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Kadife Eldiven İçindeki Demir Yumruk: Rusya’nın Orta Doğu’daki Yumuşak Gücü

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 483 - 514, 27.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.890491

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı, “yumuşak güç” kavramının Rus politika yapıcıları tarafından nasıl algılandığını ve uygulama bölgelerinden biri olan Orta Doğu coğrafyasında ne şekilde kullanıldığını tartışmaktır. Mevcut akademik yazında Rus yumuşak gücüne ilişkin yapılmış çalışmaların ağırlıklı olarak Orta Asya, Kafkaslar, Baltık ülkeleri ve Doğu Avrupa’yı içeren eski Sovyet etki alanına yönelik olduğu görülmektedir. Oysaki Rusya’nın Orta Doğu’ya yönelik izlemiş olduğu dış politika değerlendirildiğinde askerî müdahale, zor kullanma, tehdit, siyasi manipülasyon ve vekil savaşları gibi sert güç unsurlarının yanı sıra yumuşak güç araçlarını da içeren çok boyutlu bir yaklaşıma sahip olduğu görülmektedir. Bu noktadan hareketle çalışma Rus yumuşak gücünün bölgedeki etkisini ve sınırlılıklarını ortaya koyarak literatürdeki boşluğu doldurmayı hedeflemektedir. Rusya’nın Orta Doğu’daki yumuşak güç projeksiyonu irdelenirken resmî belgeler, kurumsal raporlar, istatistikler ve anketlerin yanı sıra karar alıcıların demeçleri ve söyleşiler de dikkate alınarak söylem ve uygulamada Rus yumuşak gücünün Orta Doğu özelindeki geçirmiş olduğu değişim, süreç takibi yöntemi ile analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmada Orta Doğu’da Rus yumuşak gücünün Nye’ın ortaya koyduğu yumuşak güç kavramından hem anlayış hem de uygulama olarak farklılaştığı ve esnek ve pragmatik bir anlayışa sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu esneklik Rusya’ya kısa vadede avantaj sağlamış olsa da uzun dönemde sürdürülebilirliği noktasında sınırlılıklar taşımaktadır.

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An Iron Fist in a Velvet Glove: Russia's Soft Power in the Middle East

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 483 - 514, 27.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.890491

Öz

The aim of this study is to discuss how the concept of "soft power" is perceived by Russian policymakers and how it is used in the Middle East geography, which is one of its application areas. In the existing academic literature, studies on Russian soft power have mainly focused on the former Soviet domain, including Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Baltic states, and Eastern Europe. However, when Russia's foreign policy towards the Middle East is evaluated, it is observed to have a multi-dimensional approach, which includes soft power instruments in addition to hard power elements such as military intervention, use of force, threat, political manipulation, and proxy wars. From this point of view, this study aims to fill the literature gap by revealing the effects and limitations of Russian soft power in the region. The statements and discourses of decision-makers as well as official documents, institutional reports, statistics, and surveys were also considered while examining the soft power projection of Russia in the Middle East, and the change of the Russian soft power in discourse and practice in the Middle East was analyzed by the process tracing method. In the study, it is revealed that the Russian soft power in the Middle East differs from the concept of soft power introduced by Nye in both understanding and application and had a flexible and pragmatic understanding. Although this flexibility has provided advantages to Russia in the short term, they have limitations with regard to their sustainability in the long term.

Kaynakça

  • Akhundova, J. (2019). Rusya'nın yumuşak güç politikaları: Mevzuat, kurumlar, politikalar. Bursa: Ekin Kitabevi.
  • Akşam. (2020, 10 Şubat) Münih güvenlik raporunda çarpıcı detay: Orta Doğu'daki boşluğu Türkiye, Rusya ve İran dolduruyor. Erişim Adresi: https://www.aksam.com.tr/guncel/munih-guvenlik-raporunda-carpici-detay-orta-dogudaki-boslugu-turkiye-rusya-ve-iran-dolduruyor/haber-1043736.
  • Alım, E. (2019). Rusya’nin büyük güç aktivizminde çok kutuplu dünyanın önemi. Asya Studies, 2(8), 53-65. https://doi.org/10.31455/asya.570103
  • Aliyev, M. (2019). Yumuşak güç kavramı ve Rusya'nın Güney Kafkasya'da yumuşak gücü (Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Isparta.
  • Anlamassova, M. (2017). Uluslararası ilişkilerde yumuşak gücün kullanımı ve Rusya'nın yumuşak güç araçları (Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Siyasi Bilimler
Yayınlanma Tarihi Ağustos 2021
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Muhammed Kürşad ÖZEKİN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi Uluslararası İlişkiler Bölümü
0000-0001-8775-0936
Türkiye


Sibel KIRCAN
BANDIRMA ONYEDI EYLUL UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-3893-1428
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Özekin, M. K. & Kırcan, S. (2021). Kadife Eldiven İçindeki Demir Yumruk: Rusya’nın Orta Doğu’daki Yumuşak Gücü . Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (2) , 483-514 . DOI: 10.30784/epfad.890491

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