Olgu Sunumu
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Spor Yaralanmalarında EMDR Terapisinin İşlevselliği: Bir Olgu Sunumu

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 10 Sayı: 3, 589 - 611, 30.09.2023
https://doi.org/10.31682/ayna.935887

Öz

Bu araştırmanın amacı, spor yaralanması sonrası gerçekleştirilen EMDR terapisinin sporcunun psikolojik becerileri üzerindeki etkisinin incelenmesi ve uygulanan terapiye yönelik sporcunun görüşlerinin belirlenmesidir. Araştırmada, EMDR yöntemi ile ele alınmış bir olgu sunumu bulunmaktadır. Olgu 15 yaşında, müsabaka sırasında dizinden yaralanan erkek bir sporcudur. Sporcu, yaşadığı yaralanma nedeniyle fizyoterapist ile normal tedavisine ek olarak kendisi için planlanan EMDR seanslarına katılmıştır. Sporcu, haftada bir olmak üzere her biri 45-90 dakika aralığında süren 5 seansa katılmıştır. Sporcuya tedavi öncesi ve sonrasında Sportif Sorunlarla Başa Çıkma Becerileri Envanteri ve Psikolojik Performans Stratejileri Testi uygulanmıştır. Tamamlanan 5 seans sonunda, sporcu ile ayrıca bireysel görüşme gerçekleştirilerek süreç hakkındaki deneyimleri belirlenmiştir. Uygulama sonrasında sporcunun konsantrasyon, baskı altında yüksek performans, zorluklarla baş etme, güven ve başarı güdüsü ile duygusal kontrol, imgeleme, aktivasyon, dikkat kontrolü ve gevşeme puanlarında artış olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yapılan görüşmede ise sporcu uygulama öncesinde yaralanması ile ilgili endişe, üzüntü, pişmanlık, suçluluk ve zayıflık hissettiğini belirtirken, EMDR seanslarını tamamladıktan sonra olumlu düşünme, terapinin etkisine inanma, rahatlama, konsantrasyon, kendini suçlamama, doğru nefes alıp verme, kendini kontrol edebilme, duyarsızlaştırma ve daha güçlü hissetme alanlarında gelişim sağladığını belirtmiştir. Sonuç olarak EMDR terapisinin, spor yaralanmaları sonrası sporcunun psikolojik becerilerini olumlu olarak etkileyebileceği ve uygulama sonucunda sporcunun birçok alanda olumlu deneyimler yaşadığı söylenebilir.

Kaynakça

  • Andersen, M. B. ve Williams, J. M. (1988). A model of stress and athletic injury: Prediction and prevention. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(3), 294-306.
  • Bauman, N. J. ve Carr, C. M. (1998). A multi-modal approach to trauma recovery: A case history. The Psychotherapy Patient, 10(3-4), 145-160.
  • Bennett, J., Bickley, J., Vernon, T., Olusoga, P. ve Maynard, I. (2017). Preliminary evidence for the treatment of performance blocks in sport: The efficacy of EMDR with graded exposure. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(2), 96-110.
  • Brewer, B.W. (2009). Injury prevention and rehabilitation. In B. W. Brewer (Ed.), Sport Psychology (pp. 83-96). Wiley-Blackwell
  • Brown S. ve Shapiro, F. (2006). EMDR in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Case Studies, 5(5), 403-420.
  • Clement, D., Arvinen-Barrow, M. ve Fetty, T. (2015). Psychosocial responses during different phases of sport-injury rehabilitation: A qualitative study. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(1), 95-104. Crossman, J. (1997). Psychological rehabilitation from sports injuries. Sports Medicine, 23(5), 333-339.
  • Curdt, A. ve Eggleston, B. (2019). Efficacy of EMDR in athletic traumas. Spotlight on Clinical Psychology Research. https://doi.org/10.35831/scpr/ac.9-19-2019.
  • De Jongh, A., ten Broeke, E. ve Meijer, S. (2010). Two method approach: A case conceptualization model in the context of EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(1), 12-21.
  • Engelhard, I. M., van den Hout, M. A., Janssen, W. C. ve van der Beek, J. (2010). Eye movements reduce vividness and emotionality of “flashforwards”. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(5), 442-447.
  • Ercan, T., Kuc, H. A. ve Karduz, F. F. A. (2020). Travma sonrası stres bozukluğu için EMDR: Bir yamaç paraşüt kazası olgusu. Kesit Akademi Dergisi, 6(25), 515-527.
  • Foster, S. (1999). EMDR and assisting athletes in coping with a critical incident. [Sempozyum] Annual conference of Applied Sports Psychology, Banff, Alberta, Canada.
  • Foster, S. ve Lendl, J. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Initial application for enhancing performance in athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 7(63), 155-161.
  • Graham, L. B. ve Robinson, E. M. (2007). Effect of EMDR on anxiety and swim times. Journal of Swimming Research, 17, 1-9.
  • Kavakçı, Ö., Semiz, M., Kaptanoğlu, E. ve Özer, Z. (2012). Fibromiyaljide EMDR'nin etkinliğinin araştırılması: Yedi olguyu içeren bir klinik çalışma. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry/Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(1), 75-81.
  • Konuk, E., Knipe, J., Eke, I., Yuksek, H., Yurtsever, A. ve Ostep, S. (2006). The effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy on posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of the 1999 Marmara, Turkey, earthquake. International Journal of Stress Management,13(3), 291-298.
  • Mate, D., Marazzi, L. ve Cavallerio, F. (2013). Riabilitare la mente dopo un infortunio sportivo: applicare il metodo EMDR nello sport. Giornale Italiano Di Psicologşa Dello Sport, 17, 23-32.
  • Maxfield, L. (2009). EMDR milestones: The first 20 years. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 211-216.
  • Miçooğulları, B. O., (2017). Reliability and validity of the Turkish language version of the Test of Performance Strategies. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(1), 73-79.
  • Mukba, G., Tanrıverdi, S. ve Tanhan, F. (2020). Investigation of the efficacy of EMDR in earthquake trauma: Case report. Çukurova University. Faculty of Education Journal, 49(1), 477-500.
  • Özcan, V. ve Günay, M. (2017). The Turkish adaptation of Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI-28): The validity and reliability study. Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, 19(1), 130-136.
  • Raboni, M. R., Tufik, S. ve Suchecki, D. (2006). Treatment of PTSD by eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) improves sleep quality, quality of life, and perception of stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071(1), 508-513.
  • Shapiro, F. (1989a). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2(2), 199-223.
  • Shapiro, F. (1989b). Eye movement desensitization: A new treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 20(3), 211-217.
  • Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures (2. Basım). Guilford Press.
  • Shapiro, F. ve Maxfield, L. (2002). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Information processing in the treatment of trauma. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(8), 933-946.
  • Shapiro, E. (2012). EMDR and early psychological intervention following trauma. European Review of Applied Psychology, 62, 241-251.
  • Shapiro, S. (2016). EMDR: Göz hareketleri ile duyarsızlaştırma ve yeniden işleme temel prensipler, protokoller ve prosedürler (M. Şahzade, ve I. Sansoy, Çev.). Okyanus Yayınları.
  • Shearer, D. A., Mellalieu, S. D. ve Shearer, C. R. (2011). Post traumatic stress disorder: A case study of an elite rifle shooter. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5(2), 134-147.
  • Smith, R. E., Schutz, R. W., Smoll, F. L. ve Ptacek, J. T. (1995). Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of sport-specific psychological skills: The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17(4), 379-398.
  • Solomon, R. M. ve Shapiro, F. (2008). EMDR and the adaptive information processing model: Potential mechanisms of change. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 315–325.
  • Thomas, P. R., Murphy, S. M. ve Hardy, L. E. W. (1999). Test of performance strategies: Development and preliminary validation of a comprehensive measure of athletes' psychological skills. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(9), 697-711.
  • Tokgöz, Z. A. (2019). Göz hareketleri ile duyarsızlaştırma ve yeniden işleme (EMDR). Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, (47), 526-545.
  • Torun, F. (2010). Vajinismusun EMDR yöntemi ile tedavisi: İki olgu sunumu. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 21(suppl 3), 243-248.
  • Türkeri Bozkurt, H. (2018). Spor yaralanmalarında sosyal destek [Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü.
  • Van den Hout, M., Muris, P., Salemink, E. ve Kindt, M. (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid and emotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40(2), 121-130.
  • Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Smith, A. M., Shaffer, S. M. ve Morrey, M. A. (1998). An integrated model of response to sport injury: Psychological and sociological dynamics. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10(1), 46-69.

Psychological Recovery after Sports Injury by EMDR Approach: A Case Report

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 10 Sayı: 3, 589 - 611, 30.09.2023
https://doi.org/10.31682/ayna.935887

Öz

The aim of this research was to examine the effect of EMDR therapy applied after a sports injury on an athlete’s psychological skills and to determine the athlete’s views about the therapy. This research consists of a case report in which the EMDR method was used. The case is a 15-year-old male athlete with an acute knee injury. Due to his injury, the athlete attended EMDR sessions planned for him in addition to his treatment with a physiotherapist. The athlete participated in 5 sessions, each of which lasted between 45 to 90 minutes, once a week. Coping Skills Inventory and Psychological Performance Strategies Test were applied to the athlete before and after the treatment. Later, the athlete was interviewed regarding his therapy experience. The results showed that after EMDR application, the athlete's scores on concentration, high performance under pressure, coping with difficulties, confidence and success motivation, emotional control, imagery, activation, attentional control, and relaxation scores increased. In addition, the interview data revealed that the athlete had experienced negative emotions and thoughts such as anxiety, sadness, regret, guilt, and weakness about his injury before the therapy whereas after the therapy he improved in the areas of positive thinking, believing in the effect of therapy, relaxation, concentration, not self blaming himself, correct breathing, self-control, desensitization and feeling stronger. As a result, it can be said that EMDR therapy may positively affect athletes’ psychological skills after sports injuries and that as a result of this therapy, athletes may have positive experiences in many areas.

Kaynakça

  • Andersen, M. B. ve Williams, J. M. (1988). A model of stress and athletic injury: Prediction and prevention. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(3), 294-306.
  • Bauman, N. J. ve Carr, C. M. (1998). A multi-modal approach to trauma recovery: A case history. The Psychotherapy Patient, 10(3-4), 145-160.
  • Bennett, J., Bickley, J., Vernon, T., Olusoga, P. ve Maynard, I. (2017). Preliminary evidence for the treatment of performance blocks in sport: The efficacy of EMDR with graded exposure. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(2), 96-110.
  • Brewer, B.W. (2009). Injury prevention and rehabilitation. In B. W. Brewer (Ed.), Sport Psychology (pp. 83-96). Wiley-Blackwell
  • Brown S. ve Shapiro, F. (2006). EMDR in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Case Studies, 5(5), 403-420.
  • Clement, D., Arvinen-Barrow, M. ve Fetty, T. (2015). Psychosocial responses during different phases of sport-injury rehabilitation: A qualitative study. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(1), 95-104. Crossman, J. (1997). Psychological rehabilitation from sports injuries. Sports Medicine, 23(5), 333-339.
  • Curdt, A. ve Eggleston, B. (2019). Efficacy of EMDR in athletic traumas. Spotlight on Clinical Psychology Research. https://doi.org/10.35831/scpr/ac.9-19-2019.
  • De Jongh, A., ten Broeke, E. ve Meijer, S. (2010). Two method approach: A case conceptualization model in the context of EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(1), 12-21.
  • Engelhard, I. M., van den Hout, M. A., Janssen, W. C. ve van der Beek, J. (2010). Eye movements reduce vividness and emotionality of “flashforwards”. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(5), 442-447.
  • Ercan, T., Kuc, H. A. ve Karduz, F. F. A. (2020). Travma sonrası stres bozukluğu için EMDR: Bir yamaç paraşüt kazası olgusu. Kesit Akademi Dergisi, 6(25), 515-527.
  • Foster, S. (1999). EMDR and assisting athletes in coping with a critical incident. [Sempozyum] Annual conference of Applied Sports Psychology, Banff, Alberta, Canada.
  • Foster, S. ve Lendl, J. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Initial application for enhancing performance in athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 7(63), 155-161.
  • Graham, L. B. ve Robinson, E. M. (2007). Effect of EMDR on anxiety and swim times. Journal of Swimming Research, 17, 1-9.
  • Kavakçı, Ö., Semiz, M., Kaptanoğlu, E. ve Özer, Z. (2012). Fibromiyaljide EMDR'nin etkinliğinin araştırılması: Yedi olguyu içeren bir klinik çalışma. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry/Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(1), 75-81.
  • Konuk, E., Knipe, J., Eke, I., Yuksek, H., Yurtsever, A. ve Ostep, S. (2006). The effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy on posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of the 1999 Marmara, Turkey, earthquake. International Journal of Stress Management,13(3), 291-298.
  • Mate, D., Marazzi, L. ve Cavallerio, F. (2013). Riabilitare la mente dopo un infortunio sportivo: applicare il metodo EMDR nello sport. Giornale Italiano Di Psicologşa Dello Sport, 17, 23-32.
  • Maxfield, L. (2009). EMDR milestones: The first 20 years. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 211-216.
  • Miçooğulları, B. O., (2017). Reliability and validity of the Turkish language version of the Test of Performance Strategies. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(1), 73-79.
  • Mukba, G., Tanrıverdi, S. ve Tanhan, F. (2020). Investigation of the efficacy of EMDR in earthquake trauma: Case report. Çukurova University. Faculty of Education Journal, 49(1), 477-500.
  • Özcan, V. ve Günay, M. (2017). The Turkish adaptation of Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI-28): The validity and reliability study. Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, 19(1), 130-136.
  • Raboni, M. R., Tufik, S. ve Suchecki, D. (2006). Treatment of PTSD by eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) improves sleep quality, quality of life, and perception of stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071(1), 508-513.
  • Shapiro, F. (1989a). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2(2), 199-223.
  • Shapiro, F. (1989b). Eye movement desensitization: A new treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 20(3), 211-217.
  • Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures (2. Basım). Guilford Press.
  • Shapiro, F. ve Maxfield, L. (2002). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Information processing in the treatment of trauma. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(8), 933-946.
  • Shapiro, E. (2012). EMDR and early psychological intervention following trauma. European Review of Applied Psychology, 62, 241-251.
  • Shapiro, S. (2016). EMDR: Göz hareketleri ile duyarsızlaştırma ve yeniden işleme temel prensipler, protokoller ve prosedürler (M. Şahzade, ve I. Sansoy, Çev.). Okyanus Yayınları.
  • Shearer, D. A., Mellalieu, S. D. ve Shearer, C. R. (2011). Post traumatic stress disorder: A case study of an elite rifle shooter. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5(2), 134-147.
  • Smith, R. E., Schutz, R. W., Smoll, F. L. ve Ptacek, J. T. (1995). Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of sport-specific psychological skills: The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17(4), 379-398.
  • Solomon, R. M. ve Shapiro, F. (2008). EMDR and the adaptive information processing model: Potential mechanisms of change. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 315–325.
  • Thomas, P. R., Murphy, S. M. ve Hardy, L. E. W. (1999). Test of performance strategies: Development and preliminary validation of a comprehensive measure of athletes' psychological skills. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(9), 697-711.
  • Tokgöz, Z. A. (2019). Göz hareketleri ile duyarsızlaştırma ve yeniden işleme (EMDR). Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, (47), 526-545.
  • Torun, F. (2010). Vajinismusun EMDR yöntemi ile tedavisi: İki olgu sunumu. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 21(suppl 3), 243-248.
  • Türkeri Bozkurt, H. (2018). Spor yaralanmalarında sosyal destek [Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü.
  • Van den Hout, M., Muris, P., Salemink, E. ve Kindt, M. (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid and emotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40(2), 121-130.
  • Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Smith, A. M., Shaffer, S. M. ve Morrey, M. A. (1998). An integrated model of response to sport injury: Psychological and sociological dynamics. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10(1), 46-69.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Olgu Sunumu
Yazarlar

Ömer SEYDAOĞULLARI 0000-0002-0715-2934

İhsan SARI 0000-0002-9090-8447

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2023
Gönderilme Tarihi 10 Mayıs 2021
Kabul Tarihi 13 Mayıs 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 10 Sayı: 3

Kaynak Göster

APA SEYDAOĞULLARI, Ö., & SARI, İ. (2023). Spor Yaralanmalarında EMDR Terapisinin İşlevselliği: Bir Olgu Sunumu. AYNA Klinik Psikoloji Dergisi, 10(3), 589-611. https://doi.org/10.31682/ayna.935887