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Sarıçam, Karaçam ve Kızılçam Basınç Odununun Kimyasal Yapısı

Yıl 2010, Cilt: 12 Sayı: 18, 33 - 39, 12.05.2010

Öz

Ülkemizde doğal olarak yayılış gösteren Sarıçam (Pinus sylvetris L.), Karaçam (Pinus nigra Arnold.) ve
Kızılçam (Pinus brutia Ten.) ağaçlarında çeşitli dış etkenler nedeniyle oluşan basınç odunlarına ait kimyasal
yapılar normal odunla karşılaştırılmıştır.
Genel olarak her üç türün basınç odununda α-selüloz miktarı azalırken, lignin miktarları artmıştır. Lignin
miktarındaki artış %5 civarında gerçekleşmiştir.α-selüloz miktarı ise karaçam ve kızılçamda %4 azalırken
sarıçamda bu oran % 5 olmuştur. İstatistiksel olarak holoselüloz miktarı sarıçam ve karaçam basınç odunlarında
değişmezken, kızılçamda azalma tespit edilmiştir. Sıcak su çözünürlük değerleri sarıçam ve kızılçamda yaklaşık
%1 oranında artarken karaçamda bu oran sadece %0,3 olmuştur. Diğer çözünürlük değerlerinden soğuk su ve
alkol çözünürlükleri ise istatistiksel olarak sadece karaçam ve kızılçam basınç odununda artış göstermiştir. Kül
miktarı sarıçam basınç odununda normal oduna oranla daha yüksek bulunmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • o Algan, N. 2000. The Significance of International Legislation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Turkish Journal of Marine Sciences, Volume 6, Number 1, Istanbul, Turkey, pp.55-69.
  • o Briand, F. (Ed).- 1993. Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea. Pollution Research and Environmental Monitoring. Analyses, recommendations and assessemnt of the scientific and technological options. STOA Repport. European Parliament. 225.
  • o Chamber of Architects 1996. Planning Antalya’s Coastal Settlements: Their Construction, Usage, and Problems.” Habitat-II Conference, Istanbul, Turkey. (in Turkish)
  • o Cicin-Sain, B. and Knecht, R.W. 1998. Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management. Concepts and Practices. Island Press. Washington, DC.
  • o Clark, J.R. 1996. Coastal Zone Management Handbook. CRC Press, Inc.
  • o Dickert, T., Sorenson, J., Hyman, R., and Burke, J. 1976. Collaborative Land-use planning for the Coastal Zone: Half Moon Bay Case Study. Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Berkeley, Volume-II.
  • o Dickert, T. and Sorensen, J. 1978. Collaborative Land-use Planning for the Coastal zone: A Process for Local Program Development. Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Berkeley, Volume-I.
  • o Eke, F. 1993. Coastal Area Policies and Legislation in Turkey. Proceeding of Turkish Coastal Seminar, Ministry of Public Works and Settlement. (in Turkish)
  • o Eke, F., Karaaslan, Ş. 1997. A Critical Analysis of Turkish Coastal Legislation and Some Proposals. Proceeding of Turkish Coast 1997 1st National Conference on Turkish Coastal Areas and Sea, 24-27 June, 1997, ed. E. Ozhan, Turkish National Committee on CZM., METU, Ankara (in Turkish).
  • o Graphic Maps 2010. Mediterranean Sea Map. http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/medsea.htm
  • o Gundogdu, G., Aday, K. 1997. Experiences of Special Environmental Protection Areas in Terms of Coastal Management: A Suggestion for Restructuring of Legal and Institutional Structure. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Mediterranean Coastal Environment MEDCOAST’97, Vol. I, ed. E. Ozhan, MEDCOAST, Sec. METU, Ankara.
  • o Kaya, L.G. and R. Smardon 2000. Sustainable Tourism Development: The Case Study of Antalya, Turkey, Proceedings of the 2000 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium, Bolton Landing, New York, 222– 227.
  • o Kaya, L. G. 2006. Critical Barriers to Rational Planning Processes for Coastal Zone Management: The Case Study of Antalya, Turkey. Ph.D. Dissertation. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Faculty of Environmental Studies. 427 leaves: 28 cm. AAT 3215668, ISBN: 9780542654466.
  • o METAP 2002. Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean from Concept to Implementation: Towards a Strategy for Capacity Building in METAP (Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program) Countries. Technical Report. METAP Secretariat, Washington, DC (http://www.metap.org).
  • o Ozhan, E. 1996. Coastal Zone Management in Turkey.” Ocean and Coastal Management Vol. 30, No 2-3, pp. 153-176, Elsevier Science Ltd., Northern Ireland.
  • o Sorensen, J. C., McCreary, S. T. and Hershman, M.J. 1984. Coasts: Institutional Arrangements for the Management of Coastal Resources. Renewable Resources Information Series, Coastal Management Publication No. 1. Research Planning Institute, Inc., Columbia, South Carolina.
  • o Taner, T. and Unal, O. 1995. Planning Problems of Turkish Coastal Touristic Resorts.” Proceeding of the Second International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment, MEDCOAST’95, October 24- 27, 1995, Tarragona, Spain, ed. E. Ozhan. MEDCOAST Publications, Middle East technical University, Ankara, 418-425.
  • o TURKSTAT 2009. Census 2008. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr (access date December 12, 2009)
  • o UNEP-MAP 1994. Guidelines for Integrated Management of Coastal and Marine Areas with Special Reference to the Mediterranean Basin. United Nations, the Mediterranean Action Plan: Priority Actions Program, Regional Activity Center, Split, 80 p.
  • o UNEP 1997. Mediterranean Action Plan and Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean and its Protocols. Informal document. Athens, 1997.

Chemical Structure of Compression Wood of Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra and P. brutia

Yıl 2010, Cilt: 12 Sayı: 18, 33 - 39, 12.05.2010

Öz

Chemical composition of normal wood and compression wood formed by different outdoor effects, in Pinus

sylvetris L, Pinus nigra Arnold and Pinus brutia Ten was comparatively studied.

In general, the amount of α-cellulose was found to be decrease in the compression wood. In European black pine

and Turkish pine, α-cellulose decrease 4%; however, in Scots pine this ratio was 5%. To the contrary lignin

content was increased approximately 5% in all species. Statistically, the amount of holocellulose in the

compression wood of Scots pine and European black pine did not show any changes while, it was observed to

decrease in Turkish pine. Hot water solubility values were found to be increased 1% in Scots pine and Turkish

pine. This ratio was only 0.3% in European black pine. However cold water and alcohol solubility were found to

be increased statistically only in European black pine and Scots pine. Compared to normal wood ash content was

found to be more in compression wood.

Kaynakça

  • o Algan, N. 2000. The Significance of International Legislation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Turkish Journal of Marine Sciences, Volume 6, Number 1, Istanbul, Turkey, pp.55-69.
  • o Briand, F. (Ed).- 1993. Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea. Pollution Research and Environmental Monitoring. Analyses, recommendations and assessemnt of the scientific and technological options. STOA Repport. European Parliament. 225.
  • o Chamber of Architects 1996. Planning Antalya’s Coastal Settlements: Their Construction, Usage, and Problems.” Habitat-II Conference, Istanbul, Turkey. (in Turkish)
  • o Cicin-Sain, B. and Knecht, R.W. 1998. Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management. Concepts and Practices. Island Press. Washington, DC.
  • o Clark, J.R. 1996. Coastal Zone Management Handbook. CRC Press, Inc.
  • o Dickert, T., Sorenson, J., Hyman, R., and Burke, J. 1976. Collaborative Land-use planning for the Coastal Zone: Half Moon Bay Case Study. Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Berkeley, Volume-II.
  • o Dickert, T. and Sorensen, J. 1978. Collaborative Land-use Planning for the Coastal zone: A Process for Local Program Development. Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Berkeley, Volume-I.
  • o Eke, F. 1993. Coastal Area Policies and Legislation in Turkey. Proceeding of Turkish Coastal Seminar, Ministry of Public Works and Settlement. (in Turkish)
  • o Eke, F., Karaaslan, Ş. 1997. A Critical Analysis of Turkish Coastal Legislation and Some Proposals. Proceeding of Turkish Coast 1997 1st National Conference on Turkish Coastal Areas and Sea, 24-27 June, 1997, ed. E. Ozhan, Turkish National Committee on CZM., METU, Ankara (in Turkish).
  • o Graphic Maps 2010. Mediterranean Sea Map. http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/medsea.htm
  • o Gundogdu, G., Aday, K. 1997. Experiences of Special Environmental Protection Areas in Terms of Coastal Management: A Suggestion for Restructuring of Legal and Institutional Structure. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Mediterranean Coastal Environment MEDCOAST’97, Vol. I, ed. E. Ozhan, MEDCOAST, Sec. METU, Ankara.
  • o Kaya, L.G. and R. Smardon 2000. Sustainable Tourism Development: The Case Study of Antalya, Turkey, Proceedings of the 2000 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium, Bolton Landing, New York, 222– 227.
  • o Kaya, L. G. 2006. Critical Barriers to Rational Planning Processes for Coastal Zone Management: The Case Study of Antalya, Turkey. Ph.D. Dissertation. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Faculty of Environmental Studies. 427 leaves: 28 cm. AAT 3215668, ISBN: 9780542654466.
  • o METAP 2002. Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean from Concept to Implementation: Towards a Strategy for Capacity Building in METAP (Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program) Countries. Technical Report. METAP Secretariat, Washington, DC (http://www.metap.org).
  • o Ozhan, E. 1996. Coastal Zone Management in Turkey.” Ocean and Coastal Management Vol. 30, No 2-3, pp. 153-176, Elsevier Science Ltd., Northern Ireland.
  • o Sorensen, J. C., McCreary, S. T. and Hershman, M.J. 1984. Coasts: Institutional Arrangements for the Management of Coastal Resources. Renewable Resources Information Series, Coastal Management Publication No. 1. Research Planning Institute, Inc., Columbia, South Carolina.
  • o Taner, T. and Unal, O. 1995. Planning Problems of Turkish Coastal Touristic Resorts.” Proceeding of the Second International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment, MEDCOAST’95, October 24- 27, 1995, Tarragona, Spain, ed. E. Ozhan. MEDCOAST Publications, Middle East technical University, Ankara, 418-425.
  • o TURKSTAT 2009. Census 2008. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr (access date December 12, 2009)
  • o UNEP-MAP 1994. Guidelines for Integrated Management of Coastal and Marine Areas with Special Reference to the Mediterranean Basin. United Nations, the Mediterranean Action Plan: Priority Actions Program, Regional Activity Center, Split, 80 p.
  • o UNEP 1997. Mediterranean Action Plan and Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean and its Protocols. Informal document. Athens, 1997.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ayben KILIÇ Bu kişi benim

Süheyla Esin SARIUSTA Bu kişi benim

Harzemşah HAFIZOĞLU Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 12 Mayıs 2010
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2010 Cilt: 12 Sayı: 18

Kaynak Göster

APA KILIÇ, A., SARIUSTA, S. E., & HAFIZOĞLU, H. (2010). Sarıçam, Karaçam ve Kızılçam Basınç Odununun Kimyasal Yapısı. Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(18), 33-39.


Bartin Orman Fakultesi Dergisi Editorship,

Bartin University, Faculty of Forestry, Dean Floor No:106, Agdaci District, 74100 Bartin-Turkey.

Tel: +90 (378) 223 5094, Fax: +90 (378) 223 5062,

E-mail: bofdergi@gmail.com