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Nakil Sırasında Tavukların Korunmasına İlişkin Avrupa Birliği Standartları ve Türkiye'nin Topluluk Mevzuatına Uyumunun Değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2018, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 49 - 63, 20.07.2018

Öz

Amsterdam Antlaşmasına göre Avrupa Birliği ve üye devletler hayvanları hissedebilen canlılar olarak tanımaktadır. Birlik mevzuatının hazırlanması ve uygulanmasında hayvan refahı tam olarak göz önünde tutulmaktadır. Ortak Tarım Politikasının 2003 yılı reformu ile hayvan refahı toplumsal bir hedef ve piyasa ve kalite odaklı tarımsal üretim politikasının başlıca stratejilerinden birisi haline gelmiştir. Son 40 yıl içinde Avrupa Birliği’nde hayvan refahı bir öncelik haline gelmiş ve hayvan refahı mevzuatı sürekli olarak geliştirilmiştir. Üye ülkeler ve üçüncü taraf ülkeler arasında hayvanların taşınmasını gerektiren canlı hayvan ticareti nakil sırasında düşük hayvan refahına bağlı ekonomik kayıpların da artmasına yol açmaktadır. Ulusal ve uluslararası ticaret için en fazla uyum probleminin gerçekleştiği canlı hayvan nakli verimliliği oldukça fazla etkilemektedir. Nakil, tüm çiftlik hayvanları için önemli bir stres faktörü olsa da; tavuklar nakil sırasındaki düşük refah koşullarından daha fazla olumsuz etkilenir. Nitekim son yıllarda Avrupa Birliği'nde nakil sırasında tavukların refah ihtiyaçlarını da içeren kümes hayvanı nakil rehberleri geliştirilmiştir. Bu derlemenin amacı, Avrupa Birliği'nde nakil sırasında tavukların korunmasına yönelik refah standartlarının kapsamlı bir özetini sunmak ve tam üyelik için aday olan Türkiye'nin ilgili Birlik mevzuatına uyum durumunu değerlendirmektir.

Kaynakça

  • Adzitey, F., Nurul, H. (2011). Pale soft exudative (PSE) and dark firm dry (DFD) meats:Causes and measures to reduce these incidences - A mini review. International Food Research Journal,18:11-20.
  • Anonim, (1985). Council Regulation (EEC) No 3821/85 of 20 December 1985 on recording equipment in road transport. Off. J. Eur. Communities, 370: 8.
  • Anonim, (1990). European Economic Community. Council Directive 90/425/EEC of 26 June 1990 concerning veterinary and zootechnical checks applicable in intra-Community trade in certain live animals and products with a view to the completion of the internal market. Off. J. Eur. Communities, L 224, 18/08/1990, 29-41.
  • Anonim, (1991a). Council Directive 91/496/EEC of 15 July 1991 laying down the principles governing the organization of veterinary checks on animals entering the Community from third countries and amending Directives 89/662/EEC, 90/425/EEC and 90/675/EEC. Official Journal of the European Union, L 268, 24.9.1991, p. 56–68.
  • Anonim, (1991b). Council Directive 91/628/EEC on the protection of animals during transport and amending directives 90/425/EEC and 91/496/EEC. Official Journal of the European Communities no. l340, 0017-0027.
  • Anonim, (1997). European Community. Council Regulation (EC) No 1255/97 of 25 June 1997 concerning Community criteria for staging points and amending the route plan referred to in the Annex to Directive 91/628/EEC. Official Journal of the European Union, L 174,02.07.1997, p.1-6.
  • Anonim, (1998). European Community. Council Regulation (EC) No 411/98 of 16 February 1998 on additional animal protection standards applicable to road vehicles used for the carriage of livestock on journeys exceeding eight hours. Official Journal of the European Union, L52, 21.2.1998, p. 8-11.17.
  • Anonim, (2001). European Community. Commission Decision (EC) No 298/2001 of 30 March 2001 amending the Annexes to Council Directives 64/432/EEC, 90/426/EEC, 91/68/EEC and 92/65/EEC and to Commission Decision 94/273/EC as regards the protection of animals during transport. Official Journal of the European Union, L 102, 12.04.2001, p. 63 – 68).
  • Anonim, (2005). Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 of 22 December 2004 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations and amending Directives 64/432/EEC and 93/119/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1255/97. Official Journal of the European Union, 5.1.2005, L 3/1.
  • Anonim, (2009). Council Regulation (EC) No 1099/2009 of 24 September 2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing. Official Journal of the European Union, L 303/1. 18.11.2009.
  • Anonim, (2011a). Yurt İçinde Canlı Hayvan ve Hayvansal Ürünlerin Nakilleri Hakkında Yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, Sayı no: 281451, 17 Aralık Şubat 2011.
  • Anonim, (2011b). Hayvanların Nakilleri Sırasında Refahı ve Korunması Yönetmeliği. Resmi Gazete, Sayı No: 281451, 17 Aralık Şubat 2011.
  • Anonim, (2013). 14 Mayıs 2013 tarih ve 28647 sayılı Yurt İçinde Canlı Hayvan ve Hayvansal Ürünlerin Nakilleri Hakkında Yönetmelikte Değişiklik Yapılmasına Dair Yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, Sayı no: 30341, 23 Şubat 2018.
  • Anonim, (2014). Ticari Etlik ve Yumurtacı Kanatlı İşletmelerinin Biyogüvenlik Talimatı ve Kuluçkahane ve Damızlık Kanatlı İşletmeleri Yönetmeliği. Resmi Gazete, Sayı no: 28884, 16 Ocak Şubat 2014.
  • Anonim, (2015). Hayvan Nakillerinde Kontrol ve Dinlendirme İstasyonu Yönetmeliği. Resmi Gazete, Sayı no: 229371, 30 Mayıs 2015.
  • Anonim, (2017a). Poultry Handling and Transportation Manual. Poultry Sevice Associaition. Growing Forward 2 (GF2), Canada. (http://www.poultryserviceassociation.com/uploads/2/7/9/6/27967763/2017_poultry_handling_and_transportation_manual.pd, Erişim:03.02.2018).
  • Anonim, (2017b). Good practices for animal transport in the EU: Poultry’ (SANCO/2015/G3/SI2.701422. (http://animaltransportguides.eu/materials/ Erişim: 11.02.2018).
  • AVEC, (2015). European poultry transport guide, Poultry health and welfare during transport, from farm to slaughterhouse with particular focus to the transport of chicken from farm to slaughterhouse. (http://www.avec-poultry.eu/system/files/archive/new-structure/basic-pages/European%20poultry%20transport%20guide%20-VEC%2B%20Copa%20Cogeca%2B%20FVE_0.pdf, Erişim: 19.02.2018).
  • Bergoug, H., Guinebretiere, M., Tong, Q., Roulston, N., Romanini, C. E., Exadaktylos, V., Berckmans, D., Garain, P., Demmers, T. G., McGonnell, I. M., Bahr, C., Burel, C., Eterradossi, N., Michel, V. (2013). Effect of transportation duration of 1-day-old chicks on postplacement production performances and pododermatitis of broilers up to slaughter age. Poult Sci. 92(12):3300-3309.
  • Blokhuis, H. J.(2004). Recent developments in European and international welfare regulations. World's Poultry Science Journal, 60(4): 469-477.
  • Broom, D. M. (2017). Animal Welfare in the European Union. Brussels, Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department C: Citizzen’s rights and constitutional affairs, pp.20-73.
  • Camm, T., Bowles, D. (2000). Animal welfare and the treaty of Rome-legal analysis of the protocol on animal welfare and welfare standards in the European Union. Journal of Environmental Law, 12 (2):197–205.
  • Casey-Trott, T. M., Widowski, T. M. (2016). Behavioral differences of laying hens with fractured keel bones within furnished cages. Front Vet Sci., 3: 42.
  • Clark, W. D., Cox, W. R., Silversides, F. G. (2008). Bone fracture incidence in end-of-lay high-producing, noncommercial laying hens identified using radiographs. Poultry Science 87:1964–1970.
  • Çelik B., Bozkurt, Z. (2016). Muş ilinde canlı hayvan nakilleri sırasında hayvan bakım ve idaresini yapan personelin hayvan refahına ilişkin algı ve tutumları. Kocatepe Vet J, (2016) 9(4): 294-303.
  • Duncan, I. J. H., Slee, G. S., Kettlewell, P., Berry, P., Carlisle, A. J. (1986). Comparison of the stressfulness of harvesting broiler chickens by machine and by hand. British Poultry Science, 27:109-14.
  • Ekstrand, C. (1998). An observational cohort study of the effects of catching method on carcase rejection rates in broilers. Animal Welfare, 7(1): 87-96.
  • Ersan, I. (2015). Avrupa Birliği hayvan hastalıkları politikasındaki gelişmeler ve yeni yasa teklifleri. AB Uzmanlık Tezi. Avrupa Birliği ve Dış İlişkiler genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara, Türkiye.
  • European Commission (2016). “Animal welfare—Main achievements,” (https://ec.europa.eu/food/animals/welfare/main_achievements_en. Erişim:21.02.2018).
  • Eurostat (2015). Meat production statistics.(http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics explained/index.php/Meat_production_statistics#Poultry_meat, Erişim: 09.03.2018).
  • Grotzschel, J. (2003). Cattle transport regulations in the European Union. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr, 110(3):89-91.
  • Jacobs, L., Delezie, E., Duchateau, L., Goethals, K., Tuyttens, F.A.M. (2016a). Impact of the separate pre-slaughter stages on broiler chicken welfare. Poultry Science, 96(2): 266–273.
  • Jacobs, L., Delezie, E.,Duchateau, L., Goethals, K., Ampe, B., Lambrecht, E., Gellynck, X., Tuyttens, F. A. M. (2016b). Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity. Poult Sci., 95(9): 1973–1979.
  • Knezacek, T. D., Olkowski, A. A., Kettlewell, P. J., Mitchell, M. A., Classen, H. L.( 2010). Temperature gradients in trailers and changes in broiler rectal and core body temperature during winter transportation in Saskatchewan. Can J Anim Sci., 90:321–330.
  • Malheiros, R. D., Ayoola, A. A., Carvalho, L. V. F. M., Ferket, P. R. (2013). Evaluation of a hydrocolloid hatchery supplement on consumption rate and transport weight loss of turkey poults. Conference: Poultry Science. At: San Diego, California Volume: Poult. Sci. 92 (E-Suppl. (1):32.
  • Oba, A., Almeida, M., Pinheiro, J. W., Ida, E. I., Marchi, D. F., Soares, A. L., Shimokomaki, M. (2009). The effect of management of transport and lairage conditions on broiler chicken breast meat quality and DOA (death on arrival). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 52: 205-211.
  • Passantino, A. (2006). Animal welfare and protection during transport: The current legislative framework in European Union.Ann Ist Super Sanıtà, 42 (2): 222-230.
  • Petracci, M., Bianchi, M., Cavani, C., Gaspari, P., Lavazza, A. (2006). Preslaughter mortality in broiler chickens, turkeys, and spent hens under commercial slaughtering. Poult Sci., 85:1660–1664.
  • Ryland, D. (2015). Animal welfare in the reformed Common Agricultural Policy: Wherefore art thou?. Environmental Law Review, 17(1):22–43.
  • Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K. S., Faucitano, L., Dadgar, S., Shand, P., González, L. A., Crowe, T. G. (2012). Road transport of cattle, swine and poultry in North America and its impact on animal welfare, carcass and meat quality: A review. Meat Sci., 92:227–243.
  • Stevenson, P., Battaglia, D., Bullon, C., Carita, A. (2014). Review of animal welfare legislation in the beef, pork, and poultry industries. FAO Investment Centre, Directions in investment, Rome, Italy.
  • Vecerek, V., Grbalova, S., Voslarova, E., Janackova, B., Malena, M. (2006). Effects of travel distance and the season of the year on death rates of broilers transported to poultry processing plants. Poult Sci. 85:1881–1884.
  • Vecerek, V., Voslarova, E., Conte, F., Vecerkova, L., Bedanova, I. (2016). Negative trends in transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 29(12): 1796–1804.
  • Vieira, F. M. C., Silva, I. J. O., Barbosa Filho, J. A. D., Vieira, M. C., Broom, D. M. (2011). Preslaughter mortality of broilers in relation to lairage and season in a subtropical climate. Poult Sci., 90:2127–2133.
  • Warriss, P. D., Bevis, E. A., Brown, S. N., Edwards, J. E.(1992). Longer journeys to processing plants are associated with higher mortality in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 33:201-206.
  • Weber, L., Meemken, D. (2018). Hygienic measures during animal transport to abattoirs - a status quo analysis of the current cleaning and disinfection of animal transporters in Germany. Porcine Health Manag. 4: 1.

European Union Standarts for Protection of Chickens During Transport and Evaluation of the Alignment of Turkey to Community Legislation

Yıl 2018, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 49 - 63, 20.07.2018

Öz

According to the Amsterdam Treaty, the European Union and its Member States recognize animals as sensient beings and the animal welfare is fully taken into consideration the preparation and implementation of legislation of the European Communities. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003, animal welfare has become a social goal and become one of the main strategies of agricultural production policy with market and quality oriented. Animal welfare has become a priority for the European Union and animal welfare legislation has been continuously developed during last 40 years. The livestock trade, which requires the transport of animals between member countries and third countries, also leads to an increase in economic losses due to low animal welfare during transport. Livestock transportation where the most harmonization problem is realized for national and international trade is very influential on productivity. Although transport is a significant stress factor for all animals, broiler chickens and laying hens are very negatively affected by poor welfare conditions during transport. Thusly the poultry transport guides including the welfare needs of the chickens during transportation have been developed in the European Union in recent years. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of welfare standards for the protection of chickens during transport in the European Union and evaluation of the alignment of Turkey to Community legislation.

Kaynakça

  • Adzitey, F., Nurul, H. (2011). Pale soft exudative (PSE) and dark firm dry (DFD) meats:Causes and measures to reduce these incidences - A mini review. International Food Research Journal,18:11-20.
  • Anonim, (1985). Council Regulation (EEC) No 3821/85 of 20 December 1985 on recording equipment in road transport. Off. J. Eur. Communities, 370: 8.
  • Anonim, (1990). European Economic Community. Council Directive 90/425/EEC of 26 June 1990 concerning veterinary and zootechnical checks applicable in intra-Community trade in certain live animals and products with a view to the completion of the internal market. Off. J. Eur. Communities, L 224, 18/08/1990, 29-41.
  • Anonim, (1991a). Council Directive 91/496/EEC of 15 July 1991 laying down the principles governing the organization of veterinary checks on animals entering the Community from third countries and amending Directives 89/662/EEC, 90/425/EEC and 90/675/EEC. Official Journal of the European Union, L 268, 24.9.1991, p. 56–68.
  • Anonim, (1991b). Council Directive 91/628/EEC on the protection of animals during transport and amending directives 90/425/EEC and 91/496/EEC. Official Journal of the European Communities no. l340, 0017-0027.
  • Anonim, (1997). European Community. Council Regulation (EC) No 1255/97 of 25 June 1997 concerning Community criteria for staging points and amending the route plan referred to in the Annex to Directive 91/628/EEC. Official Journal of the European Union, L 174,02.07.1997, p.1-6.
  • Anonim, (1998). European Community. Council Regulation (EC) No 411/98 of 16 February 1998 on additional animal protection standards applicable to road vehicles used for the carriage of livestock on journeys exceeding eight hours. Official Journal of the European Union, L52, 21.2.1998, p. 8-11.17.
  • Anonim, (2001). European Community. Commission Decision (EC) No 298/2001 of 30 March 2001 amending the Annexes to Council Directives 64/432/EEC, 90/426/EEC, 91/68/EEC and 92/65/EEC and to Commission Decision 94/273/EC as regards the protection of animals during transport. Official Journal of the European Union, L 102, 12.04.2001, p. 63 – 68).
  • Anonim, (2005). Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 of 22 December 2004 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations and amending Directives 64/432/EEC and 93/119/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1255/97. Official Journal of the European Union, 5.1.2005, L 3/1.
  • Anonim, (2009). Council Regulation (EC) No 1099/2009 of 24 September 2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing. Official Journal of the European Union, L 303/1. 18.11.2009.
  • Anonim, (2011a). Yurt İçinde Canlı Hayvan ve Hayvansal Ürünlerin Nakilleri Hakkında Yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, Sayı no: 281451, 17 Aralık Şubat 2011.
  • Anonim, (2011b). Hayvanların Nakilleri Sırasında Refahı ve Korunması Yönetmeliği. Resmi Gazete, Sayı No: 281451, 17 Aralık Şubat 2011.
  • Anonim, (2013). 14 Mayıs 2013 tarih ve 28647 sayılı Yurt İçinde Canlı Hayvan ve Hayvansal Ürünlerin Nakilleri Hakkında Yönetmelikte Değişiklik Yapılmasına Dair Yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, Sayı no: 30341, 23 Şubat 2018.
  • Anonim, (2014). Ticari Etlik ve Yumurtacı Kanatlı İşletmelerinin Biyogüvenlik Talimatı ve Kuluçkahane ve Damızlık Kanatlı İşletmeleri Yönetmeliği. Resmi Gazete, Sayı no: 28884, 16 Ocak Şubat 2014.
  • Anonim, (2015). Hayvan Nakillerinde Kontrol ve Dinlendirme İstasyonu Yönetmeliği. Resmi Gazete, Sayı no: 229371, 30 Mayıs 2015.
  • Anonim, (2017a). Poultry Handling and Transportation Manual. Poultry Sevice Associaition. Growing Forward 2 (GF2), Canada. (http://www.poultryserviceassociation.com/uploads/2/7/9/6/27967763/2017_poultry_handling_and_transportation_manual.pd, Erişim:03.02.2018).
  • Anonim, (2017b). Good practices for animal transport in the EU: Poultry’ (SANCO/2015/G3/SI2.701422. (http://animaltransportguides.eu/materials/ Erişim: 11.02.2018).
  • AVEC, (2015). European poultry transport guide, Poultry health and welfare during transport, from farm to slaughterhouse with particular focus to the transport of chicken from farm to slaughterhouse. (http://www.avec-poultry.eu/system/files/archive/new-structure/basic-pages/European%20poultry%20transport%20guide%20-VEC%2B%20Copa%20Cogeca%2B%20FVE_0.pdf, Erişim: 19.02.2018).
  • Bergoug, H., Guinebretiere, M., Tong, Q., Roulston, N., Romanini, C. E., Exadaktylos, V., Berckmans, D., Garain, P., Demmers, T. G., McGonnell, I. M., Bahr, C., Burel, C., Eterradossi, N., Michel, V. (2013). Effect of transportation duration of 1-day-old chicks on postplacement production performances and pododermatitis of broilers up to slaughter age. Poult Sci. 92(12):3300-3309.
  • Blokhuis, H. J.(2004). Recent developments in European and international welfare regulations. World's Poultry Science Journal, 60(4): 469-477.
  • Broom, D. M. (2017). Animal Welfare in the European Union. Brussels, Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department C: Citizzen’s rights and constitutional affairs, pp.20-73.
  • Camm, T., Bowles, D. (2000). Animal welfare and the treaty of Rome-legal analysis of the protocol on animal welfare and welfare standards in the European Union. Journal of Environmental Law, 12 (2):197–205.
  • Casey-Trott, T. M., Widowski, T. M. (2016). Behavioral differences of laying hens with fractured keel bones within furnished cages. Front Vet Sci., 3: 42.
  • Clark, W. D., Cox, W. R., Silversides, F. G. (2008). Bone fracture incidence in end-of-lay high-producing, noncommercial laying hens identified using radiographs. Poultry Science 87:1964–1970.
  • Çelik B., Bozkurt, Z. (2016). Muş ilinde canlı hayvan nakilleri sırasında hayvan bakım ve idaresini yapan personelin hayvan refahına ilişkin algı ve tutumları. Kocatepe Vet J, (2016) 9(4): 294-303.
  • Duncan, I. J. H., Slee, G. S., Kettlewell, P., Berry, P., Carlisle, A. J. (1986). Comparison of the stressfulness of harvesting broiler chickens by machine and by hand. British Poultry Science, 27:109-14.
  • Ekstrand, C. (1998). An observational cohort study of the effects of catching method on carcase rejection rates in broilers. Animal Welfare, 7(1): 87-96.
  • Ersan, I. (2015). Avrupa Birliği hayvan hastalıkları politikasındaki gelişmeler ve yeni yasa teklifleri. AB Uzmanlık Tezi. Avrupa Birliği ve Dış İlişkiler genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara, Türkiye.
  • European Commission (2016). “Animal welfare—Main achievements,” (https://ec.europa.eu/food/animals/welfare/main_achievements_en. Erişim:21.02.2018).
  • Eurostat (2015). Meat production statistics.(http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics explained/index.php/Meat_production_statistics#Poultry_meat, Erişim: 09.03.2018).
  • Grotzschel, J. (2003). Cattle transport regulations in the European Union. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr, 110(3):89-91.
  • Jacobs, L., Delezie, E., Duchateau, L., Goethals, K., Tuyttens, F.A.M. (2016a). Impact of the separate pre-slaughter stages on broiler chicken welfare. Poultry Science, 96(2): 266–273.
  • Jacobs, L., Delezie, E.,Duchateau, L., Goethals, K., Ampe, B., Lambrecht, E., Gellynck, X., Tuyttens, F. A. M. (2016b). Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity. Poult Sci., 95(9): 1973–1979.
  • Knezacek, T. D., Olkowski, A. A., Kettlewell, P. J., Mitchell, M. A., Classen, H. L.( 2010). Temperature gradients in trailers and changes in broiler rectal and core body temperature during winter transportation in Saskatchewan. Can J Anim Sci., 90:321–330.
  • Malheiros, R. D., Ayoola, A. A., Carvalho, L. V. F. M., Ferket, P. R. (2013). Evaluation of a hydrocolloid hatchery supplement on consumption rate and transport weight loss of turkey poults. Conference: Poultry Science. At: San Diego, California Volume: Poult. Sci. 92 (E-Suppl. (1):32.
  • Oba, A., Almeida, M., Pinheiro, J. W., Ida, E. I., Marchi, D. F., Soares, A. L., Shimokomaki, M. (2009). The effect of management of transport and lairage conditions on broiler chicken breast meat quality and DOA (death on arrival). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 52: 205-211.
  • Passantino, A. (2006). Animal welfare and protection during transport: The current legislative framework in European Union.Ann Ist Super Sanıtà, 42 (2): 222-230.
  • Petracci, M., Bianchi, M., Cavani, C., Gaspari, P., Lavazza, A. (2006). Preslaughter mortality in broiler chickens, turkeys, and spent hens under commercial slaughtering. Poult Sci., 85:1660–1664.
  • Ryland, D. (2015). Animal welfare in the reformed Common Agricultural Policy: Wherefore art thou?. Environmental Law Review, 17(1):22–43.
  • Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K. S., Faucitano, L., Dadgar, S., Shand, P., González, L. A., Crowe, T. G. (2012). Road transport of cattle, swine and poultry in North America and its impact on animal welfare, carcass and meat quality: A review. Meat Sci., 92:227–243.
  • Stevenson, P., Battaglia, D., Bullon, C., Carita, A. (2014). Review of animal welfare legislation in the beef, pork, and poultry industries. FAO Investment Centre, Directions in investment, Rome, Italy.
  • Vecerek, V., Grbalova, S., Voslarova, E., Janackova, B., Malena, M. (2006). Effects of travel distance and the season of the year on death rates of broilers transported to poultry processing plants. Poult Sci. 85:1881–1884.
  • Vecerek, V., Voslarova, E., Conte, F., Vecerkova, L., Bedanova, I. (2016). Negative trends in transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 29(12): 1796–1804.
  • Vieira, F. M. C., Silva, I. J. O., Barbosa Filho, J. A. D., Vieira, M. C., Broom, D. M. (2011). Preslaughter mortality of broilers in relation to lairage and season in a subtropical climate. Poult Sci., 90:2127–2133.
  • Warriss, P. D., Bevis, E. A., Brown, S. N., Edwards, J. E.(1992). Longer journeys to processing plants are associated with higher mortality in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 33:201-206.
  • Weber, L., Meemken, D. (2018). Hygienic measures during animal transport to abattoirs - a status quo analysis of the current cleaning and disinfection of animal transporters in Germany. Porcine Health Manag. 4: 1.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Zehra BOZKURT (Sorumlu Yazar)
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ, ZOOTEKNİ VE HAYVAN BESLEME BÖLÜMÜ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 20 Temmuz 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 7, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Bozkurt, Z. (2018). Nakil Sırasında Tavukların Korunmasına İlişkin Avrupa Birliği Standartları ve Türkiye'nin Topluluk Mevzuatına Uyumunun Değerlendirilmesi . Bahri Dağdaş Hayvancılık Araştırma Dergisi , 7 (1) , 49-63 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/bdhad/issue/38673/449420