Araştırma Makalesi
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Yıl 2020, Cilt 7, Sayı 3, 389 - 421, 26.10.2020
https://doi.org/10.31682/ayna.726517

Öz

In the current study, the aim was to examine the loss of father and bereavement among young Turkish adults. For this aim, semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven young adults. The research question was “How do young adults experience father loss and bereavement?” The data was analyzed with Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In this article, four of the emerging themes were explained in detail. These themes involve the symbolic meanings of father loss, emotions experienced after losing the father, coping with and adapting to father loss and factors making the mourning process harder. The young adults viewed their fathers as an important source of warmth, caring, protection, soothing, guidance and authority. Therefore, they reported apparent difficulties in fulfilling these needs. The theme emotions experienced after losing the father includes emotions such as sadness, loneliness, emptiness, yearning, fear, relief, anger, and guilt, and regarding the emotions anger and guilt, some special factors exacerbated their intensity. The third theme, coping with and adapting to father loss involved emotional preparation to loss, making meaning, finding emotional outlets to cope with feelings, avoidance, getting support, romantic partner as a substitute and setting goals and ideals to overcome the burden of grief. The fourth theme included some personality characteristics such as introversion and emotionality, the broken mother and relationship style with the father. The results and their implications were discussed in the final part of the article.

Kaynakça

  • Arnett, J. J. (2006). A longer road to adulthood (pp. 3-26). In J.J. Arnett (Ed.), Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens Through the Twenties (pp. 3-26). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Balk, D. E., & Vesta, L. C. (1998). Psychological development during four years of bereavement: A longitudinal case study. Death Studies, 22, 23-41. doi: 10.1080/074811898201713.
  • Berzoff, J. (2003). Psychodynamic theories in grief and bereavement. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 73(3), 273-298.
  • Boelen, P. A., & Klugkist, I. (2011). Cognitive behavioral variables mediate the associations of neuroticism and attachment insecurity with prolonged grief disorder severity. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 24(3), 291-307.
  • Boelen, P. A., & van den Bout, J. (2010). Anxious and depressive avoidance and symptoms of prolonged grief, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychologica Belgica, 50 (1&2), 49-67.
  • Boratav, H. B., Fişek, G.O., & Ziya, H. E. (2014). Unpacking masculinities in the context of social change: Internal complexities of the identities of married men in Turkey. Men and Masculinities, 17(3), 299-324. doi: 10.1177/1097184X14539511.
  • Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss III: Loss, sadness, and depression. New York: Basic Books.
  • Boyd, C. J. (1989). Mothers and daughters: A discussion of theory and research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51(2), 291-301.
  • Burke, L. A., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2013). Prospective risk factors for complicated grief (pp. 145-161). In M.S. Stroebe, H. Schut, J. van der Bout & P. Boelen, Complicated grief: Scientific foundation for health care professionals (pp.145-161). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Burlingham, D. (1973). The preoedipal infant-father relationship. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 28(1), 23-47.
  • Burton, C. L., Yan, O. H., Pat‐Horenczyk, R., Chan, I. S., Ho, S., & Bonanno, G. A. (2012). Coping flexibility and complicated grief: A comparison of American and Chinese samples. Depression and Anxiety, 29(1), 16-22.
  • Cabrera, N. J., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Bradley, R. H., Hofferth, S., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Fatherhood in the twenty-first century. Child Development, 71 (1), 127-136.
  • Casper, L. M. (1997). My daddy takes care of me! Fathers as care providers. Current population reports. Household economic studies. Current Population Reports, Series P-70 n59, 1-9.
  • Cerel, J., Fristad, M.A., Verducci, J., Weller, R.A., & Weller, E. B. (2006). Childhood bereavement: Psychopathology in the two years post-parental death. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45 (6), 681-690. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000215327.58799.05.
  • Cowchock, F. S., Ellestad, S. E., Meador, K. G., Koenig, H. G., Hooten, E. G., & Swamy, G. K. (2011). Religiosity is an important part of coping with grief in pregnancy after a traumatic second trimester loss. Journal of Religion and Health, 50(4), 901-910.
  • Diamond, M. J. (1995). The emergence of the father as the watchful protector of the mother-infant dyad. Becoming a father: Contemporary social, developmental and clinical perspectives. New York: Springer.
  • Emmons, R. A. (2003). Personal goals, life meaning, and virtue: Wellsprings of a positive life. In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived (pp. 105–128). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10594-005
  • Etchegoyen, A. (2002). Psychoanalytic ideas about fathers. In J. Trowell, & J. Etchegoyen (Eds.), The importance of fathers: A psychoanalytic re-evaluation (pp. 18-37). USA: Brunner-Routledge.
  • Evans, D. (2019). Lacancı psikanalize giriş sözlüğü. T. Sivrikaya ve U. Y. Kara (çev.). İstanbul: Islık Yayınları.
  • Floerchinger, D. S. (1991). Bereavement in late adolescence: Interventions on college campuses. Journal of Adolescent Research, 6 (1), 146-156.
  • Freud, S. (2014). Totem ve Tabu. H. İlhan (çev.). Ankara: Alter Yayıncılık. (1913).
  • Freud, S. (2011). Ego ve id. A. Yardımlı (Çev.). Metapsikoloji. İstanbul: İdea Yayıncılık. (1923).
  • Gibbs, G. R. (2007). Analyzing qualitative data (1st ed.) . London: Sage.
  • Habip, B. (2012). Psikanaliz kuramlarında babanın yeri açılış konuşması. M.I. Ertüzün (Ed.). Baba işlevi içinde (ss. 3-5). İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Hardison, H. G., Neimeyer, R. A., & Lichstein, K.L. (2005). Insomnia and complicated grief symptoms in bereaved college students. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 3(2), 99-111.
  • Harris, E. S. (1991). Adolescent bereavement following the death of a parent: An exploratory study. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 21(4), 267-281.
  • Horowitz, M. J., Siegel, B., Holen, A., Bonanno, G. A., Milbrath, C., & Stinson, C. H. (2003). Diagnostic criteria for complicated grief disorder. Focus, 1(3), 290-298.
  • Jalland, P. (2013). A culture of silent grief? The transformation of bereavement care in 20th century England. Bereavement Care, 32 (1), 16-22. doi: 10.1080/02682621.2013.779821.
  • Hayes, N. (2004). Doing psychological research (2nd ed.). UK: Open University Press.
  • Kelley, M. M., & Chan, K. T. (2012). Assessing the role of attachment to God, meaning, and religious coping as mediators in the grief experience. Death Studies, 36(3), 199-227.
  • Kendler, K. S., Sheth, K., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2002). Childhood parental loss and risk for first-onset of major depression and alcohol dependence: The time decay of risk and sex differences. Psychological Medicine, 32 (7), 1187-1194. doi: 10.1017/S0033291702006219.
  • Kissane, D. W., & Bloch, S. (2002). Family-focused grief therapy. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
  • Kübler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. New York: Routledge.
  • Lacan, J. (1956-1957). Seminar IV: Object relation. L.V.A. Roche (Trans.) (Unpublished).
  • Langdridge, D. (2007). Phenomenological psychology: Theory, research and method. England: Pearson.
  • Leopold, T., & Lechner, C. M. (2015). Parents’ death and adult well-being: Gender, age, and adaptation to filial bereavement. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77 (3), 747-760. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12186.
  • Levinson (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41 (1), 3-13.
  • Lichtenberg, J. D. (2008). Fathers and daughters: A discussion. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 28(1), 106-113.
  • Lobb, E. A., Kristjanson, L. J., Aoun, S. M., Monterosso, L., Halkett, G. K., & Davies, A. (2010). Predictors of complicated grief: A systematic review of empirical studies. Death studies, 34(8), 673-698.
  • Marks, N. F., Jun, H., & Sung, J. (2007). Death of parents and adult psychological well-being: A prospective U.S. national study. Journal of Family Issues, 28(12), 1611-1638. doi: 10.1177/0192513X07302728.
  • Mash, H., Fullerton, C. S., Shear, K., & Ursano, R. J. (2014). Complicated grief and depression in young adults. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 202 (7), 1-5. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000155.
  • McBride, B. A., Brown, G. L., Bost, K. K., Shin, N., Vaughn, B., & Korth, B. (2005). Paternal identity, maternal gatekeeping, and father involvement. Family Relations, 54(3), 360-372.
  • Meshot, C. M., & Leitner, L. M. (1992). Adolescent mourning and parental death. Omega: Journal of death and dying, 26 (4), 287-299.
  • Minsky, R. (2000). Beyond nurture: Finding the words for male identity. Psychoanalytic Studies, 2(3), 241-254.
  • Noppe, I. C., & Noppe, L. D. (2008). Father matters: The impact of father loss on development. The Forum, 34 (2), 1-4.
  • Pickhardt, C. E. (2007). The connected father: Understanding your unique role and responsibilities during your child's adolescence. US: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Pope, A. (2005). Personal transformation in midlife orphanhood: An empirical phenomenological study. Omega Journal of Death& Dying, 51(2), 107-123.
  • Roberts, K. E. (2016). Grief and bereavement among college students. Digital commons @ ACU, Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Paper 10.
  • Ross, J. M. (1979). Fathering: A review of some psychoanalytic contributions on paternity.  International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 60(3), 317-327.
  • Schwartzberg, S. S., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Grief and the search for meaning: Exploring the assumptive worlds of bereaved college students. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10(3), 270-288. doi: 10.1521/JSCP.1991.10.3.270.
  • Servaty-Seib, H. L., & Hamilton, L.A. (2006). Educational performance and persistence of bereaved college students. Journal of college student development, 47 (2), 225-234. doi: 10.1353/CSD.2006.0024.
  • Shear, M. K., Simon, N., Wall, M., Zisook, S., Neimeyer, R., Duan, N., ... & Gorscak, B. (2011). Complicated grief and related bereavement issues for DSM‐5. Depression and anxiety, 28(2), 103-117.
  • Shear, M. K. (2012). Getting straight about grief. Depression and Anxiety, 29(6), 461-464.
  • Smith, J. A., Jarman, M., & Osborn, M. (1999). Doing interpretative phenomenological analysis. In M. Murray, & K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Qualitative health psychology (pp. 218-240). London: Sage.
  • Smith, J. A., & Osborn, M. (2003). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In J. A. Smith (Ed.). Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods (pp. 51-80). London: Sage.
  • Smith, J. A. (2004). Reflecting on the development of interpretative phenomenological analysis and its contribution to qualitative research in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 1(1), 39-54.
  • Sousa, D. (2014). Validation in qualitative research: General aspects and specifities of the descriptive phenomenological method. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 11(2), 211-227. doi: 10.1080/14780887.2013.853855.
  • Stroebe, W., Schoot, R., Schut, H., Abakoumkin, G., & Li, J. (2014). Guilt in bereavement: The role of self-blame and regret in coping with loss. Plos One, 9 (5): E96606. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096606. eCollection 2014.
  • Tol, U. U., Taşkan, D. (2018). Erkeklik ve babalık halleri. Anne Çocuk Eğitim Vakfı. İstanbul: Taymaz Matbaacılık ve Baskı. Retrieved from https://www.acev.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/ErkeklikVeBabalikHalleri.pdf.
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  • Tyson-Rawson, K. J. (1993). College women and bereavement: late adolescence and father death. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Kansas State University, Manhattan.
  • Umberson, D., & Chen, M. D. (1994). Effects of a parent's death on adult children: Relationship salience and reaction to loss. American Sociological Review, 59(1)152-168.
  • Umberson, D. (2003). Death of a parent: Transition to a new adult identity. US: Cambridge University Press.
  • Waddington, G. A. (2004). The influence of personality type and sense of coherence on coping with bereavement [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch.
  • Worden, W. J., & Silverman, P. R. (1996). Parental death and the adjustment of school-age children. Journal of Death and Dying, 33(2), 91-102.
  • Worden, J. W. (2004). Grief counseling and grief therapy: A handbook for the mental health practitioner. Springer Publishing Company.
  • Zeybekoğlu, Ö. (2013). Contemporary fatherhood and the family from the male perspectives. Mediterranean Journal of Humanities, 3(2), 297-328. doi: 10.13114/MJH/201322486.

Genç Yetişkinlerde Baba Kaybı ve Yas: Nitel bir Çalışma

Yıl 2020, Cilt 7, Sayı 3, 389 - 421, 26.10.2020
https://doi.org/10.31682/ayna.726517

Öz

Bu çalışmada, genç yetişkinlerin baba kaybı ve yas deneyimini derinlemesine incelemek hedeflenmiştir. Bu amaçla, yedi genç yetişkin ile yarı yapılandırılmış derinlemesine görüşmeler gerçekleştirilerek, “Genç yetişkinlerde baba kaybı nasıl deneyimlenmektedi r?” sorusunu cevaplamak amaçlanmıştır. Yapılan görüşmeler, Yorumlayıcı Fenomonolojik Analiz (Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis) ile analiz edilmiştir. Bu makalede elde edilen temaların dört tanesi ayrıntılandırılarak sunulmuştur. Bu temaları, baba kaybının sembolik anlamları, baba kaybının ardından hissedilen duygular, babasız bir yaşamla başa çıkmak ve uyum sağlamak ve yas sürecini zorlaştıran faktörler oluşturmaktadır. Baba kaybının sembolik anlamları, babalarının ölümünün genç yetişkinlerin iç dünyasında açığa çıkardığı anlamları ifade etmektedir. Sonuçlara göre, genç yetişkinler, babalarını önemli bir “sıcaklık, ilgi, koruma, sakinleştirme, rehberlik ve otorite” kaynağı olarak değerlendirmekte ve ölümünün ardından bu ihtiyaçlarını karşılamakta belirgin zorluklar ile karşı karşıya gelmektedirler. Baba kaybının ardından hissedilen duygular, yas sürecinde hissedilen üzüntü, yalnızlık, boşluk, özlem, korku, rahatlama, öfke ve suçluluk gibi duyguları kapsamakta; öfke ve suçluluk duygularının ise özellikle şiddetlendiği bazı özel durumların varlığına işaret etmektedir. Üçüncü tema, babasız bir yaşamla başa çıkmak ve uyum sağlamak ise kayba önsel hazırlık, yaşantıyı anlamlandırmaya çalışma, duygusal dışavurum, kaçınma, sosyal destek alma, babanın yerini dolduracak romantik ilişkiler arama ile yeni ideal ve hedefler oluşturma gibi başa çıkma yöntemlerini kapsamaktadır. Dördüncü tema yas sürecini zorlaştıran faktörler, bazı kişilik özellikleri (içedönüklük, duygusallık, depresiflik) ile annenin çökkünlüğü, baba ile ilişki kurma tarzı gibi faktörleri içermektedir. Temaların içerikleri, Türkiye’deki genç yetişkinlerin, gelişimsel özellikleri ve yaşadıkları kültür ile ilişki içinde ortaya çıkan deneyimleri hakkında aydınlatıcı bilgiler açığa çıkarmıştır. Temaların nasıl yorumlanabileceği, makalenin son bölümünde tartışılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Arnett, J. J. (2006). A longer road to adulthood (pp. 3-26). In J.J. Arnett (Ed.), Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens Through the Twenties (pp. 3-26). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Balk, D. E., & Vesta, L. C. (1998). Psychological development during four years of bereavement: A longitudinal case study. Death Studies, 22, 23-41. doi: 10.1080/074811898201713.
  • Berzoff, J. (2003). Psychodynamic theories in grief and bereavement. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 73(3), 273-298.
  • Boelen, P. A., & Klugkist, I. (2011). Cognitive behavioral variables mediate the associations of neuroticism and attachment insecurity with prolonged grief disorder severity. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 24(3), 291-307.
  • Boelen, P. A., & van den Bout, J. (2010). Anxious and depressive avoidance and symptoms of prolonged grief, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychologica Belgica, 50 (1&2), 49-67.
  • Boratav, H. B., Fişek, G.O., & Ziya, H. E. (2014). Unpacking masculinities in the context of social change: Internal complexities of the identities of married men in Turkey. Men and Masculinities, 17(3), 299-324. doi: 10.1177/1097184X14539511.
  • Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss III: Loss, sadness, and depression. New York: Basic Books.
  • Boyd, C. J. (1989). Mothers and daughters: A discussion of theory and research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51(2), 291-301.
  • Burke, L. A., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2013). Prospective risk factors for complicated grief (pp. 145-161). In M.S. Stroebe, H. Schut, J. van der Bout & P. Boelen, Complicated grief: Scientific foundation for health care professionals (pp.145-161). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Burlingham, D. (1973). The preoedipal infant-father relationship. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 28(1), 23-47.
  • Burton, C. L., Yan, O. H., Pat‐Horenczyk, R., Chan, I. S., Ho, S., & Bonanno, G. A. (2012). Coping flexibility and complicated grief: A comparison of American and Chinese samples. Depression and Anxiety, 29(1), 16-22.
  • Cabrera, N. J., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Bradley, R. H., Hofferth, S., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Fatherhood in the twenty-first century. Child Development, 71 (1), 127-136.
  • Casper, L. M. (1997). My daddy takes care of me! Fathers as care providers. Current population reports. Household economic studies. Current Population Reports, Series P-70 n59, 1-9.
  • Cerel, J., Fristad, M.A., Verducci, J., Weller, R.A., & Weller, E. B. (2006). Childhood bereavement: Psychopathology in the two years post-parental death. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45 (6), 681-690. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000215327.58799.05.
  • Cowchock, F. S., Ellestad, S. E., Meador, K. G., Koenig, H. G., Hooten, E. G., & Swamy, G. K. (2011). Religiosity is an important part of coping with grief in pregnancy after a traumatic second trimester loss. Journal of Religion and Health, 50(4), 901-910.
  • Diamond, M. J. (1995). The emergence of the father as the watchful protector of the mother-infant dyad. Becoming a father: Contemporary social, developmental and clinical perspectives. New York: Springer.
  • Emmons, R. A. (2003). Personal goals, life meaning, and virtue: Wellsprings of a positive life. In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived (pp. 105–128). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10594-005
  • Etchegoyen, A. (2002). Psychoanalytic ideas about fathers. In J. Trowell, & J. Etchegoyen (Eds.), The importance of fathers: A psychoanalytic re-evaluation (pp. 18-37). USA: Brunner-Routledge.
  • Evans, D. (2019). Lacancı psikanalize giriş sözlüğü. T. Sivrikaya ve U. Y. Kara (çev.). İstanbul: Islık Yayınları.
  • Floerchinger, D. S. (1991). Bereavement in late adolescence: Interventions on college campuses. Journal of Adolescent Research, 6 (1), 146-156.
  • Freud, S. (2014). Totem ve Tabu. H. İlhan (çev.). Ankara: Alter Yayıncılık. (1913).
  • Freud, S. (2011). Ego ve id. A. Yardımlı (Çev.). Metapsikoloji. İstanbul: İdea Yayıncılık. (1923).
  • Gibbs, G. R. (2007). Analyzing qualitative data (1st ed.) . London: Sage.
  • Habip, B. (2012). Psikanaliz kuramlarında babanın yeri açılış konuşması. M.I. Ertüzün (Ed.). Baba işlevi içinde (ss. 3-5). İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Hardison, H. G., Neimeyer, R. A., & Lichstein, K.L. (2005). Insomnia and complicated grief symptoms in bereaved college students. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 3(2), 99-111.
  • Harris, E. S. (1991). Adolescent bereavement following the death of a parent: An exploratory study. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 21(4), 267-281.
  • Horowitz, M. J., Siegel, B., Holen, A., Bonanno, G. A., Milbrath, C., & Stinson, C. H. (2003). Diagnostic criteria for complicated grief disorder. Focus, 1(3), 290-298.
  • Jalland, P. (2013). A culture of silent grief? The transformation of bereavement care in 20th century England. Bereavement Care, 32 (1), 16-22. doi: 10.1080/02682621.2013.779821.
  • Hayes, N. (2004). Doing psychological research (2nd ed.). UK: Open University Press.
  • Kelley, M. M., & Chan, K. T. (2012). Assessing the role of attachment to God, meaning, and religious coping as mediators in the grief experience. Death Studies, 36(3), 199-227.
  • Kendler, K. S., Sheth, K., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2002). Childhood parental loss and risk for first-onset of major depression and alcohol dependence: The time decay of risk and sex differences. Psychological Medicine, 32 (7), 1187-1194. doi: 10.1017/S0033291702006219.
  • Kissane, D. W., & Bloch, S. (2002). Family-focused grief therapy. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
  • Kübler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. New York: Routledge.
  • Lacan, J. (1956-1957). Seminar IV: Object relation. L.V.A. Roche (Trans.) (Unpublished).
  • Langdridge, D. (2007). Phenomenological psychology: Theory, research and method. England: Pearson.
  • Leopold, T., & Lechner, C. M. (2015). Parents’ death and adult well-being: Gender, age, and adaptation to filial bereavement. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77 (3), 747-760. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12186.
  • Levinson (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41 (1), 3-13.
  • Lichtenberg, J. D. (2008). Fathers and daughters: A discussion. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 28(1), 106-113.
  • Lobb, E. A., Kristjanson, L. J., Aoun, S. M., Monterosso, L., Halkett, G. K., & Davies, A. (2010). Predictors of complicated grief: A systematic review of empirical studies. Death studies, 34(8), 673-698.
  • Marks, N. F., Jun, H., & Sung, J. (2007). Death of parents and adult psychological well-being: A prospective U.S. national study. Journal of Family Issues, 28(12), 1611-1638. doi: 10.1177/0192513X07302728.
  • Mash, H., Fullerton, C. S., Shear, K., & Ursano, R. J. (2014). Complicated grief and depression in young adults. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 202 (7), 1-5. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000155.
  • McBride, B. A., Brown, G. L., Bost, K. K., Shin, N., Vaughn, B., & Korth, B. (2005). Paternal identity, maternal gatekeeping, and father involvement. Family Relations, 54(3), 360-372.
  • Meshot, C. M., & Leitner, L. M. (1992). Adolescent mourning and parental death. Omega: Journal of death and dying, 26 (4), 287-299.
  • Minsky, R. (2000). Beyond nurture: Finding the words for male identity. Psychoanalytic Studies, 2(3), 241-254.
  • Noppe, I. C., & Noppe, L. D. (2008). Father matters: The impact of father loss on development. The Forum, 34 (2), 1-4.
  • Pickhardt, C. E. (2007). The connected father: Understanding your unique role and responsibilities during your child's adolescence. US: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Pope, A. (2005). Personal transformation in midlife orphanhood: An empirical phenomenological study. Omega Journal of Death& Dying, 51(2), 107-123.
  • Roberts, K. E. (2016). Grief and bereavement among college students. Digital commons @ ACU, Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Paper 10.
  • Ross, J. M. (1979). Fathering: A review of some psychoanalytic contributions on paternity.  International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 60(3), 317-327.
  • Schwartzberg, S. S., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Grief and the search for meaning: Exploring the assumptive worlds of bereaved college students. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10(3), 270-288. doi: 10.1521/JSCP.1991.10.3.270.
  • Servaty-Seib, H. L., & Hamilton, L.A. (2006). Educational performance and persistence of bereaved college students. Journal of college student development, 47 (2), 225-234. doi: 10.1353/CSD.2006.0024.
  • Shear, M. K., Simon, N., Wall, M., Zisook, S., Neimeyer, R., Duan, N., ... & Gorscak, B. (2011). Complicated grief and related bereavement issues for DSM‐5. Depression and anxiety, 28(2), 103-117.
  • Shear, M. K. (2012). Getting straight about grief. Depression and Anxiety, 29(6), 461-464.
  • Smith, J. A., Jarman, M., & Osborn, M. (1999). Doing interpretative phenomenological analysis. In M. Murray, & K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Qualitative health psychology (pp. 218-240). London: Sage.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Ayşen MARAŞ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi Psikoloji Bölümü
0000-0002-8292-2580
Türkiye


Faruk GENÇÖZ>
Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi
0000-0001-7476-1361
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 26 Ekim 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 24 Nisan 2020
Kabul Tarihi 10 Temmuz 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 7, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Maraş, A. & Gençöz, F. (2020). Genç Yetişkinlerde Baba Kaybı ve Yas: Nitel bir Çalışma . AYNA Klinik Psikoloji Dergisi , 7 (3) , 389-421 . DOI: 10.31682/ayna.726517