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İlahiyat Fakültesi Öğrencilerinde Ruminatif Düşünce İle Manevi İyilik Hali Arasındaki İlişki

Yıl 2024, Sayı: 51, 31 - 85
https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.1413711

Öz

Bireyin karşılaştığı problem(ler)i çözebilmek için herhangi bir eylemde bulunmaksızın, hissettiği duygu ve problem(ler)in olası sebep-sonuçlarını sürekli olarak düşünmesi şeklinde karakterize edilen ruminatif düşünce, zihnin sağlıklı bir şekilde çalışmasını engelleyen ve böylece günlük hayatın akışına etki eden bir ruhsal durumdur. Manevi iyilik hali ise bireyin ahlak ve etik değerleri de dahil olmak üzere yaşamdaki anlam ve amaç duygusunu genişletmesini ifade etmektedir. Bu yönüyle manevi iyilik hali, sağlıklı yaşamın özü olarak kabul edilmektedir. Araştırmada birbirleri ile bağlantılı olduğu düşünülen her iki kavramın arasındaki ilişki, 2022-2023 yıllarında Erciyes Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesinde öğrenim gören 472 kişilik bir örneklem üzerinde incelenmektedir. Araştırmada Ingersoll (1995) tarafından geliştirilen ve Duyan ve ark. (2021) tarafından Türkçeleştirilen Manevi İyilik Hali Envanteri, Brinker ve Dozois (2009) tarafından geliştirilen ve Karatepe (2010) tarafından Türkçeye uyarlanan Ruminatif Düşünme Biçimi Ölçeği ile kişisel bilgi formu kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda katılımcıların %81’inin (n=382) ruminatif düşünceye oldukça eğilimli olduğu, Manevi İyilik Hali Envanteri açısından ortalamanın üzerinde bir puan aldıkları, Ruminatif Düşünce Biçimi Ölçeği açısından cinsiyetin anlamlı farklılaşmaya sebep olmadığı, ancak Manevi İyilik Hali Envanteri’nde cinsiyetler açısından kadınların lehine anlamlı bir farklılığın bulunduğu, sınıfın Ruminatif Düşünce Biçimi Ölçeği, Manevi İyilik Hali Envanteri ve Kutsallık, Anlam, Bağlantılılık, Umut ve Sahte İyilik boyutlarında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılaşma meydana getirdiği, ruminatif düşünce eğiliminin yaş ilerledikçe arttığı, her iki ölçek arasında negatif bir korelasyon olduğu, ayrıca Anlam, An merkezcilik, Gizem, Umut ve Manevi özgürlüğün ruminasyon üzerinde %19,5 oranında negatif bir etkiye sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • ABAK, E., & GÜZEL, H. Ş. (2021). Ruminatif düşünme stili, beden algısı ve sosyal görünüş kaygısının romantik ilişki ve partner odaklı obsesif kompulsif semptomlarla ilişkisi. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 24(3), 368–382. https://doi.org/10.5505/kpd.2021.14632
  • AKSÖZ EFE, İ. (2018). Olumsuz yaşam olayları, psikolojik danışma hizmeti alma, ruminasyon ve stres arasındaki ilişki. Ankara Universitesi Egitim Bilimleri Fakultesi Dergisi. https://doi.org/10.30964/auebfd.425619 American Psychological Association (Ed.). (2009). APA concise dictionary of psychology. American Psychological Association.
  • AMJAD, F., & BOKHAREY, I. Z. (2014). The impact of spiritual wellbeing and coping strategies on patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0008.102
  • AMJAD, F., & BOKHAREY, I. Z. (2015). Comparison of spiritual well-being and coping strategies of patients with generalized anxiety disorder and with minor general medical conditions. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(2), 524–539. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-014-9834-2
  • AYDIN, Y. (2023). Psychological inflexibility, ruminative thinking, worry and self- compassion in relation to college adjustment. Bartın Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(2), 422–434. https://doi.org/10.14686/buefad.1022706
  • AZİZ, A. (2014). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri ve teknikleri. Nobel Yayıncılık.
  • BARNHART, R. K. (Ed.). (1995). The Barnhart concise dictionary of etymology. HarperCollins Publishers.
  • BRINKER, J. K., & DOZOIS, D. J. A. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20542
  • BUGAY, A., & ERDUR-BAKER, Ö. (2011). Ruminasyon düzeyinin toplumsal cinsiyet ve yaşa göre incelenmesi. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(36), 191–199.
  • BUTLER, L. D., & NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (1994). Gender differences in responses to depressed mood in a college sample. Sex Roles, 30(5–6), 331–346. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01420597
  • CALMES, C. A., & ROBERTS, J. E. (2007). Repetitive thought and emotional distress: Rumination and worry as prospective predictors of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31(3), 343–356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9026-9
  • CAPRARA, G. V., PACIELLO, M., GERBINO, M., & CUGINI, C. (2007). Individual differences conducive to aggression and violence: Trajectories and correlates of irritability and hostile rumination through adolescence. Aggressive Behavior, 33(4), 359–374. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20192
  • CHANDLER, C. K., HOLDEN, J. M., & KOLANDER, C. A. (1992). Counseling for spiritual wellness: Theory and practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 71(2), 168–175. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1992.tb02193.x
  • CONSTANTIN, K., ENGLISH, M. M., & MAZMANIAN, D. (2017). Anxiety, depression, and procrastination among students: Rumination plays a larger mediating role than worry. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-017-0271-5
  • DUYAN, V., KILIÇ, C., & PAK GÜRE, M. D. (2021). Manevi iyilik hali envanteri’ni türkçeye uyarlama çalışması. Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 62(2), 477–495. https://doi.org/10.33227/auifd.968816
  • EAGLY, A. H. (1997). Sex differences in social behavior: Comparing social role theory and evolutionary psychology. American Psychologist, 52(12), 1380–1383. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.12.1380.b Eight dimensions of wellness. (2019). Wellness at Northwestern. https://www.northwestern.edu/wellness/8-dimensions/
  • ERDUR-BAKER, Ö., ÖZGÜLÜK, S. B., TURAN, N., & DEMİRCİ DANIŞIK, N. (2009). Ergenlerde görülen psikolojik belirtilerin yordayıcıları olarak ruminasyon ve öfke/öfke ifade tarzları. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(32), 45–53.
  • GUNAWAN, E. (2018). Factors Correlated with Occupational Stress among University Lecturers. Medicine & Health, 13(2), 95–102. https://doi.org/10.17576/MH.2018.1302.9
  • HABIB, S., RIAZ, M. N., & AKRAM, M. (2012). Emotional intelligence as predictor of life satisfaction among nurses: Mediating role of spiritual wellness. Journal of Social Science, 6(1), 73–78.
  • HILT, L. M., CHA, C. B., & NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (2008). Nonsuicidal self-injury in young adolescent girls: Moderators of the distress-function relationship. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(1), 63–71. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.1.63
  • INGERSOLL, R. E. (1995). Construction and initial validation of the spiritual wellness inventory [Doctoral Dissertation]. Kent State University.
  • INSEL, P. M., ROTH, W. T., IRWIN, J. D., & BURKE, S. M. (2016). Core concepts in health (Second Canadian edition). McGraw-Hill Education.
  • JOHNSON, D. P., & WHISMAN, M. A. (2013). Gender differences in rumination: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(4), 367–374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.03.019
  • JOORMANN, J., & QUINN, M. E. (2014). Cognitive processes and emotional regulation in depression. Depression and Anxiety, 31(4), 308–315. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22264
  • JOSE, P. E., & BROWN, I. (2008). When does the gender difference in rumination begin? Gender and age differences in the use of rumination by adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(2), 180–192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9166-y
  • KARATEPE, H. T. (2010). Ruminatif düşünme biçimi ölçeği’nin türkçeye uyarlanması, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Psikiyatri Uzmanlık Tezi]. Bakırköy Prof. Dr. Mazhar Osman Ruh Sağlığı ve Sinir Hastalıkları Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi.
  • KASS, J. D., FRIEDMAN, R., LESERMAN, J., ZUTTERMEISTER, P. C., & BENSON, H. (1991). Health outcomes and a new index of spiritual experience. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30(2), 203. https://doi.org/10.2307/1387214
  • KOENIG, H. G. (2012). Religion, Spirituality, and Health: The Research and Clinical Implications. ISRN Psychiatry, 2012, 1–33. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/278730
  • LALE, Z., & GÜLAÇTI, F. (2020). Üniversite Öğrencilerinin ruminatif düşünme biçimlerinin ve sosyal iyi olma düzeylerinin duygusal zekâ düzeyleri ile İlişkisi. OPUS Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi, 201–231. https://doi.org/10.26466/opus.568178
  • MARKS, A. D. G., Sobanski, D. J., & Hine, D. W. (2010). Do dispositional rumination and/or mindfulness moderate the relationship between life hassles and psychological dysfunction in adolescents? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(9), 831–838. https://doi.org/10.3109/00048674.2010.487478
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The Relationships between Ruminative Thinking and Spiritual Wellness among Students in Theology Faculty

Yıl 2024, Sayı: 51, 31 - 85
https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.1413711

Öz

Ruminative thinking, which is characterized as continuously thinking about the feelings and possible causes and consequences of the problem(s) without taking any action to solve the problem(s) faced by the individual, is a mental state that prevents the mind from working in a healthy way and thus affects the flow of daily life. Spiritual well-being, on the other hand, refers to the expansion of the individual's sense of meaning and purpose in life, including moral and ethical values. In this respect, spiritual well-being is considered to be the essence of a healthy life. In this study, the relationship between these two concepts, which are thought to be related to each other, is examined on a sample of 472 students studying at Erciyes University Faculty of Theology in 2022-2023. In the study, the Spiritual Well-Being Inventory developed by Ingersoll (1995) and translated into Turkish by Duyan et al. (2021), the Ruminative Thinking Style Scale developed by Brinker and Dozois (2009) and adapted into Turkish by Karatepe (2010), and a personal information form were used. As a result of the research, 81% of the participants (n=382) were highly prone to ruminative thinking, they scored above the average in terms of Spiritual Well-Being Inventory, gender did not cause a significant difference in terms of Ruminative Thinking Style Scale, but there was a significant difference in favor of women in terms of gender in Spiritual Well-Being Inventory, and class was found to be a significant difference in Ruminative Thinking Style Scale, It was determined that there was a statistically significant difference in the Spiritual Well-being Inventory and the dimensions of Sacredness, Meaning, Connectedness, Hope and False Well-being, that the tendency of ruminative thinking increased with increasing age, that there was a negative correlation between both scales, and that Meaning, Mother-centeredness, Mystery, Hope and Spiritual freedom had a negative effect of 19.5% on rumination.

Kaynakça

  • ABAK, E., & GÜZEL, H. Ş. (2021). Ruminatif düşünme stili, beden algısı ve sosyal görünüş kaygısının romantik ilişki ve partner odaklı obsesif kompulsif semptomlarla ilişkisi. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 24(3), 368–382. https://doi.org/10.5505/kpd.2021.14632
  • AKSÖZ EFE, İ. (2018). Olumsuz yaşam olayları, psikolojik danışma hizmeti alma, ruminasyon ve stres arasındaki ilişki. Ankara Universitesi Egitim Bilimleri Fakultesi Dergisi. https://doi.org/10.30964/auebfd.425619 American Psychological Association (Ed.). (2009). APA concise dictionary of psychology. American Psychological Association.
  • AMJAD, F., & BOKHAREY, I. Z. (2014). The impact of spiritual wellbeing and coping strategies on patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0008.102
  • AMJAD, F., & BOKHAREY, I. Z. (2015). Comparison of spiritual well-being and coping strategies of patients with generalized anxiety disorder and with minor general medical conditions. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(2), 524–539. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-014-9834-2
  • AYDIN, Y. (2023). Psychological inflexibility, ruminative thinking, worry and self- compassion in relation to college adjustment. Bartın Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(2), 422–434. https://doi.org/10.14686/buefad.1022706
  • AZİZ, A. (2014). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri ve teknikleri. Nobel Yayıncılık.
  • BARNHART, R. K. (Ed.). (1995). The Barnhart concise dictionary of etymology. HarperCollins Publishers.
  • BRINKER, J. K., & DOZOIS, D. J. A. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20542
  • BUGAY, A., & ERDUR-BAKER, Ö. (2011). Ruminasyon düzeyinin toplumsal cinsiyet ve yaşa göre incelenmesi. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(36), 191–199.
  • BUTLER, L. D., & NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (1994). Gender differences in responses to depressed mood in a college sample. Sex Roles, 30(5–6), 331–346. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01420597
  • CALMES, C. A., & ROBERTS, J. E. (2007). Repetitive thought and emotional distress: Rumination and worry as prospective predictors of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31(3), 343–356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9026-9
  • CAPRARA, G. V., PACIELLO, M., GERBINO, M., & CUGINI, C. (2007). Individual differences conducive to aggression and violence: Trajectories and correlates of irritability and hostile rumination through adolescence. Aggressive Behavior, 33(4), 359–374. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20192
  • CHANDLER, C. K., HOLDEN, J. M., & KOLANDER, C. A. (1992). Counseling for spiritual wellness: Theory and practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 71(2), 168–175. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1992.tb02193.x
  • CONSTANTIN, K., ENGLISH, M. M., & MAZMANIAN, D. (2017). Anxiety, depression, and procrastination among students: Rumination plays a larger mediating role than worry. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-017-0271-5
  • DUYAN, V., KILIÇ, C., & PAK GÜRE, M. D. (2021). Manevi iyilik hali envanteri’ni türkçeye uyarlama çalışması. Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 62(2), 477–495. https://doi.org/10.33227/auifd.968816
  • EAGLY, A. H. (1997). Sex differences in social behavior: Comparing social role theory and evolutionary psychology. American Psychologist, 52(12), 1380–1383. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.12.1380.b Eight dimensions of wellness. (2019). Wellness at Northwestern. https://www.northwestern.edu/wellness/8-dimensions/
  • ERDUR-BAKER, Ö., ÖZGÜLÜK, S. B., TURAN, N., & DEMİRCİ DANIŞIK, N. (2009). Ergenlerde görülen psikolojik belirtilerin yordayıcıları olarak ruminasyon ve öfke/öfke ifade tarzları. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(32), 45–53.
  • GUNAWAN, E. (2018). Factors Correlated with Occupational Stress among University Lecturers. Medicine & Health, 13(2), 95–102. https://doi.org/10.17576/MH.2018.1302.9
  • HABIB, S., RIAZ, M. N., & AKRAM, M. (2012). Emotional intelligence as predictor of life satisfaction among nurses: Mediating role of spiritual wellness. Journal of Social Science, 6(1), 73–78.
  • HILT, L. M., CHA, C. B., & NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (2008). Nonsuicidal self-injury in young adolescent girls: Moderators of the distress-function relationship. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(1), 63–71. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.1.63
  • INGERSOLL, R. E. (1995). Construction and initial validation of the spiritual wellness inventory [Doctoral Dissertation]. Kent State University.
  • INSEL, P. M., ROTH, W. T., IRWIN, J. D., & BURKE, S. M. (2016). Core concepts in health (Second Canadian edition). McGraw-Hill Education.
  • JOHNSON, D. P., & WHISMAN, M. A. (2013). Gender differences in rumination: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(4), 367–374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.03.019
  • JOORMANN, J., & QUINN, M. E. (2014). Cognitive processes and emotional regulation in depression. Depression and Anxiety, 31(4), 308–315. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22264
  • JOSE, P. E., & BROWN, I. (2008). When does the gender difference in rumination begin? Gender and age differences in the use of rumination by adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(2), 180–192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9166-y
  • KARATEPE, H. T. (2010). Ruminatif düşünme biçimi ölçeği’nin türkçeye uyarlanması, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Psikiyatri Uzmanlık Tezi]. Bakırköy Prof. Dr. Mazhar Osman Ruh Sağlığı ve Sinir Hastalıkları Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi.
  • KASS, J. D., FRIEDMAN, R., LESERMAN, J., ZUTTERMEISTER, P. C., & BENSON, H. (1991). Health outcomes and a new index of spiritual experience. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30(2), 203. https://doi.org/10.2307/1387214
  • KOENIG, H. G. (2012). Religion, Spirituality, and Health: The Research and Clinical Implications. ISRN Psychiatry, 2012, 1–33. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/278730
  • LALE, Z., & GÜLAÇTI, F. (2020). Üniversite Öğrencilerinin ruminatif düşünme biçimlerinin ve sosyal iyi olma düzeylerinin duygusal zekâ düzeyleri ile İlişkisi. OPUS Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi, 201–231. https://doi.org/10.26466/opus.568178
  • MARKS, A. D. G., Sobanski, D. J., & Hine, D. W. (2010). Do dispositional rumination and/or mindfulness moderate the relationship between life hassles and psychological dysfunction in adolescents? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(9), 831–838. https://doi.org/10.3109/00048674.2010.487478
  • MOR, N., & WINQUIST, J. (2002). Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 638–662. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.4.638
  • MURIS, P., ROELOFS, J., MEESTERS, C., & BOOMSMA, P. (2004). Rumination and Worry in Nonclinical Adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(4), 539–554. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:COTR.0000045563.66060.3e
  • MYERS, J. E. (1990). Wellness throughout the lifespan. Guidepost, 23, 11.
  • MYERS, J. E., Sweeney, T. J., & Witmer, J. M. (2000). The wheel of wellness counseling for wellness: A holistic model for treatment planning. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(3), 251–266. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb01906.x National Interfaith Coalition on Aging. (1975). Spiritual well-being: A defination. NICA.
  • NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569–582. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.569
  • NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504–511. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.109.3.504
  • NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S., & JACKSON, B. (2001). Mediators of the gender difference in rumination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25(1), 37–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-6402.00005
  • NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S., LARSON, J., & GRAYSON, C. (1999). Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1061–1072. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.5.1061
  • NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S., STICE, E., WADE, E., & BOHON, C. (2007). Reciprocal relations between rumination and bulimic, substance abuse, and depressive symptoms in female adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 198–207. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.198
  • NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S., WISCO, B. E., & LYUBOMIRSKY, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400–424. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x
  • NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S., WOLFSON, A., MUMME, D., & GUSKIN, K. (1995). Helplessness in children of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Developmental Psychology, 31(3), 377–387. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.31.3.377
  • NOTA, J. A., & COLES, M. E. (2018). Shorter sleep duration and longer sleep onset latency are related to difficulty disengaging attention from negative emotional images in individuals with elevated transdiagnostic repetitive negative thinking. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 58, 114–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2017.10.003
  • NWI’s six dimensions of wellness. (2023). National Wellness Institute. https://nationalwellness.org/resources/six-dimensions-of-wellness/
  • PELED, M., & MORETTI, M. M. (2007). Rumination on anger and sadness in adolescence: Fueling of fury and deepening of despair. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 36(1), 66–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410709336569
  • SELBY, E. A., ANESTIS, M. D., & JOINER, T. E. (2008). Understanding the relationship between emotional and behavioral dysregulation: Emotional cascades. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(5), 593–611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.02.002
  • SHAHBAZ, K., & SHAHBAZ, K. (2015). Relationship between Spiritual Well-being and Quality of Life among Chronically Ill Individuals. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 2(4). https://doi.org/10.25215/0204.105
  • SHARMA, V., & KAUR, S. (2017). Spiritual wellness among aggressive adolescents: Efficacy of raga bhairavi. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 27(4), 350–354. https://doi.org/10.1037/pmu0000200
  • SMITH, K. E., MASON, T. B., & LAVENDER, J. M. (2018). Rumination and eating disorder psychopathology: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 61, 9–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2018.03.004
  • TANNER, A., VOON, D., HASKING, P., & MARTIN, G. (2013). Underlying structure of ruminative thinking: Factor analysis of the ruminative thought style questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(3), 633–646. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9492-1
  • VANDENBOS, G. R. (Ed.). (2015). APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.
  • WATKINS, E. R., & ROBERTS, H. (2020). Reflecting on rumination: Consequences, causes, mechanisms and treatment of rumination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 127, 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103573
  • XU, W., FENG, C., TANG, W., & YANG, Y. (2022). Rumination, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and posttraumatic growth among wenchuan earthquake adult survivors: A developmental perspective. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.764127
  • YE, J., JIA, X., ZHANG, J., & GUO, K. (2022). Effect of physical exercise on sleep quality of college students: Chain intermediary effect of mindfulness and ruminative thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 987537. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.987537
  • YILMAZ, A. E. (2015). Endişe ve ruminasyonun kaygı ve depresyon belirtileri üzerindeki rolü. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 26(2), 107–115.
  • YU, J., LIU, K., & LIU, S. (2020). Relationship between coping style and insomnia in college students:the mediating effect of rumination. Journal of Southern Medical University, 40(1), 137–141.
Toplam 55 adet kaynakça vardır.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Din Psikolojisi
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Mustafa Ulu 0000-0003-0070-7826

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 9 Şubat 2024
Yayımlanma Tarihi
Gönderilme Tarihi 2 Ocak 2024
Kabul Tarihi 9 Şubat 2024
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2024 Sayı: 51

Kaynak Göster

APA Ulu, M. (2024). İlahiyat Fakültesi Öğrencilerinde Ruminatif Düşünce İle Manevi İyilik Hali Arasındaki İlişki. Bilimname(51), 31-85. https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.1413711