Bu çalışmanın konusunu, gerek halk arasında meşhur bir kanaat olan gerekse yaygın din eğitimi mecralarında sıklıkla zikredilen “şirk ve kul hakkının asla affedilmeyeceği”, sair günahların ise affedilebileceği meselesinin tahlili teşkil etmektedir. Kur’ân-ı Kerîm’de ve hadislerde günahların affı hususunda farklı değerlendirmelerin yer aldığı görülür. Âyetlerde umumi bir hüküm olarak Allah Teâlâ’nın günahları bağışlayacağı ifade edilirken bazı âyetlerde şirkin affedilmeyeceği yahut adam öldürenin ebediyen cehennemde kalacağı belirtilmek suretiyle günahlardan bir kısmının istisna edildiği dikkat çeker. Hadislerde ise büyük günahlarla birlikte özellikle kul hakkının da affı olmayan günahlar cümlesinden olduğunu ima eden Rasûlullah’ın (s) ifadeleri mevcuttur. Âyet ve hadislerde bahsedilen “şirk” çerçevesinde oluşan günah tasavvurunda izaha muhtaç bazı noktaların bulunduğu görülmüş, kul hakkının da şirkle birlikte affedilmeyecek günahlar arasında zikredilmesine ilişkin bir konumlandırma problemi müşahede edilmiştir. Adam öldürenin affedilmesi meselesi ise İslâm tarihinin ilk itikâdî tartışmalarına zemin hazırlayan başat tartışma meselelerinden birisi olarak konuyu doğrudan ilgilendirmektedir. Makalede bahsi geçen çerçevede “şirk ve kul hakkı”nın mahiyeti ve affı ile adam öldürmenin cezası, tespit ve tahlil edilmeye çalışılmıştır.
In this study, it is aimed to analyze the sins that are mentioned about the possibility of not being forgiven, rather than major or minor sins. It is stated in the Qur’an and hadiths that shirk will never be forgiven, whoever kills a Muslim intentionally will stay in Hell forever and the right of servant will definitely have a reward. Since it is very common knowledge among the people, the article is based on “not forgiveness of shirk and servant right”. However, since it directly concerns the issue, the issue of murder was also investigated. The 48th verse of an-Nisa states that Allah will not forgive shirk and will forgive other sins. Based on this verse, scholars other than Khariji and Mutazila scholars stated that all sins other than shirk or blasphemy can be forgiven, even if they are not repent, by the will of Allah. The emphasis on killing in the verse and the Prophet’s insistent warnings about the right of servant gave the idea that there are some closed points that need to be investigated in the forgiveness of sins. It is clearly stated in verses and hadiths that shirk cannot be forgiven. There is a consensus of scholars on this issue. However, it has been understood that the mentioned shirk is not a sin alone but it is a state of belief. It is used for describing the belief state of the servant at the time of his death. Because a person can repent from shirk while he lives. And it is fixed by consensus that God will accept this repentance. Many verses invite people to repent. In this context, it has been observed that “shirk” is emphasized since it is the common false belief of the group that was first addressed. As a result, it has been concluded that it is used in the same sense as blasphemy. Shirk that cannot be forgiven is when a person dies as a polytheist or an unbeliever. As a second possibility, it is generally accepted that the display of worship, which is called small or secret shirk, will destroy whatever worship is present and will not remove the person from the religion. The situation of someone who killed a Muslim on purpose is one of the most controversial issues. Although it is clearly stated in the verse that he will stay in Hell forever, most of the scholars except Mutazila and Kharijites think that the person who committed this sin can also repent. They think that even if he dies without repent, he can be forgiven with the will of Allah. Approaching each verse to determine a norm may cause a result such as overlooking the purpose. Considering the general meaning of the verses and hadiths, it is seen that the state of being in Hell is special to not dying in faith. When evaluated with a holistic approach, although the verse is quite clear, it only informs the punishment of murder. Otherwise, it is thought that killing does not show that there is absolutely no repentance or that God will never forgive him. However, since killing a person unjustly is an extremely serious and great sin, it has been observed that the fear of simplifying this is effective in the evaluations of scholars in general. The issue of not forgiving the right of a person is clearly mentioned in many hadiths.