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Determination of the Biogenic Amine Amounts of Industrial Type Fermented, Butcher's and Heat-Treated Sucuk Offered for Sale in Kayseri Market

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 23, 43 - 51, 30.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.800887

Öz

In this study, the quality of sucuk offered for sale in Kayseri market by applying different production techniques was determined, and the content and amounts of biogenic amine were examined to ensure more reliable consumption of products. To this end, a total of 40 samples, including 10 industrial type fermented sucuk (A), 10 heat-treated sucuk (B), and 20 butcher's sucuk samples produced by the traditional method (C) were randomly obtained from the market, and eight different biogenic amine concentrations (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, spermine, and spermidine) were examined in High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) at a wavelength of 254 nm, 40 oC column temperature, and 1 ml/min flow rate. According to the results obtained, cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine concentrations reached higher values compared to other biogenic amines. It was found that especially the amounts of putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine of group C sucuk were quite higher compared to groups A and B sucuk (P < 0.05). While the concentration of putrescine was observed to be in the range of 14.61-132.26 mg/kg in sucuk samples of group A and 14.99-30.34 mg/kg in sucuk samples of group B, this range increased significantly and was found to be 24.46-542.35 mg/kg in sucuk of group C. The mean values of tyramine were found to be 17.71 and 17.35 mg/kg in sucuk of groups A and B, respectively, it was observed that this value increased considerably and reached 56.32 mg/kg in sucuk of group C. While cadaverine was not detected in sucuk samples of groups A and B, the mean value of cadaverine found in half of the group C samples was 97.21 mg/kg. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found in the histamine concentrations of group A, B, and C sucuk produced using different production techniques. Histamine detected at a rate of approximately 90% in group A, B, and C sucuk was found in the range of 0-58.75 mg/kg, 0-61.03, and 0-65.51mg/kg, respectively, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between sucuk groups. The mean concentrations of tryptamine and phenylethylamine, which are characterized as small amines, were observed to be 9.77, 9.09, 13.04 mg/kg and 2.80, 2.12, 6.06 mg/kg (P < 0.05) in groups A, B and C, respectively. It was observed that the use of different production techniques did not statistically affect the spermine and spermidine concentrations (P > 0.05). In general, it was determined that butcher's sucuk (C) had higher biogenic amine content compared to heat-treated (B) and industrial-type fermented (A) sucuk (P < 0.05). According to these results, the natural fermentation process performed without the use of starter culture may cause a high accumulation of biogenic amine in sucuk. In conclusion, it will be possible to prevent or reduce the formation of biogenic amines by performing production in modern facilities with advanced and hygienic conditions, using starter cultures with negative decarboxylase activity and applying heat treatment in order to reduce the biogenic amine concentration, which is regarded as the quality index and indicator of undesirable microbial activity in meat and meat products.

Kaynakça

  • Ansorena, D., Montel, M. C., Rokka, M., Talon, R., Eerola, S., Rizzo, A., ... & Demeyer, D. 2002. Analysis of biogenic amines in northern and southern European sausages and role of flora in amine production. Meat Science, 61(2), 141-147.
  • Askar, A. ve Treptow, H. 1986. Biogenic amine in lebensmittein vorkommenbedentung und bestimmung. Stuttgart: Eugen Ulmer GmbH.
  • Ayhan, K., Kolsarici, N., Özkan, G. A. 1999. The effects of a starter culture on the formation of biogenic amines in Turkish soudjoucks. Meat Science, 53(3), 183-188.
  • Blagojevic, B., Antic, D., Adzic, B., Tasic, T., Ikonic, P., & Buncic, S. 2015. Decontamination of incoming beef trimmings with hot lactic acid solution to improve microbial safety of resulting dry fermented sausages–A pilot study. Food Control, 54, 144-149.
  • Bodmer, S., Imark, C., & Kneubühl, M. 1999. Biogenic amines in foods: histamine and food processing. Inflammation research, 48(6), 296-300. Bover-Cid, S., Schoppen, S., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Vidal-Carou, M. 1999. Relationship between biogenic amine contents and the size of dry fermented sausages. Meat Science, 51 (4) 305–311.
  • Bover-Cid, S., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Vidal-Carou, M. C. 2001. Changes in biogenic amines and polyamine contents in slightly fermented sausages manufactured with and without sugar. Meat Science, 57(2), 215–221.
  • Bozkurt, H. ve Erkmen, O. 2002. Effects of starter cultures and additives on the quality of Turkish style sausage (sucuk). Meat Science, 61 (2) 149–156.
  • Chaloner-Larsson, G., Anderson, R., Egan, A., Da Fonseca Costa Filho, M. A., Gomez Herrera, J. F., & World Health Organization. 1999. A WHO guide to good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements (No. WHO/VSQ/97.01). World Health Organization.
  • Coı̈sson, J. D., Cerutti, C., Travaglia, F., & Arlorio, M. 2004. Production of biogenic amines in “Salamini italiani alla cacciatora PDO”. Meat Science, 67(2), 343-349.
  • Coloretti, F., Tabanelli, G., Chiavari, C., Lanciotti, R., Grazia, L., Gardini, F., & Montanari, C. 2014. Effect of wine addition on microbiological characteristics, volatile molecule profiles and biogenic amine contents in fermented sausages. Meat science, 96(3), 1395-1402.
  • Coşansu, S. ve Ayhan, K. 2002. Ankara'da satışa sunulan sucukların biyojen içerikleri. Türkiye 7. Gıda Kongresi, 22-24 Mayıs, 453, Ankara.
  • Değirmencioğlu, A., Arslan M., Gökgözoğlu İ. ve Tavşanlı H. 2006. Klasik Tip Ve Isıl İşlem Uygulanarak Olgunlaştırılan Sucukların Özelliklerindeki Değişimlerin Belirlenmesi Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Türkiye 9. Gıda Kongresi, 24-26 Mayıs, Bolu, 401-2.
  • Demirgül, F., Sağdıç, O. 2017. Laktik starter kültür üretim teknolojisi. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, 7(11), 27-37.
  • Dominguez, R., Munekata, P. E., Agregan, R., & Lorenzo, J. M. 2016. Effect of commercial starter cultures on free amino acid, biogenic amine and free fatty acid contents in dry-cured foal sausage. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 71, 47-53.
  • Eerola, S., Hinkkanen, R., Lindfors, E., Hirvi, T. 1993. Liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in dry sausages. Journal of AOAC International, 76(3), 575–577.
  • Eerola, S., Maijala, R., Roig-Sague´ s, A. X., Salminen, M., & Hirvi, T. 1996. Biogenic amines in dry sausages as affected by starter culture and contaminant amine-positive Lactobacillus. Journal of Food Science, 61(6), 1243–1246.
  • Ekici, K. ve Omer, A. K. 2018. The determination of some biogenic amines in Turkish fermented sausages consumed in Van. Toxicology reports, 5, 639-643.
  • Ekici, K., Şekeroǧlu, R., Sancak, Y. C., Noyan, T. 2004. A note on histamine levels in Turkish style fermented sausages. Meat science, 68(1), 123-125.
  • Ensoy, U., Kolsarici, N., Candoğan, K., & Karslıoğlu, B. 2010. Changes in biochemical and microbiological characteristics of turkey sucuks as affected by processing and starter culture utilization. Journal of Muscle Foods, 21(1), 142-165.
  • Erkmen, O. 1999. Behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in Refrigerated and Frozen Ground Beef and in Turkish Style Sausage and Broth With and Without Additives. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 21, 279–288.
  • Erkmen, O. ve Bozkurt, H. 2004. Quality characteristics of retailed sucuk (Turkish Dry-Fermented Sausage). Food Technology and Biotechnology, 42, 63-69.
  • Gardini, F., Martuscelli, M., Crudele, M. A., Paparella, A., Suzzi, G. 2002. Use of Staphylococcus xylosus as astarter culture in dried sausages: effect on the biogenic amine content. Meat Sci., 61:275–283.
  • Gençcelep, H., Kaban, G., Aksu, M. İ., Öz, F., Kaya, M. 2008. Determination of biogenic amines in sucuk. Food Control, 19(9), 868-872.
  • Gonzalez-Fernandez, C., Santos, E., Jaime, I., and Rovira, J. 2003. Influence of starter cultures and sugar concentrations of biogenic amine contents in chorizo dry sausage. Food Microbiol., 20:275–284.
  • Henry, M. 1960. Dosage biologique de l'histamine dans les aliments. Ann. Fals. Eexp. Chim. 53, 24–33.
  • Hernandez-Jover, T., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Veciana-Nogue´ s, M. T., Marine´-Font, A., Vidal-Carou, M. C. 1997. Biogenic amine and polyamine contents in meat and meat products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45, 2098–2102.
  • Joosten, H. J. ve van Boekel, M. S. 1988. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese. 4. A study of the kinetics of histamine formation in an infected Gouda cheese. Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal, 42(1), 3-24.
  • Kara, R. ve Akkaya, L. 2010. Geleneksel ve Isıl işlem Uygulanarak Üretilen Türk Sucuklarında Salmonella typhimurium’un Gelişimi. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi, 5(3), 1-8.
  • Kesmen, Z., Yarimcam, B., Aslan, H., Ozbekar, E., & Yetim, H. 2014. Application of different molecular techniques for characterization of catalase‐positive cocci isolated from Sucuk. Journal of food science, 79(2), M222-M229.
  • Kim, M., Jae-Mah, J., Hwang, H. 2009. Biogenic amine formation and bacterial contribution in fish, squid and shellfish. Food Chemistry, 116, 87–95.
  • Kurt Ş. 2006. The effects of fermentation time, nitrite level and heat treatment on biogenic amine formation and some properties of sucuk. PhD thesis. Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van, Turkey.
  • Kurt, Ş. ve Zorba, Ö. 2010. Biogenic amine formation in Turkish dry fermented sausage (sucuk) as affected by nisin and nitrite. J. Sci. Food Agric, 90 (15) 2669–2674.
  • Latorre-Moratalla, M. L., Veciana-Nogués, T., Bover-Cid, S., Garriga, M., Aymerich, T., Zanardi, E., ... & Laukova, A. 2008. Biogenic amines in traditional fermented sausages produced in selected European countries. Food Chemistry, 107(2), 912-921.
  • Lu, S., Ji, H., Wang, Q., Li, B., Li, K., Xu, C., & Jiang, C. 2015. The effects of starter cultures and plant extracts on the biogenic amine accumulation in traditional Chinese smoked horsemeat sausages. Food Control, 50, 869-875.
  • Lu, S., Xu, X., Zhou, G., Zhu, Z., Meng, Y., Sun, Y. 2010. Effect of starter cultures on microbial ecosystem and biogenic amines in fermented sausage. Food Control, 21: 444–449.
  • Naila, A., Flint, S., Fletcher, G. C., Bremer, P. J., & Meerdink, G. 2011. Biogenic amines and potential histamine–forming bacteria in rihaakuru (a cooked fish paste). Food chemistry, 128(2), 479-484.
  • Nout, M. 1994. Fermented foods and food safety. Food Res. Int., 27 (3), 291–298.
  • Önal, A. 2007. A review: current analytical methods for the determination of biogenic amines in foods. Food Chemistry, 103 (4) 1475–1486.
  • Papavergou, E. J. 2011. Biogenic amine levels in dry fermented sausages produced and sold in Greece. Procedia Food Science, 1, 1126-1131.
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  • Rabie, M. Elsaidy, S. el-Badawy, A. Siliha, H. Malcata, F. 2011. Biogenic amine contents in selected Egyptian fermented foods as determined by ion-exchange chromatography. J. Food Prot., 74 (4) 681–685.
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Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 23, 43 - 51, 30.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.800887

Öz

Bu çalışmada Kayseri piyasasında farklı üretim tekniği uygulanarak satışa sunulan sucukların kalitesi belirlenerek ürünlerin daha güvenilir bir şekilde tüketiminin sağlanabilmesi amacıyla biyojen amin içerik ve miktarları incelenmiştir. Bu amaçla 10 endüstriyel tip fermente sucuk (A), 10 ısıl işlem görmüş sucuk (B) ve 20 geleneksel yöntem ile üretilmiş kasap sucuğu (C) olmak üzere toplam da 40 adet örnek piyasadan rastgele temin edilmiş ve Yüksek Basınç Sıvı Kromotografisi (HPLC)’nde 254 nm dalga boyu, 40oC kolon sıcaklığı ve 1 mL/dak akış hızı koşullarında sekiz farklı biyojen amin konsantrasyonu (putresin, kadaverin, tiramin, histamin, triptamin, feniletilamin, spermin ve spermidin) incelenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre kadaverin, putresin ve tiramin konsantrasyonları diğer biyojen aminlere kıyasla daha yüksek değerlere ulaşmıştır. C grup sucukların özellikle putresin, kadaverin ve tiramin miktarı A ve B grubu sucuklardan oldukça fazla miktarda (P < 0.05) bulunmuştur. Putresin konsantrasyonu A grubu sucuklarda 14.61-132.26 mg/kg, B grubu sucuk örneklerinde 14.99-30.34 mg/kg aralıklarında gözlenirken, C grubu sucuklarda bu aralık belirgin bir şekilde artarak 24.46-542.35 mg/kg bulunmuştur. A ve B grubu sucuklarda tespit edilen ortalama tiramin değerleri sırasıyla 17.71 ve 17.35 mg/kg bulunmakla birlikte C grubu sucuklarda bu değer bir hayli artarak 56.32 mg/kg’a ulaştığı gözlenmiştir. A ve B grubu sucuk örneklerinde kadaverin tespit edilemezken, C grubu örneklerin yarısında tespit edilen kadaverinin ortalama değeri 97.21 mg/kg olarak bulunmuştur. Farklı üretim tekniği kullanılarak üretilen A, B ve C grubu sucukların histamin konsantrasyonlarında istatistiksel olarak önemli farklılıklar (P < 0.05) tespit edilmiştir. A, B ve C grubu sucuklarda yaklaşık %90 oranında tespit edilen histamin sırasıyla 0-58.75 mg/kg, 0-61.03 ve 0-65.51mg/kg aralıklarında bulunmuş ve sucuk grupları arasında önemli farkılıklar (P < 0.05) gözlenmiştir. Küçük aminler olarak nitelendirilen triptamin ve feniletilaminin ortalama konsantrasyonları A, B ve C gruplarında sırasıyla 9.77, 9.09, 13.04 mg/kg ve 2.80, 2.12, 6.06 mg/kg şeklinde (P < 0.05) görülmüştür. Farklı üretim tekniği kullanılmasının spermin ve spermidin konsantrasyonlarını istatistiksel olarak etkilemediği (P > 0.05) görülmüştür. Genel olarak, kasap sucuklarının (C), ısıl işlem (B) ve endüstriyel tip fermente (A) sucuklardan biyojen amin miktarı açısından daha yüksek olduğu (P < 0.05) tespit edilmiştir. Bu sonuçlara göre, starter kültür kullanılmadan gerçekleştirilen doğal fermantasyon işlemi sucuklarda yüksek oranda biyojen amin birikmesine neden olabilmektedir. Sonuç olarak, et ve et ürünlerinde istenmeyen mikrobiyal aktivitenin kalite indeksi ve göstergesi olarak kabul edilen biyojen amin konsantrasyonunun azaltılması için gelişmiş, hijyenik koşullar barındıran modern tesislerde üretimin gerçekleşmesi, negatif dekarboksilaz aktiviteye sahip starter kültürlerin kullanılması ve ısıl işlem uygulaması ile biyojen aminlerin oluşumunun engellenmesi veya azaltılması mümkün olabilecektir.

Kaynakça

  • Ansorena, D., Montel, M. C., Rokka, M., Talon, R., Eerola, S., Rizzo, A., ... & Demeyer, D. 2002. Analysis of biogenic amines in northern and southern European sausages and role of flora in amine production. Meat Science, 61(2), 141-147.
  • Askar, A. ve Treptow, H. 1986. Biogenic amine in lebensmittein vorkommenbedentung und bestimmung. Stuttgart: Eugen Ulmer GmbH.
  • Ayhan, K., Kolsarici, N., Özkan, G. A. 1999. The effects of a starter culture on the formation of biogenic amines in Turkish soudjoucks. Meat Science, 53(3), 183-188.
  • Blagojevic, B., Antic, D., Adzic, B., Tasic, T., Ikonic, P., & Buncic, S. 2015. Decontamination of incoming beef trimmings with hot lactic acid solution to improve microbial safety of resulting dry fermented sausages–A pilot study. Food Control, 54, 144-149.
  • Bodmer, S., Imark, C., & Kneubühl, M. 1999. Biogenic amines in foods: histamine and food processing. Inflammation research, 48(6), 296-300. Bover-Cid, S., Schoppen, S., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Vidal-Carou, M. 1999. Relationship between biogenic amine contents and the size of dry fermented sausages. Meat Science, 51 (4) 305–311.
  • Bover-Cid, S., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Vidal-Carou, M. C. 2001. Changes in biogenic amines and polyamine contents in slightly fermented sausages manufactured with and without sugar. Meat Science, 57(2), 215–221.
  • Bozkurt, H. ve Erkmen, O. 2002. Effects of starter cultures and additives on the quality of Turkish style sausage (sucuk). Meat Science, 61 (2) 149–156.
  • Chaloner-Larsson, G., Anderson, R., Egan, A., Da Fonseca Costa Filho, M. A., Gomez Herrera, J. F., & World Health Organization. 1999. A WHO guide to good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements (No. WHO/VSQ/97.01). World Health Organization.
  • Coı̈sson, J. D., Cerutti, C., Travaglia, F., & Arlorio, M. 2004. Production of biogenic amines in “Salamini italiani alla cacciatora PDO”. Meat Science, 67(2), 343-349.
  • Coloretti, F., Tabanelli, G., Chiavari, C., Lanciotti, R., Grazia, L., Gardini, F., & Montanari, C. 2014. Effect of wine addition on microbiological characteristics, volatile molecule profiles and biogenic amine contents in fermented sausages. Meat science, 96(3), 1395-1402.
  • Coşansu, S. ve Ayhan, K. 2002. Ankara'da satışa sunulan sucukların biyojen içerikleri. Türkiye 7. Gıda Kongresi, 22-24 Mayıs, 453, Ankara.
  • Değirmencioğlu, A., Arslan M., Gökgözoğlu İ. ve Tavşanlı H. 2006. Klasik Tip Ve Isıl İşlem Uygulanarak Olgunlaştırılan Sucukların Özelliklerindeki Değişimlerin Belirlenmesi Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Türkiye 9. Gıda Kongresi, 24-26 Mayıs, Bolu, 401-2.
  • Demirgül, F., Sağdıç, O. 2017. Laktik starter kültür üretim teknolojisi. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, 7(11), 27-37.
  • Dominguez, R., Munekata, P. E., Agregan, R., & Lorenzo, J. M. 2016. Effect of commercial starter cultures on free amino acid, biogenic amine and free fatty acid contents in dry-cured foal sausage. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 71, 47-53.
  • Eerola, S., Hinkkanen, R., Lindfors, E., Hirvi, T. 1993. Liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in dry sausages. Journal of AOAC International, 76(3), 575–577.
  • Eerola, S., Maijala, R., Roig-Sague´ s, A. X., Salminen, M., & Hirvi, T. 1996. Biogenic amines in dry sausages as affected by starter culture and contaminant amine-positive Lactobacillus. Journal of Food Science, 61(6), 1243–1246.
  • Ekici, K. ve Omer, A. K. 2018. The determination of some biogenic amines in Turkish fermented sausages consumed in Van. Toxicology reports, 5, 639-643.
  • Ekici, K., Şekeroǧlu, R., Sancak, Y. C., Noyan, T. 2004. A note on histamine levels in Turkish style fermented sausages. Meat science, 68(1), 123-125.
  • Ensoy, U., Kolsarici, N., Candoğan, K., & Karslıoğlu, B. 2010. Changes in biochemical and microbiological characteristics of turkey sucuks as affected by processing and starter culture utilization. Journal of Muscle Foods, 21(1), 142-165.
  • Erkmen, O. 1999. Behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in Refrigerated and Frozen Ground Beef and in Turkish Style Sausage and Broth With and Without Additives. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 21, 279–288.
  • Erkmen, O. ve Bozkurt, H. 2004. Quality characteristics of retailed sucuk (Turkish Dry-Fermented Sausage). Food Technology and Biotechnology, 42, 63-69.
  • Gardini, F., Martuscelli, M., Crudele, M. A., Paparella, A., Suzzi, G. 2002. Use of Staphylococcus xylosus as astarter culture in dried sausages: effect on the biogenic amine content. Meat Sci., 61:275–283.
  • Gençcelep, H., Kaban, G., Aksu, M. İ., Öz, F., Kaya, M. 2008. Determination of biogenic amines in sucuk. Food Control, 19(9), 868-872.
  • Gonzalez-Fernandez, C., Santos, E., Jaime, I., and Rovira, J. 2003. Influence of starter cultures and sugar concentrations of biogenic amine contents in chorizo dry sausage. Food Microbiol., 20:275–284.
  • Henry, M. 1960. Dosage biologique de l'histamine dans les aliments. Ann. Fals. Eexp. Chim. 53, 24–33.
  • Hernandez-Jover, T., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Veciana-Nogue´ s, M. T., Marine´-Font, A., Vidal-Carou, M. C. 1997. Biogenic amine and polyamine contents in meat and meat products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45, 2098–2102.
  • Joosten, H. J. ve van Boekel, M. S. 1988. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese. 4. A study of the kinetics of histamine formation in an infected Gouda cheese. Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal, 42(1), 3-24.
  • Kara, R. ve Akkaya, L. 2010. Geleneksel ve Isıl işlem Uygulanarak Üretilen Türk Sucuklarında Salmonella typhimurium’un Gelişimi. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi, 5(3), 1-8.
  • Kesmen, Z., Yarimcam, B., Aslan, H., Ozbekar, E., & Yetim, H. 2014. Application of different molecular techniques for characterization of catalase‐positive cocci isolated from Sucuk. Journal of food science, 79(2), M222-M229.
  • Kim, M., Jae-Mah, J., Hwang, H. 2009. Biogenic amine formation and bacterial contribution in fish, squid and shellfish. Food Chemistry, 116, 87–95.
  • Kurt Ş. 2006. The effects of fermentation time, nitrite level and heat treatment on biogenic amine formation and some properties of sucuk. PhD thesis. Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van, Turkey.
  • Kurt, Ş. ve Zorba, Ö. 2010. Biogenic amine formation in Turkish dry fermented sausage (sucuk) as affected by nisin and nitrite. J. Sci. Food Agric, 90 (15) 2669–2674.
  • Latorre-Moratalla, M. L., Veciana-Nogués, T., Bover-Cid, S., Garriga, M., Aymerich, T., Zanardi, E., ... & Laukova, A. 2008. Biogenic amines in traditional fermented sausages produced in selected European countries. Food Chemistry, 107(2), 912-921.
  • Lu, S., Ji, H., Wang, Q., Li, B., Li, K., Xu, C., & Jiang, C. 2015. The effects of starter cultures and plant extracts on the biogenic amine accumulation in traditional Chinese smoked horsemeat sausages. Food Control, 50, 869-875.
  • Lu, S., Xu, X., Zhou, G., Zhu, Z., Meng, Y., Sun, Y. 2010. Effect of starter cultures on microbial ecosystem and biogenic amines in fermented sausage. Food Control, 21: 444–449.
  • Naila, A., Flint, S., Fletcher, G. C., Bremer, P. J., & Meerdink, G. 2011. Biogenic amines and potential histamine–forming bacteria in rihaakuru (a cooked fish paste). Food chemistry, 128(2), 479-484.
  • Nout, M. 1994. Fermented foods and food safety. Food Res. Int., 27 (3), 291–298.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yasemin ÇELEBİ SEZER (Sorumlu Yazar)
OSMANİYE KORKUT ATA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-4495-0206
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Nisan 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 23

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ejosat800887, journal = {Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-2683}, address = {}, publisher = {Osman SAĞDIÇ}, year = {2021}, volume = {}, pages = {43 - 51}, doi = {10.31590/ejosat.800887}, title = {Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Çelebi Sezer, Yasemin} }
APA Çelebi Sezer, Y. (2021). Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi . Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi , (23) , 43-51 . DOI: 10.31590/ejosat.800887
MLA Çelebi Sezer, Y. "Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi" . Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi (2021 ): 43-51 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ejosat/issue/60692/800887>
Chicago Çelebi Sezer, Y. "Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi". Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi (2021 ): 43-51
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi AU - Yasemin Çelebi Sezer Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.31590/ejosat.800887 DO - 10.31590/ejosat.800887 T2 - Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 43 EP - 51 VL - IS - 23 SN - -2148-2683 M3 - doi: 10.31590/ejosat.800887 UR - https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.800887 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi %A Yasemin Çelebi Sezer %T Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi %D 2021 %J Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi %P -2148-2683 %V %N 23 %R doi: 10.31590/ejosat.800887 %U 10.31590/ejosat.800887
ISNAD Çelebi Sezer, Yasemin . "Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi". Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi / 23 (Nisan 2021): 43-51 . https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.800887
AMA Çelebi Sezer Y. Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi. EJOSAT. 2021; (23): 43-51.
Vancouver Çelebi Sezer Y. Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi. 2021; (23): 43-51.
IEEE Y. Çelebi Sezer , "Kayseri Piyasasında Satışa Sunulan Endüstriyel Tip Fermente, Kasap ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş Sucukların Biyojen Amin Miktarlarının Belirlenmesi", Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, sayı. 23, ss. 43-51, Nis. 2021, doi:10.31590/ejosat.800887