Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Kadınlarda Ağırlık Döngüsünün Kardiyometabolik Risk Faktörleri Üzerine Etkisi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 2, 100 - 109, 19.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.46413/boneyusbad.946837

Öz

Amaç: Bu çalışma, ağırlık döngüsünün kadınlarda kardiyometabolik risklere neden olduğunu incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu çalışma, Başkent Üniversitesi Hastanesi Endokrin Bölümü'ne ağırlık kontrol programı için başvuran 25-45 yaş arası 60 gönüllü kadın üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bireylere, yüz yüze anket uygulanmıştır. Bazı biyokimyasal parametreler hasta dosyalarından alınmıştır ve antropometrik ölçümler diyetisyen tarafından değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmaya katılan bireyler ağırlık döngüsü yaşayan (n:20) ve ağırlık döngüsü yaşamayan (n:40) olarak iki gruba ayrılmıştır. Bulgular: Ortalama BKİ, ağırlık döngüsü yaşayan bireylerde 31,6 ± 4,76 kg/m2 ve ağırlık döngüsü yaşamayan bireylerde 25,4 ± 4,49 kg/m2’dir (p<0,05). Ortalama bel ve kalça çevresi, bel/kalça oranı, toplam vücut yağ yüzdesi ve yağ kütlesi ağırlık döngüsü yaşayan bireylerde, ağırlık döngüsü yaşamayan bireylere göre daha yüksektir (p<0.05). Ağırlık döngüsü yaşayan ve yaşamayan bireylerde, sırasıyla, ortalama toplam kolesterol düzeyi 202.2 ± 44.05 mg/dL ve 178.1 ± 3 3.39 mg/dL, LDL-kolesterol düzeyi 140.0 ± 40.29 mg/dL ve 114.1 ± 28.99 mg/dL, trigliserit düzeyi 129.0 ± 39.52 mg/dL ve 99,3 ± 38,37 mg/dL’dir (p <0,05). Sonuç: Ağırlık döngüsü, kardiyometabolik bir risk faktörü olarak kabul edilebilir.

Kaynakça

  • Bosy-Westphal, A., Schautz, B., Lagerpusch, M., Pourhassan, M., Braun, W., Goele, K.,…, Müller, M. (2013). Effect of weight loss and regain on adipose tissue distribution, composition of lean mass and resting energy expenditure in young overweight and obese adults. International Journal of Obesity, 37 (10), 1371-1377. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.1
  • Byun, S. S., Bello, N. A., Liao, M., Makarem, N., Aggarwal, B. (2019). Associations of weight cycling with cardiovascular health using American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 in a diverse sample of women. Preventive medicine reports, 16, 100991. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100991
  • Cereda, E., Malavazos, A. E., Caccialanza, R., Rondanelli, M., Fatati, G., Barichella, M. (2011). Weight cycling is associated with body weight excess and abdominal fat accumulation: a cross-sectional study. Clinical Nutrition, 30(6), 718-723. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2011.06.009
  • Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines, Food and Nutrition Board, and Board on Children, Youth, and Families. Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining the guidelines. (2009). In Medicine; (Ed.). Washington, DC: Retrieved April 15, 2017 from https://www.nap.edu/catalog/12584/weight-gain-during-pregnancy-reexamining-the-guidelines. doi: 10.17226/12584
  • Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, E., and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). (2001). Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. JAMA, 285(19), 2486-2497. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.19.2486
  • Field, A. E., Malspeis, S., Willett, W. C. (2009). Weight cycling and mortality among middle-aged or older women. Archives Internal Medicine, 169(9), 881-886. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.67
  • Field, A. E., Manson, J. E., Laird, N., Williamson, D. F., Willett, W. C., Colditz, G. A. (2004). Weight cycling and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes among adult women in the United States. Obesity Research, 12(2), 267-274. doi: 10.1038/oby.2004.34
  • Galal, W., van Gestel, Y. R., Hoeks, S. E., Sin, D. D., Winkel, T. A., Bax, J. J.,…, Poldermans, D. (2008). The obesity paradox in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Chest, 134(5), 925-930. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-0418
  • Gutch, M, Kumar, S., Razi, SM., Gupta, K., Gupta, A. (2015). Assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 19(1), 160-164. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.146874
  • Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies (2018). Demographic and Health Survey. Retrieved March 25, 2021 From http://www.hips.hacettepe.edu.tr/tnsa2018/rapor/TDHS2018_mainreport.pdf
  • Kakinami, L., Knauper, B., Brunet, J. (2020). Weight cycling is associated with adverse cardiometabolic markers in a cross-sectional representative US sample. Journal Epidemiology Community Health, 74(8), 662-667. doi: 10.1136/jech-2019-213419
  • Lahti‐Koski, M., Männistö, S., Pietinen, P., Vartiainen, E. (2005). Prevalence of weight cycling and its relation to health indicators in Finland. Obesity Research, 13(2), 333-341. doi:10.1038/oby.2005.45
  • Lee, J. S., Kawakubo, K., Kobayashi, Y., Mori, K., Kasihara, H., Tamura, M. (2001). Effects of ten year body weight variability on cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese middle-aged men and women. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 25(7), 1063-1067. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801633
  • Martin, C. B., Herrick, K., Sarafrazi, N., Ogden, C. (2018). Attempts to Lose Weight Among Adults in the United States, 2013–2016. NCHS data brief, no 313. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville.
  • Mason, C., Foster-Schubert, K. E., Imayama, I., Xiao, L., Kong, A., Campbell, K. L.,…, McTiernan, A. (2013). History of weight cycling does not impede future weight loss or metabolic improvements in postmenopausal women. Metabolism, 62(1), 127-136. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2012.06.012
  • Minutello, R. M., Chou, E. T., Hong, M. K., Bergman, G., Parikh, M., Iacovone, F.,…, Wong, S.(2004). Impact of body mass index on in-hospital outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (report from the New York State Angioplasty Registry). American Journal of Cardiology, 93(10), 1229-1232. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.01.065
  • Montani, JP., Schutz, Y., Dulloo, AG. (2015). Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: Who is really at risk? Obesity Reviews, 16(1),7-18. doi:10.1111/obr.12251
  • Montani, JP., Viecelli, AK. , Prévot, A., Dulloo, AG. (2006). Weight cycling during growth and beyond as a risk factor for later cardiovascular diseases: the ‘repeated overshoot’ theory. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 30(4), 58-66. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803520
  • OECD, Organisation for Economic Co - operation and Development (2017). Obesity Update. Retrieved July 22, 2021, from https://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Obesity-Update-2017.pdf.
  • Olson, M. B., Kelsey, S. F., Bittner, V., Reis, S. E., Reichek, N., Handberg, E. M.,…Merz, CN. (2000). Weight cycling and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women: evidence of an adverse effect: a report from the NHLBI-sponsored WISE study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 36(5), 1565-1571. doi: 10.1016/s0735-1097(00)00901-3
  • Prentice, AM., Jebb, S., Goldberg, GR., Coward, WA., Murgatroyd, PR., Poppitt, SD., …, Cole, TJ. (1992). Effects of weight cycling on body composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(1), 209-216. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/56.1.209S
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2003) Reproductive health. Weight gain during pregnancy. Retrieved February 12, 2021 from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pregnancy-weight-gain.htm.
  • Reininghaus, E. Z., Lackner, N., Fellendorf, F. T., Bengesser, S., Birner, A., Reininghaus, B.,…, Mclntyre, R. S. (2015). Weight cycling in bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorder, 171, 33-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.09.006
  • Rooney, BL., Schauberger, CW. (2002). Excess Pregnancy Weight Gain and Long-term Obesity: One Decade Later. Obstetrics and Gynecology 100(2), 245-252. doi: 10.1016/s0029-7844(02)02125-7
  • Roth, G. A., Abate, D., Abate, K. H., Abay, S. M., Abbafati, C., Abbasi, N.,…, Murray, C. (2018). Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 392(10159), 1736-1788. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32203-7
  • Sharma, S., Sharma, V., Rawat, R., Arya, S. (2017). Cardiovascular health in women: The role of diet. Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology, 6 (1), 18-23. doi: 10.4103/2250-3528.196651
  • Taing, K. Y., Ardern, C. I., Kuk, J. L. (2012). Effect of the timing of weight cycling during adulthood on mortality risk in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. Obesity (Silver Spring), 20(2), 407-413. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.207
  • Turkey Nutrition and Health Survey (TNHS) (2017). Retrieved February 12, 2021 from https://hsgm.saglik.gov.tr/depo/birimler/saglikli-beslenme-hareketli-hayat-db/Yayinlar/kitaplar/TBSA_RAPOR_KITAP_20.08.pdf.
  • Turkish Statistical Institute (2019) Retrieved July 4, 2021 from https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Olum-ve-Olum-Nedeni-Istatistikleri-2019-33710
  • Üner, S., Balcılar, M., Ergüder, T. editors. (2018). National Household Health Survey – Prevalence of Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors in Turkey 2017 (STEPS). Retrieved April 14, 2021 from https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/383984/turkey-risk-factors-eng.pdf
  • Van der Kooy, K., Leenen, R., Seidell, J. C., Deurenberg, P., Hautvast, J. (1993). Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58(6), 853-857. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/58.6.853
  • Vergnaud, A. C., Bertrais, S., Oppert, J. M., Maillard-Teyssier, L., Galan, P., Hercberg, S.,…, Czernichow, S. (2008). Weight fluctuations and risk for metabolic syndrome in an adult cohort. Internation Journal of Obesity (Lond), 32(2), 315-321. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803739
  • Wallner, S., Luschnigg, N., Schnedl, W., Lahousen, T., Sudi, K., Crailsheim, K.,…, Horejsi, S. (2004). Body fat distribution of overweight females with a history of weight cycling. International Journal of Obesity, 28(9), 1143-1148. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802736
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). Global Health Observatory (GHO) data: overweight and obesity, 2016. Retrieved July 20, 2021 form https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/theme-details/GHO/body-mass-index-(bmi)
  • World Health Organization (WHO) (2021) . Cardiovascular disease. Retrieved July 4, 2021 from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)
  • Zou, H., Yin, P., Liu, L., Liu, W., Zhang, Z., Yang, Y.,…,Yu, X. (2019). Body-Weight Fluctuation Was Associated With Increased Risk for Cardiovascular Disease, All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front. Endocrinology, 10, 728. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00728

The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women

Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 2, 100 - 109, 19.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.46413/boneyusbad.946837

Öz

Aim: This study aims to examine weight cycling causes cardiometabolic risks in women. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 60 volunteer women between the ages of 25-45 years who applied to Baskent University Hospital Endocrine Department for weight control. Individuals were applied a questionnaire face to face. Some biochemical parameters were taken from the patient files and anthropometric measurements were evaluated by dietitian. The individuals participating in the study were divided into two groups as those who experienced weight cycling (n: 20) and those who did not (n: 40). Results: The mean BMI was 31.6 ± 4.76 kg/m2 in the weight cyclers and 25.4 ± 4.49 kg/m2 in non-cyclers (p<0.05). The mean waist and hip circumference, waist / hip ratio, total body fat percentage and fat mass were higher in the weight cyclers compared to the non-cyclers (p<0.05). The mean total cholesterol level was 202.2 ± 44.05 mg/dL and 178.1 ± 3 3.39 mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol level was 140.0 ± 40.29 mg/dL and 114.1 ± 28.99 mg/dL, triglyceride level was 129.0 ± 39.52 mg/dl and 99.3 ± 38.37 mg/dL in the weight cyclers and non-cyclers groups, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion: Weight cycling may be considered as a cardiometabolic risk factor.

Kaynakça

  • Bosy-Westphal, A., Schautz, B., Lagerpusch, M., Pourhassan, M., Braun, W., Goele, K.,…, Müller, M. (2013). Effect of weight loss and regain on adipose tissue distribution, composition of lean mass and resting energy expenditure in young overweight and obese adults. International Journal of Obesity, 37 (10), 1371-1377. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.1
  • Byun, S. S., Bello, N. A., Liao, M., Makarem, N., Aggarwal, B. (2019). Associations of weight cycling with cardiovascular health using American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 in a diverse sample of women. Preventive medicine reports, 16, 100991. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100991
  • Cereda, E., Malavazos, A. E., Caccialanza, R., Rondanelli, M., Fatati, G., Barichella, M. (2011). Weight cycling is associated with body weight excess and abdominal fat accumulation: a cross-sectional study. Clinical Nutrition, 30(6), 718-723. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2011.06.009
  • Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines, Food and Nutrition Board, and Board on Children, Youth, and Families. Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining the guidelines. (2009). In Medicine; (Ed.). Washington, DC: Retrieved April 15, 2017 from https://www.nap.edu/catalog/12584/weight-gain-during-pregnancy-reexamining-the-guidelines. doi: 10.17226/12584
  • Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, E., and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). (2001). Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. JAMA, 285(19), 2486-2497. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.19.2486
  • Field, A. E., Malspeis, S., Willett, W. C. (2009). Weight cycling and mortality among middle-aged or older women. Archives Internal Medicine, 169(9), 881-886. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.67
  • Field, A. E., Manson, J. E., Laird, N., Williamson, D. F., Willett, W. C., Colditz, G. A. (2004). Weight cycling and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes among adult women in the United States. Obesity Research, 12(2), 267-274. doi: 10.1038/oby.2004.34
  • Galal, W., van Gestel, Y. R., Hoeks, S. E., Sin, D. D., Winkel, T. A., Bax, J. J.,…, Poldermans, D. (2008). The obesity paradox in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Chest, 134(5), 925-930. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-0418
  • Gutch, M, Kumar, S., Razi, SM., Gupta, K., Gupta, A. (2015). Assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 19(1), 160-164. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.146874
  • Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies (2018). Demographic and Health Survey. Retrieved March 25, 2021 From http://www.hips.hacettepe.edu.tr/tnsa2018/rapor/TDHS2018_mainreport.pdf
  • Kakinami, L., Knauper, B., Brunet, J. (2020). Weight cycling is associated with adverse cardiometabolic markers in a cross-sectional representative US sample. Journal Epidemiology Community Health, 74(8), 662-667. doi: 10.1136/jech-2019-213419
  • Lahti‐Koski, M., Männistö, S., Pietinen, P., Vartiainen, E. (2005). Prevalence of weight cycling and its relation to health indicators in Finland. Obesity Research, 13(2), 333-341. doi:10.1038/oby.2005.45
  • Lee, J. S., Kawakubo, K., Kobayashi, Y., Mori, K., Kasihara, H., Tamura, M. (2001). Effects of ten year body weight variability on cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese middle-aged men and women. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 25(7), 1063-1067. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801633
  • Martin, C. B., Herrick, K., Sarafrazi, N., Ogden, C. (2018). Attempts to Lose Weight Among Adults in the United States, 2013–2016. NCHS data brief, no 313. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville.
  • Mason, C., Foster-Schubert, K. E., Imayama, I., Xiao, L., Kong, A., Campbell, K. L.,…, McTiernan, A. (2013). History of weight cycling does not impede future weight loss or metabolic improvements in postmenopausal women. Metabolism, 62(1), 127-136. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2012.06.012
  • Minutello, R. M., Chou, E. T., Hong, M. K., Bergman, G., Parikh, M., Iacovone, F.,…, Wong, S.(2004). Impact of body mass index on in-hospital outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (report from the New York State Angioplasty Registry). American Journal of Cardiology, 93(10), 1229-1232. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.01.065
  • Montani, JP., Schutz, Y., Dulloo, AG. (2015). Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: Who is really at risk? Obesity Reviews, 16(1),7-18. doi:10.1111/obr.12251
  • Montani, JP., Viecelli, AK. , Prévot, A., Dulloo, AG. (2006). Weight cycling during growth and beyond as a risk factor for later cardiovascular diseases: the ‘repeated overshoot’ theory. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 30(4), 58-66. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803520
  • OECD, Organisation for Economic Co - operation and Development (2017). Obesity Update. Retrieved July 22, 2021, from https://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Obesity-Update-2017.pdf.
  • Olson, M. B., Kelsey, S. F., Bittner, V., Reis, S. E., Reichek, N., Handberg, E. M.,…Merz, CN. (2000). Weight cycling and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women: evidence of an adverse effect: a report from the NHLBI-sponsored WISE study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 36(5), 1565-1571. doi: 10.1016/s0735-1097(00)00901-3
  • Prentice, AM., Jebb, S., Goldberg, GR., Coward, WA., Murgatroyd, PR., Poppitt, SD., …, Cole, TJ. (1992). Effects of weight cycling on body composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(1), 209-216. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/56.1.209S
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2003) Reproductive health. Weight gain during pregnancy. Retrieved February 12, 2021 from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pregnancy-weight-gain.htm.
  • Reininghaus, E. Z., Lackner, N., Fellendorf, F. T., Bengesser, S., Birner, A., Reininghaus, B.,…, Mclntyre, R. S. (2015). Weight cycling in bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorder, 171, 33-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.09.006
  • Rooney, BL., Schauberger, CW. (2002). Excess Pregnancy Weight Gain and Long-term Obesity: One Decade Later. Obstetrics and Gynecology 100(2), 245-252. doi: 10.1016/s0029-7844(02)02125-7
  • Roth, G. A., Abate, D., Abate, K. H., Abay, S. M., Abbafati, C., Abbasi, N.,…, Murray, C. (2018). Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 392(10159), 1736-1788. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32203-7
  • Sharma, S., Sharma, V., Rawat, R., Arya, S. (2017). Cardiovascular health in women: The role of diet. Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology, 6 (1), 18-23. doi: 10.4103/2250-3528.196651
  • Taing, K. Y., Ardern, C. I., Kuk, J. L. (2012). Effect of the timing of weight cycling during adulthood on mortality risk in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. Obesity (Silver Spring), 20(2), 407-413. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.207
  • Turkey Nutrition and Health Survey (TNHS) (2017). Retrieved February 12, 2021 from https://hsgm.saglik.gov.tr/depo/birimler/saglikli-beslenme-hareketli-hayat-db/Yayinlar/kitaplar/TBSA_RAPOR_KITAP_20.08.pdf.
  • Turkish Statistical Institute (2019) Retrieved July 4, 2021 from https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Olum-ve-Olum-Nedeni-Istatistikleri-2019-33710
  • Üner, S., Balcılar, M., Ergüder, T. editors. (2018). National Household Health Survey – Prevalence of Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors in Turkey 2017 (STEPS). Retrieved April 14, 2021 from https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/383984/turkey-risk-factors-eng.pdf
  • Van der Kooy, K., Leenen, R., Seidell, J. C., Deurenberg, P., Hautvast, J. (1993). Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58(6), 853-857. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/58.6.853
  • Vergnaud, A. C., Bertrais, S., Oppert, J. M., Maillard-Teyssier, L., Galan, P., Hercberg, S.,…, Czernichow, S. (2008). Weight fluctuations and risk for metabolic syndrome in an adult cohort. Internation Journal of Obesity (Lond), 32(2), 315-321. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803739
  • Wallner, S., Luschnigg, N., Schnedl, W., Lahousen, T., Sudi, K., Crailsheim, K.,…, Horejsi, S. (2004). Body fat distribution of overweight females with a history of weight cycling. International Journal of Obesity, 28(9), 1143-1148. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802736
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). Global Health Observatory (GHO) data: overweight and obesity, 2016. Retrieved July 20, 2021 form https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/theme-details/GHO/body-mass-index-(bmi)
  • World Health Organization (WHO) (2021) . Cardiovascular disease. Retrieved July 4, 2021 from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)
  • Zou, H., Yin, P., Liu, L., Liu, W., Zhang, Z., Yang, Y.,…,Yu, X. (2019). Body-Weight Fluctuation Was Associated With Increased Risk for Cardiovascular Disease, All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front. Endocrinology, 10, 728. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00728

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm ARAŞTIRMA MAKALELERİ
Yazarlar

Emel Aydan ORAL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
BAŞKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4462-2050
Türkiye


Gül KIZILTAN>
BAŞKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5012-5838
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Başkent Üniversitesi
Proje Numarası KA16/162
Yayımlanma Tarihi 19 Ağustos 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 2 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { boneyusbad946837, journal = {Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi}, eissn = {2687-2145}, address = {sabad@bandirma.edu.tr}, publisher = {Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {3}, number = {2}, pages = {100 - 109}, doi = {10.46413/boneyusbad.946837}, title = {The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women}, key = {cite}, author = {Oral, Emel Aydan and Kızıltan, Gül} }
APA Oral, E. A. & Kızıltan, G. (2021). The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women . Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi , 3 (2) , 100-109 . DOI: 10.46413/boneyusbad.946837
MLA Oral, E. A. , Kızıltan, G. "The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women" . Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi 3 (2021 ): 100-109 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/boneyusbad/issue/64065/946837>
Chicago Oral, E. A. , Kızıltan, G. "The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women". Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi 3 (2021 ): 100-109
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Kadınlarda Ağırlık Döngüsünün Kardiyometabolik Risk Faktörleri Üzerine Etkisi AU - Emel AydanOral, GülKızıltan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.46413/boneyusbad.946837 DO - 10.46413/boneyusbad.946837 T2 - Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 100 EP - 109 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - -2687-2145 M3 - doi: 10.46413/boneyusbad.946837 UR - https://doi.org/10.46413/boneyusbad.946837 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women %A Emel Aydan Oral , Gül Kızıltan %T The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women %D 2021 %J Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi %P -2687-2145 %V 3 %N 2 %R doi: 10.46413/boneyusbad.946837 %U 10.46413/boneyusbad.946837
ISNAD Oral, Emel Aydan , Kızıltan, Gül . "The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women". Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi 3 / 2 (Ağustos 2021): 100-109 . https://doi.org/10.46413/boneyusbad.946837
AMA Oral E. A. , Kızıltan G. The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women. Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2021; 3(2): 100-109.
Vancouver Oral E. A. , Kızıltan G. The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women. Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2021; 3(2): 100-109.
IEEE E. A. Oral ve G. Kızıltan , "The Effect of Weight Cycling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women", Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, c. 3, sayı. 2, ss. 100-109, Ağu. 2021, doi:10.46413/boneyusbad.946837

23788 Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri ve Araştırmaları Dergisi Creative Commons Atıf-GayriTicari 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.