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Assessment of Cyber Attacks within the Concept of Armed Attack in the UN Charter

Yıl 2022, Cilt 20, Sayı 32, 21 - 45, 27.05.2022
https://doi.org/10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777

Öz

Cyber space became a new domain of warfare with the development of technology, proliferation of usage areas of computers and increased dependency on computer systems. Absence of an international regulation for military activities in the cyber domain does not mean these activities are beyond the scope of international law. The principles and prohibitions in the UN Charter are regarded to be in force for cyber warfare which is a comparatively new way of use of force. In order to use the right of self defence, which is an exception of the prohibition of use of force, occurrence of an armed attack is required. The weapons, which the actual armed attack comprised of, does not affect the existence of the attack. It is proven with experience that the effects resulting from the use of cyber methods as a weapon can reach the level of attacks with weapons with kinetic effects. Therefore, cyber attacks those surpass a threshold in terms of their scale and effects may constitute an armed attack which will be the basis for self defence.

Kaynakça

  • Akande, Dapo, ve Milanoviç, Marko. The Constructive Ambiguity of the Security Council’s ISIS Resolution. 21 Kasım 2015. http://www.ejiltalk.org/the-constructive-ambiguity-of-the-security-councils-isis-resolution/ (erişim: Ocak 3, 2017).
  • Avusturya Cumhuriyeti. “Austrian Cyber Security Strategy.”, 2013. https://www.bka.gv.at/DocView.axd?CobId=50999 (erişim: Mayıs 31, 2017).
  • BBC. “Hack attack causes 'massive damage' at steel works.”, 22 Aralık 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-30575104 (erişim: Nisan 19, 2017).
  • —. “Ukraine power cut 'was cyber-attack'.“, 11 Ocak 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-38573074 (erişim: Nisan 19, 2017).
  • Berger, Joseph. “A Dam, Small and Unsung, Is Caught Up in an Iranian Hacking Case.”, 25 Mart 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/26/nyregion/rye-brook-dam-caught-in-computer-hacking-case.html?_r=0 (erişim: Nsan 11, 2017).
  • “Birleşmiş Milletler Andlaşması.”, 26 Haziran 1945. https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/komisyon/insanhaklari/pdf01/3-30.pdf (erişim: Ocak 01, 2017).
  • Birleşmiş Milletler Genel Kurulu. “Definition Of Aggression (A/RES/29/3314).”, 14 Aralık 1974. http://www.un-documents.net/a29r3314.htm (erişim: Ocak 05, 2017).
  • —. “Devletler Arasında BM Şartı’na Uygun Şekilde Dostane Münasebetler Kurma ve İşbirliği Yapmaya Dair Milletler Arası Hukuk İlkeleri Hakkında Bildiri.”, 1970, http://www.unicankara.org.tr/doc_pdf/metin_ant1.pdf (erişim: Mayıs 29, 2017).
  • —. “Developments in the field of infromation and telecommunications in the context of international security.”, 15 Temmuz 2011, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/66/152 (erişim: Haziran 3, 2017).
  • —. “Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security Note by the Secretary-General.”, 24 Haziran 2013, http://www.unidir.org/files/medias/pdfs/developments-in-the-field-of-information-and-telecommunications-in-the-context-of-international-security-2012-2013-a-68-98-eng-0-518.pdf (erişim: Haziran 3, 2017).
  • —. “Letter dated 9 January 2015 from the Permanent Representatives of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General.”, 9 Ocak 2015, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/786846 (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Letter dated 12 September 2011 from the Permanent Representatives of China, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-Genera (A/44/359)l.”, 14 Eylül 2011, www.un.org/ga/search/viewm_doc.asp?symbol=A/66/359 (erişim: Mayıs 10, 2017). Birleşmiş Milletler Güvenlik Konseyi . “Resolution 1368 (2001) / Adopted by the Security Council at its 4370th Meeting, on 12 September 2001.”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/448051?ln=en (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • Birleşmiş Milletler Güvenlik Konseyi. “84(1950. Resolution of 7 July 1950.”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/112027 (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Meeting Records S/PV.7565.”, 20 Kasım 2015, http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/PV.7565 (erişim: Ocak 04, 2017).
  • —. “Resolution 1373 (2001)/Adopted by the Security Council at its 4385th Meeting, on 28 September 2001.», https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/449020?ln=en (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Resolution 2249 (2015)/adopted by the Security Council at its 7565th meeting, on 20 November 2015”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/811987?ln=en (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Resolution 487 (1981)/adopted by the Security Council at its 2288th meeting, on 19 June 1981.”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/22225 (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Resolution 661 (1990)/adopted by the Security Council at its 2933rd meeting, on 6 August 1990.”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/94221?ln=en (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Resolution 819 (1993/adopted by the Security Council at its 3199th meeting, on 16 April 1993.”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/164939?ln=en (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021). Birleşmiş Milletler. “Summary Report of the Eleventh Meeting of the Committee I/1.” Documents of the United Nations Conference on the International Organisation. San Fransisco”, 5 Haziran 1945, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/1300969?ln=en, (erişim: Eylül 23, 2021).
  • CNN. “September 11, 2001: Background and timeline of the attacks.”, 8 Eylül 2016. http://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/27/us/september-11-anniversary-fast-facts/ (erişim: Haziran 1, 2017).
  • Deeks, Ashley. “Threading the Needle in Security Council Resolution 2249.”, 23 Kasım 2015. https://www.lawfareblog.com/threading-needle-security-council-resolution-2249 (erişim: Ocak 04, 2017).
  • Defense Strategy Department. “Cyber Security Strategy for Defence.”, 2004. https://ccdcoe.org/sites/default/files/strategy/Belgian%20Defence%20Cyber%20Security%20Strategy.pdf (erişim: Mayıs 5, 2017).
  • Dinstein, Yoram. “Computer Network Attacks and Self-Defense.”, International Law Studies 76 (2002): 99-119.
  • —. War, Agression and Self-Defence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  • Elgebeily, Sherif. “HKU Legal Scholarship Blog.”, 29 Şubat 2016. http://researchblog.law.hku.hk/2016/02/sherif-elgebeily-comments-on-un.html (erişim: Ocak 4, 2017).
  • Eset. “Truva Atı”. tarih yok. https://www.eset.com/tr/trojan-horse/ (erişim: Eylül 25, 2021).
  • Gill, Terry D. “The Law of Armed Attack in the Context of the Nicaragua Case.”, Hague Yearbook of International Law içinde, 30-58. Martinus Nijhoff, 1988.
  • Government of the Republic of Lithuania. “Resolution 796 on the Approval of the Programme for the Development of Electronic Information Security for 2011-2019.”, 29 June 2011. http://www.ird.lt/doc/teises_aktai_en/EIS(KS)PP_796_2011-06-29_EN_PATAIS.pdf (erişim: Haziran 01, 2017).
  • Gray, Christine. International Law and the Use of Force. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Green, James A. “The regulation of Cyber Warfare under Jus ad Bellum.”, Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Analysis içinde, düzenleyen: James A. Green, 96-124. Routledge, 2015.
  • Hasan, Mahmood. “Opinion: Ambigious UN Resolution Adds to Complex and Dangerous Situation.“, 30 Kasım 2015, http://www.asianews.network/content/opinion-ambiguous-un-resolution-adds-complex-and-dangerous-situation-4572 (erişim: Ocak 04, 2017).
  • Hruza, Petr ve Cerny, Jiri. “Cyberwarfare.”, International Conference: The Knowledge-Based Organisation. Sibiu: Nicolae Balcescu Land Forces Academy, 2017. 155-160.
  • International Court of Justice. “Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua. Merits, Judgement.”, 27 Haziran 1986, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/70/6503.pdf (erişim: Ocak 06, 2017).
  • —. “Case Concerning Oil Platforms.”, 6 Kasım 2003, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/?sum=634&code=op&p1=3&p2=3&case=90&p3=5 (erişim: Mart 15, 2017).
  • —. “Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons.”, 8 Temmuz 1996, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3&p2=4&k=e1&p3=4&case=95 (erişim: Mart 24, 2017).
  • Jaffe, Greg. “Iran says it downed U.S. stealth drone; Pentagon acknowledges aircraft downing.”, 4 Aralık 2011. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/iran-says-it-downed-us-stealth-drone-pentagon-acknowledges-aircraft-downing/2011/12/04/gIQAyxa8TO_story.html?utm_term=.e53de07277c6 (erişim: Haziran 1, 2017).
  • Katz, Yaakov. “Stuxnet virus set back Iran’s nuclear program by 2 years.“, 15 Aralık 2010, http://www.jpost.com/Iranian-Threat/News/Stuxnet-virus-set-back-Irans-nuclear-program-by-2-years (erişim: Nisan 19, 2017).
  • Larson, Robert E., ve Lance Cockcroft. CCSP: Cisco Certified Security Professional Certification. McGRaw-Hill, 2003.
  • NATO Glossary of Terms and Definitions., 2013. http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/doctrine/other/aap6.pdf (erişim: Haziran 01, 2017).
  • Norton. “What is a computer worm, and how does it work?”, 28 Ağustos 2019, us.norton.com/internetsecurity-malware-what-is-a-computer-worm.html (erişim: Eylül 25, 2021).
  • Porche, Isaac R. “Cyberwarfare Goes Wireless.”, 4 April 2014, https://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/world-report/2014/04/04/russia-hacks-a-us-drone-in-crimea-as-cyberwarfare-has-gone-wireless (erişim: Nisan 20, 2017).
  • Roscini, Marco. Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Rosenzweig, Paul. Cyber Warfare. Praeger, 2013.
  • Schmitt, Michael N, düz. Talinn Manual On The International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare. Cambridge University Presss, 2013.
  • Schmitt, Michael N. “Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative Framework.”, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 37 (1999): 885-937.
  • Schmitt, Michael N., düz. Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  • Shaw, Malcolm N. Internatioal Law. Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Stiennon, Richard. “A short History Of Cyber Warfare.” Cyber Warfare A Multi Disciplinary Analysis içinde, düzenleyen: James A Green, 7-32. Londra ve New York: Routledge, 2015.
  • Symantec Corporation. “What is the difference between viruses, worms, and Trojans?”, 30 Eylül 2016, https://support.symantec.com/en_US/article.TECH98539.html (erişim: Haziran 3, 2017).
  • T.C. Ulaştırma Denizcilik ve Haberleşme Bakanlığı. “Ulusal Siber Güvenlik Stratejisi (2016-2019).”, tarih yok, http://www.udhb.gov.tr/doc/siberg/2016-2019guvenlik.pdf (erişim: Mayıs 15, 2017).
  • Titcomb, James. “Ukrainian blackout blamed on cyber-attack.”, 5 Ocak 2016, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/12082758/Ukrainian-blackout-blamed-on-cyber-attack-in-world-first.html (erişim: Haziran 1, 2017).
  • UNODA. “Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security.”, 2017, https://www.un.org/disarmament/topics/informationsecurity/ (erişim: Haziran 3, 2017).
  • Weimann, Gabriel. “Cyberterrorism: How Real is the Threat?”, Aralık 2004, https://css.ethz.ch/en/services/digital-library/publications/publication.html/14122 (erişim: Aralık 24, 2021).
  • Williams, Daniel. “NATO Bombs Serbia Into Darkness.”, 3 Mayıs 1999, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/balkans/stories/belgrade050399.htm (erişim: Haziran 1, 2017).
  • Zemanek, Carl. “Armed Attack.”, Ekim 2013, http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e241 (erişim: Haziran 2, 2017).

Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 20, Sayı 32, 21 - 45, 27.05.2022
https://doi.org/10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777

Öz

Teknolojinin gelişimi, bilgisayarların kullanım alanlarının yaygınlaşması ve bilgisayara olan bağımlılığın artmasıyla birlikte siber uzay da bir savaş alanı haline gelmiştir. Siber uzaydaki askeri faaliyetlere yönelik uluslararası düzenleme olmayışı, buradaki eylemlerin uluslararası hukukun kapsamı dışında olduğu anlamına gelmemektedir. BM Şartı’nda yer alan ilke ve yasakların, nispeten yeni bir kuvvet kullanma şekli olan siber savaş için de geçerli olduğu kabul edilmektedir. Kuvvet kullanma yasağının istisnası olan meşru müdafaa hakkının kullanılabilmesi için bir silahlı saldırının gerçekleşmiş olması ön koşulu aranmaktadır. Gerçekleşen silahlı saldırının hangi silahları içerdiği saldırının varlığını etkilememektedir. Bir silah olarak siber yöntemlerin kullanımı sonucunda ortaya çıkan etkilerin kinetik etkiye sahip silahlarla gerçekleştirilecek saldırılar seviyesine çıkabileceği yaşanmış örneklerle sabittir. Bu nedenle boyut ve etkileri bakımından belirli bir eşiği aşan siber saldırılar meşru müdafaa hakkına esas teşkil edecek silahlı saldırıyı oluşturabilir.

Kaynakça

  • Akande, Dapo, ve Milanoviç, Marko. The Constructive Ambiguity of the Security Council’s ISIS Resolution. 21 Kasım 2015. http://www.ejiltalk.org/the-constructive-ambiguity-of-the-security-councils-isis-resolution/ (erişim: Ocak 3, 2017).
  • Avusturya Cumhuriyeti. “Austrian Cyber Security Strategy.”, 2013. https://www.bka.gv.at/DocView.axd?CobId=50999 (erişim: Mayıs 31, 2017).
  • BBC. “Hack attack causes 'massive damage' at steel works.”, 22 Aralık 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-30575104 (erişim: Nisan 19, 2017).
  • —. “Ukraine power cut 'was cyber-attack'.“, 11 Ocak 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-38573074 (erişim: Nisan 19, 2017).
  • Berger, Joseph. “A Dam, Small and Unsung, Is Caught Up in an Iranian Hacking Case.”, 25 Mart 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/26/nyregion/rye-brook-dam-caught-in-computer-hacking-case.html?_r=0 (erişim: Nsan 11, 2017).
  • “Birleşmiş Milletler Andlaşması.”, 26 Haziran 1945. https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/komisyon/insanhaklari/pdf01/3-30.pdf (erişim: Ocak 01, 2017).
  • Birleşmiş Milletler Genel Kurulu. “Definition Of Aggression (A/RES/29/3314).”, 14 Aralık 1974. http://www.un-documents.net/a29r3314.htm (erişim: Ocak 05, 2017).
  • —. “Devletler Arasında BM Şartı’na Uygun Şekilde Dostane Münasebetler Kurma ve İşbirliği Yapmaya Dair Milletler Arası Hukuk İlkeleri Hakkında Bildiri.”, 1970, http://www.unicankara.org.tr/doc_pdf/metin_ant1.pdf (erişim: Mayıs 29, 2017).
  • —. “Developments in the field of infromation and telecommunications in the context of international security.”, 15 Temmuz 2011, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/66/152 (erişim: Haziran 3, 2017).
  • —. “Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security Note by the Secretary-General.”, 24 Haziran 2013, http://www.unidir.org/files/medias/pdfs/developments-in-the-field-of-information-and-telecommunications-in-the-context-of-international-security-2012-2013-a-68-98-eng-0-518.pdf (erişim: Haziran 3, 2017).
  • —. “Letter dated 9 January 2015 from the Permanent Representatives of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General.”, 9 Ocak 2015, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/786846 (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Letter dated 12 September 2011 from the Permanent Representatives of China, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-Genera (A/44/359)l.”, 14 Eylül 2011, www.un.org/ga/search/viewm_doc.asp?symbol=A/66/359 (erişim: Mayıs 10, 2017). Birleşmiş Milletler Güvenlik Konseyi . “Resolution 1368 (2001) / Adopted by the Security Council at its 4370th Meeting, on 12 September 2001.”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/448051?ln=en (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • Birleşmiş Milletler Güvenlik Konseyi. “84(1950. Resolution of 7 July 1950.”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/112027 (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Meeting Records S/PV.7565.”, 20 Kasım 2015, http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/PV.7565 (erişim: Ocak 04, 2017).
  • —. “Resolution 1373 (2001)/Adopted by the Security Council at its 4385th Meeting, on 28 September 2001.», https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/449020?ln=en (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Resolution 2249 (2015)/adopted by the Security Council at its 7565th meeting, on 20 November 2015”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/811987?ln=en (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Resolution 487 (1981)/adopted by the Security Council at its 2288th meeting, on 19 June 1981.”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/22225 (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Resolution 661 (1990)/adopted by the Security Council at its 2933rd meeting, on 6 August 1990.”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/94221?ln=en (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021).
  • —. “Resolution 819 (1993/adopted by the Security Council at its 3199th meeting, on 16 April 1993.”, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/164939?ln=en (erişim: Eylül 26, 2021). Birleşmiş Milletler. “Summary Report of the Eleventh Meeting of the Committee I/1.” Documents of the United Nations Conference on the International Organisation. San Fransisco”, 5 Haziran 1945, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/1300969?ln=en, (erişim: Eylül 23, 2021).
  • CNN. “September 11, 2001: Background and timeline of the attacks.”, 8 Eylül 2016. http://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/27/us/september-11-anniversary-fast-facts/ (erişim: Haziran 1, 2017).
  • Deeks, Ashley. “Threading the Needle in Security Council Resolution 2249.”, 23 Kasım 2015. https://www.lawfareblog.com/threading-needle-security-council-resolution-2249 (erişim: Ocak 04, 2017).
  • Defense Strategy Department. “Cyber Security Strategy for Defence.”, 2004. https://ccdcoe.org/sites/default/files/strategy/Belgian%20Defence%20Cyber%20Security%20Strategy.pdf (erişim: Mayıs 5, 2017).
  • Dinstein, Yoram. “Computer Network Attacks and Self-Defense.”, International Law Studies 76 (2002): 99-119.
  • —. War, Agression and Self-Defence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  • Elgebeily, Sherif. “HKU Legal Scholarship Blog.”, 29 Şubat 2016. http://researchblog.law.hku.hk/2016/02/sherif-elgebeily-comments-on-un.html (erişim: Ocak 4, 2017).
  • Eset. “Truva Atı”. tarih yok. https://www.eset.com/tr/trojan-horse/ (erişim: Eylül 25, 2021).
  • Gill, Terry D. “The Law of Armed Attack in the Context of the Nicaragua Case.”, Hague Yearbook of International Law içinde, 30-58. Martinus Nijhoff, 1988.
  • Government of the Republic of Lithuania. “Resolution 796 on the Approval of the Programme for the Development of Electronic Information Security for 2011-2019.”, 29 June 2011. http://www.ird.lt/doc/teises_aktai_en/EIS(KS)PP_796_2011-06-29_EN_PATAIS.pdf (erişim: Haziran 01, 2017).
  • Gray, Christine. International Law and the Use of Force. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Green, James A. “The regulation of Cyber Warfare under Jus ad Bellum.”, Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Analysis içinde, düzenleyen: James A. Green, 96-124. Routledge, 2015.
  • Hasan, Mahmood. “Opinion: Ambigious UN Resolution Adds to Complex and Dangerous Situation.“, 30 Kasım 2015, http://www.asianews.network/content/opinion-ambiguous-un-resolution-adds-complex-and-dangerous-situation-4572 (erişim: Ocak 04, 2017).
  • Hruza, Petr ve Cerny, Jiri. “Cyberwarfare.”, International Conference: The Knowledge-Based Organisation. Sibiu: Nicolae Balcescu Land Forces Academy, 2017. 155-160.
  • International Court of Justice. “Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua. Merits, Judgement.”, 27 Haziran 1986, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/70/6503.pdf (erişim: Ocak 06, 2017).
  • —. “Case Concerning Oil Platforms.”, 6 Kasım 2003, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/?sum=634&code=op&p1=3&p2=3&case=90&p3=5 (erişim: Mart 15, 2017).
  • —. “Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons.”, 8 Temmuz 1996, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3&p2=4&k=e1&p3=4&case=95 (erişim: Mart 24, 2017).
  • Jaffe, Greg. “Iran says it downed U.S. stealth drone; Pentagon acknowledges aircraft downing.”, 4 Aralık 2011. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/iran-says-it-downed-us-stealth-drone-pentagon-acknowledges-aircraft-downing/2011/12/04/gIQAyxa8TO_story.html?utm_term=.e53de07277c6 (erişim: Haziran 1, 2017).
  • Katz, Yaakov. “Stuxnet virus set back Iran’s nuclear program by 2 years.“, 15 Aralık 2010, http://www.jpost.com/Iranian-Threat/News/Stuxnet-virus-set-back-Irans-nuclear-program-by-2-years (erişim: Nisan 19, 2017).
  • Larson, Robert E., ve Lance Cockcroft. CCSP: Cisco Certified Security Professional Certification. McGRaw-Hill, 2003.
  • NATO Glossary of Terms and Definitions., 2013. http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/doctrine/other/aap6.pdf (erişim: Haziran 01, 2017).
  • Norton. “What is a computer worm, and how does it work?”, 28 Ağustos 2019, us.norton.com/internetsecurity-malware-what-is-a-computer-worm.html (erişim: Eylül 25, 2021).
  • Porche, Isaac R. “Cyberwarfare Goes Wireless.”, 4 April 2014, https://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/world-report/2014/04/04/russia-hacks-a-us-drone-in-crimea-as-cyberwarfare-has-gone-wireless (erişim: Nisan 20, 2017).
  • Roscini, Marco. Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Rosenzweig, Paul. Cyber Warfare. Praeger, 2013.
  • Schmitt, Michael N, düz. Talinn Manual On The International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare. Cambridge University Presss, 2013.
  • Schmitt, Michael N. “Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative Framework.”, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 37 (1999): 885-937.
  • Schmitt, Michael N., düz. Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  • Shaw, Malcolm N. Internatioal Law. Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Stiennon, Richard. “A short History Of Cyber Warfare.” Cyber Warfare A Multi Disciplinary Analysis içinde, düzenleyen: James A Green, 7-32. Londra ve New York: Routledge, 2015.
  • Symantec Corporation. “What is the difference between viruses, worms, and Trojans?”, 30 Eylül 2016, https://support.symantec.com/en_US/article.TECH98539.html (erişim: Haziran 3, 2017).
  • T.C. Ulaştırma Denizcilik ve Haberleşme Bakanlığı. “Ulusal Siber Güvenlik Stratejisi (2016-2019).”, tarih yok, http://www.udhb.gov.tr/doc/siberg/2016-2019guvenlik.pdf (erişim: Mayıs 15, 2017).
  • Titcomb, James. “Ukrainian blackout blamed on cyber-attack.”, 5 Ocak 2016, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/12082758/Ukrainian-blackout-blamed-on-cyber-attack-in-world-first.html (erişim: Haziran 1, 2017).
  • UNODA. “Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security.”, 2017, https://www.un.org/disarmament/topics/informationsecurity/ (erişim: Haziran 3, 2017).
  • Weimann, Gabriel. “Cyberterrorism: How Real is the Threat?”, Aralık 2004, https://css.ethz.ch/en/services/digital-library/publications/publication.html/14122 (erişim: Aralık 24, 2021).
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  • Zemanek, Carl. “Armed Attack.”, Ekim 2013, http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e241 (erişim: Haziran 2, 2017).

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Muharrem Uğur BOZKURT> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Bir kuruma bağlı değildir
0000-0002-3343-1857
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 20, Sayı 32

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { canakkalearastirmalari1060777, journal = {Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı}, issn = {2148-0877}, address = {}, publisher = {Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {20}, number = {32}, pages = {21 - 45}, doi = {10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777}, title = {Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Bozkurt, Muharrem Uğur} }
APA Bozkurt, M. U. (2022). Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi . Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı , 20 (32) , 21-45 . DOI: 10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777
MLA Bozkurt, M. U. "Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi" . Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı 20 (2022 ): 21-45 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/canakkalearastirmalari/issue/70025/1060777>
Chicago Bozkurt, M. U. "Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi". Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı 20 (2022 ): 21-45
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi AU - Muharrem UğurBozkurt Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777 DO - 10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777 T2 - Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 21 EP - 45 VL - 20 IS - 32 SN - 2148-0877- M3 - doi: 10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777 UR - https://doi.org/10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi %A Muharrem Uğur Bozkurt %T Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi %D 2022 %J Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı %P 2148-0877- %V 20 %N 32 %R doi: 10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777 %U 10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777
ISNAD Bozkurt, Muharrem Uğur . "Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi". Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı 20 / 32 (Mayıs 2022): 21-45 . https://doi.org/10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777
AMA Bozkurt M. U. Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi. Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı. 2022; 20(32): 21-45.
Vancouver Bozkurt M. U. Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi. Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı. 2022; 20(32): 21-45.
IEEE M. U. Bozkurt , "Siber Saldırıların BM Şartı’nda Yer Alan Silahlı Saldırı Kavramı Kapsamında Değerlendirilmesi", Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı, c. 20, sayı. 32, ss. 21-45, May. 2022, doi:10.17518/canakkalearastirmalari.1060777