
  • Sakallı, N. (2002b). The relationship between sexism and attitudes toward homosexuality in a sample of Turkish college students. Journal of Homosexuality, 42, 53-63.
  • Sakallı, N. (2003). Pictures of male homosexuals in the heads of Turkish college students. Journal of Homosexuality, 43(2), 111-126.
  • Sakallı-Uğurlu, N. (2006). Eşcinsellere ilişkin tutumlar: Türkiye'de yapılan görgül çalışmalar. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 9(17), 53-69.
  • Sakallı, N., & Uğurlu, O. (2001). Effects of social contact with homosexuals on heterosexual Turkish university students' attitudes towards homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 42(1), 53-62.
  • Saraç, L. (2012). Attittudes of future physical education teachers in Turkey toward lesbians and gay men. Psychological Reports: Sociocultural Issues in Psychology, 111(3), 765- 775.
  • Saraç, L. (2015). Relationships between religiosity level and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among Turkish university students. Journal of Homosexuality, 62, 481-494.
  • Schulte, L. & Battle, J. (2004). The relative importance of ethnicity and religion in predicting attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 47(2), 127-142.
  • Siraj, A. (2009). The construction of the homosexual ‘other’by British Muslim heterosexuals. Contemporary Islam, 3(1), 41-57.
  • Steffens, M. C. (2005). Implicit and explicit attitudes towards lesbians and gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 49(2), 39-66.
  • Taşdemir, N., & Sakallı-Uğurlu, N. (2010). The relationships between ambivalent sexism and religiosity among Turkish university students. Sex Roles, 62(7-8), 420-426
  • Twenge, J.M., Sherman, R.A, & Wells, B. E. (2016). Changes in American adults' sexual behavior and attitudes, 1973-2014. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(7), 1713-1730.
  • Ural, T. & Özbirecikli, M. (2006). Is ethical judgement influenced by social desirability in responding? An analyse on Turkish accountants. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 15(1), 393-410.
  • Wills, G., & Crawford, R. (1999). Attitudes toward homosexuality in Shreveport-Bossier City, Louisiana. Journal of Homosexuality, 38 (3), 97-116.
  • Yüksek, B. (2016). Investigation of attitudes towards homosexuality and transgenderism among heterosexual psychologists in Turkey and examination of these attitudes through some personal and professional variables. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Bilgi Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
  • Yüzgün, A. (1993). Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey. Journal of Homosexuality, 24(3-4), 159-169.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Ezgi TUNA (Sorumlu Yazar)
ÇANKAYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ, PSİKOLOJİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-9611-4501
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 20 Haziran 2019
Başvuru Tarihi 20 Mayıs 2018
Kabul Tarihi 18 Şubat 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 6, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Tuna, E. (2019). Türkiye’de Ruh Sağlığı Çalışanlarının Gey ve Lezbiyenlere Yönelik Tutumları . AYNA Klinik Psikoloji Dergisi , 6 (2) , 149-168 . DOI: 10.31682/ayna.425368