İslâm düşüncesinin yayılış sürecinde felsefî düşüncenin etki alanı tartışılagelmiş bir olgudur. İslâm düşüncesi, kapsamı en genişi felsefe olmak üzere, birçok disiplini içinde barındırmaktadır. Bu kapsam, özellikle din-felsefe ilişkisinden doğan tartışmaları öne çıkartmış, felsefî düşüncenin geleceği bir bakıma bu uzlaşının sonucuna bağlanmıştır. Böyle bir tartışma zemininde Müslüman filozoflar, din ile felsefî düşüncenin birbirini desteklediği ya da tamamladığı iddiasından hareketle düşünce sistemlerinin ana eksenine vahiy-akıl uzlaşısını koymuşlar, bunun üzerinden geliştirdikleri paradigmalarla özgün bir felsefenin savunucusu olmuşlardır. Filozof kimliği ile İbn Sînâ’nın kelâmî ve tasavvufî düşünceye etkisiyle teşekkül eden ve kabaca “İbn Sînâcılık” diyebileceğimiz kavramın tarihselliği ve işlerliği bu makalenin problematiği olacaktır. Lakin bu etkiden kastımız bütün bir felsefî mirasın İbn Sînâ’dan neşet ettiğini söylemek değildir. Niyetimiz bu mirasa İbn Sînâ’nın yaptığı katkıyı tartışmaktır. Filozofu önemli kılan husus, onun düşüncesinin, kendisinden sonraki süreçte de evrilerek devam etmesi ve birçok mütefekkiri etkilemesidir. Çalışmamız bu etkiyi; İbn Sînâ’nın Gazzâlî’ye etkisi, Gazzâlî sonrası kelâm ilmine etkisi ve tasavvufî düşünceye etkisi başlıkları altında sınırlandırmıştır.
İlk başlık; Gazzâlî’nin, Meşşâî filozofları ki ziyadesiyle İbn Sînâ’yı, bazı dinî ve felsefî düşüncelerinden dolayı tenkit etmek isterken aslında felsefenin yöntemini isteyerek ya da istemeyerek kendi düşünce sisteminde kullandığını iddia etmektedir. İkinci başlık; kelâm-felsefe tartışmalarına sebebiyet veren bu etkinin, İslâm’da felsefî düşünceyi sona erdirmek gibi bir gaye gütmediğini, bilakis Meşşâî felsefenin öncülüğünü yaptığı din-felsefe uzlaşısı temelli İslâm felsefesini İslâm kelâmıyla mezcetmeyi amaçladığını ileri sürmektedir. Üçüncü başlık ise; İbn Sînâ ve onun düşünce sisteminde ziyadesiyle karşılık bulduğu kanaatinde olduğumuz tasavvuf destekli felsefî zemini açıklamayı amaçlamaktadır.
Islamic thought has many disciplines and the most effective is philosophy. This scope has brought forward particularly the debates arising from the relation between religion and philosophy and the future of philosophical thought is connected with the result of this compromise. On the basis of such a discussion, Muslim philosophers have claimed that religion and philosophical thought support or complement each other. From this point of view, they put the revelation-mind compromise on the main axis of their thought systems and they became the defender of an original philosophy with the paradigms they developed over it. The problematic of this article; The philosopher's identity is to discuss the nature of the concept that we can call "Ibn Sīnā pursuits (Avicennism)", which was formed by the influence of Ibn Sīnā to Islamic theology (Kalām) and Ṣūfīsm. However, we do not mean to say that a whole philosophical heritage emanates from Ibn Sīnā. Our intention is to discuss the contribution of Ibn Sīnā to this heritage. The importance of Ibn Sīnā is that his thought continues to evolve after the process, and that it influences many other scholars. In this regard, Ibn Sīnā and his domain can be evaluated under three headings. Al-Ghazali is influenced by Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Sīnā's influence on Islamic theology after al-Ghazali and Ibn Sīnā's influence on the Islamic tradition of Ṣūfīsm.
The first title; he claims that al-Ghazali actually used the method of Peripatetic philosophers especially Ibn Sīnā in his thought system by criticizing philosophers and Ibn Sīnā for some religious and philosophical thoughts. This effect can be understood from the similarity of the works written by both thinkers. The signs of this can be seen in the likeness of the books of Danishnama-i 'ala'i and Maqasid al falasifa, and the similarity between Tahāfut al-falāsifa and al-Isharat wa al-tanbihat. Under the first heading, the following topic is also discussed: Both Ibn Sīnā and al-Ghazali have turned to Ṣūfīsm in their thought systems and their views of life as a result of being influenced by the Neo-platonic philosophy and interpreting this idea. As such, we can say that both Ibn Sīnā and al-Ghazali accepted a relative superiority of Ṣūfīsm compared to other sciences, and Ibn Sīnā was a source of inspiration for al-Ghazali.
The second title; mainly discusses the effect of Ibn Sīnā on Islamic theology after al-Ghazali. This effect was not to end philosophical thinking in Islam. On the contrary, the Islamic philosophy based on religion-philosophy reconciliation, which was advocated by Peripatetic philosophers; It aimed to isolate Plato, Aristotle, and Neo-platonism influences and combine them with Islamic theology. According to this title, which is summarized as combining Islamic theology with philosophy and which is effectively defended in the Islamic world; "The thought of Islam, reshaped by the influence of al-Ghazali on philosophical thought, has been combined with more precise lines with Islamic theology after the touch of Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 606/1210)." He defends his thesis. He devoted a wider place to philosophical subjects in his books compared to al-Ghazali, he was under the influence of Ibn Sīnā, especially in subjects related to natural sciences, and he combined philosophy and theology. In this respect, unlike al-Ghazali, Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī believed that there was no conflict between philosophy and Islamic theology and he skillfully combined both.
The third title is; It aims to explain a philosophy which supports Ṣūfīsm, which we believe is present in Ibn Sīnā and his thought system. This title has two claims: First, it discusses the contribution of Ibn Sīnā to the Ṣūfīsm. Secondly, he investigates the influence of Ibn Sīnā and his thought on some thinkers and produces arguments for grounding it. The first claim of our article was discussed by the contribution of Ibn Sīnā to Ṣūfīsm thought through his metaphysics. This discussion, which started with the concept of Necessary Being (Allāh), ends with nubuwwah (prophethood), which is the last stage of the nafs (soul)-empowerment. Of course, these discussions are related to Ibn Sīnā's passing the information through abstraction steps. In terms of accessing information, Ibn Sīnā required the nafs-empowerment to understand the existence of the Necessary Being with the abstraction made by the mind. The philosopher wanted to reveal the possibility of metaphysical knowledge with this explanation; he further claimed that there were some unimaginable issues beyond that, and the knowledge acquired by the mind to obtain their knowledge would be insufficient. According to Ibn Sīnā, this is not a way of syllogism (deductive reasoning), but rather, it is an observation (unweling way) that most people cannot understand but who can understand the truth. The philosopher, al-Isharat wa al-tanbihat, discusses this issue based on the characteristics of the person who understands the truth and follows him. The fact that Ibn Sīnā saw the intuitive information before and beyond the syllogism information shows that he did not fully accept the Aristotle metaphysics. In addition, it shows that it differs from Plato and the Neo-platonism views, especially with the comments it added to the theory of emanation.
The effect of Ibn Sīnā on Ṣūfīsm thought was explained in the article by comparing it with the views of some thinkers. For example, there is no doubt that the intellectual thought spread by Shihāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī (d. 587/1191) in Anatolia is a product of philosophy and Ṣūfīsm rather than Islamic theology. Although there is no full compatibility between Ibn Sīnā and Suhrawardī in the context of the term al-ʿIshraq, we can talk about a continuity in the name of creating Orient wisdom. Ibn al-ʿArabī (b. 638/1240) explained the creation of Allāh and the overflow of the being from Him in accordance with the views of Ibn Sīnā and the Neo-platonism. Above all, the spiritual theories of Ṣūfīsm depend on philosophy through Ibn Sīnā. Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi, the student of Ibn al-ʿArabī, developed a suitable idea accordingly. He wanted to rebuild Ibn Sīnā metaphysics through the terms of Ṣūfīsm. Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (b. 672/1274), who is close to Ibn Sīnā in view; In their correspondence with Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi, they discussed the philosophy of Ibn Sīnā. This whole process, which we talked about the influence of Ibn Sīnā in the backbone of philosophy, Islamic theology and Ṣūfīsm, peaked with the Transcendental Philosophy.