Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 18, Sayfalar 162 - 170 2020-04-15

AMPK'nin Biyokimyası: Etki Mekanizmaları ve Diyabetin Tedavisindeki Önemi

Cemalettin KİSMİROĞLU [1] , Serdar CENGİZ [2] , Mustafa YAMAN [3]


Bir enerji sensörü olarak, 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)- ile aktive edilmiş protein kinaz (AMPK), metabolik yolları koordine ederek hücre enerji gereksinimini maksimum seviyede düzenler. Bir serin/ treonin protein kompleksi olan AMPK, üç ana alt birimden oluşur. AMPK’nın moleküler regülasyonu bu üç ana alt birimin fosforilasyonu ile olmaktadır. AMPK, düşük enerji seviyelerinde (AMP/ADP:ATP) aktive olmaktadır. Metabolizmada AMPK aktive olduğunda anabolik reaksiyonlar inhibe edilirken katabolik reaksiyonlar aktive edilmektedir. AMPK aktive olduğunda protein, yağ asitleri, glikojen ve kolesterol sentezi inhibe edilirken yağ asitlerinin oksidasyonu, kan glikoz seviyesini düzenlemede insülinden bağımsız bir şekilde GLUT4 proteininin translokasyonu ve hasarlı hücrelerin yok edilmesi (otofaji) işlemini aktive edilir. AMPK’nın aktivasyonu LKB1 (serine–threonine kinase liver kinase B1) ve CaMKKβ (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase β) kinazları tarafından da olmaktadır. Diyabetin tedavisinde AMPK’nın aktivasyonu metformin gibi bazı ilaçlar tarafından da olmaktadır. Farmasötik ilaçlara ek olarak, çok sayıda doğal olarak bulunan fitokimyasal bileşikler özellikle bazı polifenoller AMPK'yı aktive ettiği gösterilmiştir. Bu polifenollerün hem AMPK'yi aktive ettiği hem de Tip 2 diyabetin komplikasyonlarını azalttığı da görülmüştür. Bunlar arasında en fazla bilinen polifenoller resveratrol, kuersetin ve kurmumin’dir. Bunlara ek olarak D vitamini ve K1 vitamininin de AMPK’yı aktive ettiği ve GLUT4’ın traslokasyonunu arttırdığı da görülmüştür. Görüldüğü gibi AMPK’nın aktivasyonunun arttırılması diyabet başta olmak üzere birçok hastalığın tedavisinde önemli olduğu görülmüştür. AMPK’nın aktivasyonununun artırılmasında egzersizin yanında fonksiyonel besinlerin ve vitaminlerinde önemli bir yeri olduğu görülmektedir.
AMPK, GLUT4, Diyabet, İnsülin, Fenolik bileşikler, vitamin
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Orcid: 0000-0002-9492-9069
Yazar: Cemalettin KİSMİROĞLU
Kurum: İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-9121-1262
Yazar: Serdar CENGİZ
Kurum: İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-9692-0204
Yazar: Mustafa YAMAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Destekleyen Kurum İstanbul Sabahttin Zaim Üniveristesi
Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 15 Nisan 2020

APA KİSMİROĞLU, C , CENGİZ, S , YAMAN, M . (2020). AMPK'nin Biyokimyası: Etki Mekanizmaları ve Diyabetin Tedavisindeki Önemi. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi , (18) , 162-170 . DOI: 10.31590/ejosat.676335