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Güneş Enerjisi ve Ekonomik Büyüme

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 515 - 533, 27.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.890910

Öz

Enerji, üretim süreçlerinin, ekonomik faaliyetlerin ve gündelik hayatın en önemli bileşenlerinden birisidir. Ülkelerin gerek ekonomik büyümelerinde, gerekse kalkınma göstergelerinde belirleyici olan enerji, aynı zamanda kıt bir kaynaktır. Öte yandan son 200 yıldır, enerji elde etmek için dünya kaynakları tüketilmekte ve zarar verilen doğal çevre de artık kıt bir kaynak haline gelmektedir. Doğal çevreye verilen zarar gittikçe geri dönülemez bir noktaya yaklaşmakta ve bu durum insanlığın tüm kazanımlarını tehdit etmektedir. Bu nedenle özellikle karbon emisyon oranlarını azaltacak yöntemlerin kullanılması için yenilenebilir kaynaklara yönelmek çok kritik hale gelmektedir. Ayrıca yenilenebilir kaynaklardan enerji elde etmek sürdürülebilir ekonomik büyüme için de elzemdir. Güneş enerjisi de sınırsız ve temiz olma özellikleri ile önemli bir yenilenebilir enerji kaynağıdır. Bu çalışmada güneş enerjisi ve ekonomik büyüme ilişkisi araştırılmaktadır. Deneysel çalışmada seçilmiş 19 ülkenin 1990-2019 yılları arasındaki bilgilerini kapsayan veri seti, panel veri yöntemleri ile analiz edilmektedir. Deneysel analizde hem statik hem de dinamik panel yöntemleri uygulanmaktadır. Çalışma sonuçlarına göre, güneş enerjisi kullanımı ile ekonomik büyüme arasında pozitif bir ilişki vardır. Elde edilen bulgular, kullanılan veri seti özelinde büyüme hipotezinin geçerli olduğunu göstermektedir.

Kaynakça

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  • Ang, J. (2008). Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia. Journal of Policy Modeling, 30(2), 271-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2007.04.010
  • Apaydın, Ş. (2020). Küreselleşmenin ekolojik ayak izi üzerindeki etkileri: Türkiye örneği. Ekonomi, Politika & Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(1), 23-42. https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.695836
  • Apaydın, Ş. ve Taşdoğan, C. (2019a). Türkiye'de iktisadi büyüme ve birincil enerji tüketiminin karbon salınımı üzerindeki etkisi: Yapısal VAR yaklaşımı. Akademi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 6(16), 19-35. Erişim adresi: https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/asbider
  • Apaydın, Ş. ve Taşdoğan, C. (201b). Türkiye'de yenilenebilir ve birincil enerji talebinin büyüme üzerindeki uzun dönem etkileri. 3. Sektör Sosyal Ekonomi Dergisi, 54(1), 431-445. https://doi.org/10.15659/3.sektor-sosyal-ekonomi.19.03.1109
  • Apergis, N. and Payne, J. E. (2010). Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries. Energy Policy, 38, 656–660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.09.002
  • Apergis , N. and Payne, J. E. (2011). The renewable energy consumption–growth nexus in Central America. Applied Energy, 88(1), 343-347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.07.013
  • Apergis, N., Payne, J. E., Menyah, K. and Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2010). On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth. Ecological Economics, 69(11), 2255-2260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.06.014
  • Arrow, K., Bolin, B., Costanza, R., Dasgupta, P., Folke, C., Holling, C. S., … Pimentel, D. (1995). Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment. Ecological Economics, 15(2), 91-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-8009(95)00059-3
  • Asafu-Adjaye, J. (2000). The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: Time series evidence from Asian developing countries. Energy Economics, 22(6), 615-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-9883(00)00050-5
  • Atkeson, A. and Kehoe, P. J. (1999). Models of energy use: Putty-Putty versus Putty-Clay. American Economic Review, 89(4), 1028-1043. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.89.4.1028
  • Bailey, S., Brinker, D., Curtis, H., Jenkins, P. and Scheiman, D. (1997). Solar cell calibration and measurement techniques. NASA Technical Memorandum, 113155. Retrieved from https://ntrs.nasa.gov/
  • Baltagi, H. (2021). Econometric analysis for panel data (Sixth edition). Sweden: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53953-5
  • Belloumi, M. (2009). Energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia: Co-integration and causality analysis. Energy Policy, 37(7), 2745-2753. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.03.027
  • Ben-Salha, O., Hkiri, B. and Aloui, C. (2018). Sectoral energy consumption by source and output in the U.S.: New evidence from wavelet-based approach. Energy Economics, 72, 75–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2018.03.029
  • Bhattacharya, M., Paramati, S. R., Öztürk, İ. and Bhattacharya, S. (2016). The effect of renewable energy consumption on economic growth: Evidence from top 38 countries. Applied Energy, 162, 733-741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.104
  • Bilgili, F. and Öztürk, İ. (2015). Biomass energy and economic growth nexus in G7 countries: Evidence from dynamic panel data. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 49, 132–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.098
  • Blundell, R. and Bond, S. (1998). Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models. Journal of Econometrics, 87(1), 115–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4076(98)00009-8
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  • Jamar, A., Majid, Z. A., Azmi, W. H., Norhafana, M. and Razak, A. A. (2016). A review of water heating system for solar energy applications. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 76, 178-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2016.05.028
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Solar Energy and Economic Growth

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 515 - 533, 27.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.890910

Öz

Energy is one of the most crucial components of production processes, economic activities and daily life. Being a determinant of both the economic growth and development indicators of the countries, energy is a scarce resource. On the other hand, in the last 200 years, world resources have been depleted for energy purposes, and the damaged natural environment has now become a scarce resource. The damage of the natural environment is getting closer to an irreversible point, and this situation threatens all the achievements of humanity. For this reason, it becomes very critical to use renewable resources especially for reducing the carbon emission rates. In addition, obtaining energy from renewable resources is essential for sustainable economic growth. Solar energy is an important renewable energy source that is unlimited and clean. In this study, the relationship between solar energy and economic growth is explored. In the empirical study, the data set covering the data of 19 selected countries between 1990 and 2019 is analyzed with panel data methods. Both static and dynamic panel data methods are applied in the empirical analysis. According to the results of the study, there is a positive relationship between solar energy use and economic growth. The findings show that the growth hypothesis is valid for this data set.

Kaynakça

  • Adenle, A. A. (2020). Assessment of solar energy technologies in Africa-opportunities and challenges in meeting the 2030 agenda and sustainable development goals. Energy Policy, 137(111180). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2019.111180
  • Ang, J. (2007). CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy, 35(10), 4772-4778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.03.032
  • Ang, J. (2008). Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia. Journal of Policy Modeling, 30(2), 271-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2007.04.010
  • Apaydın, Ş. (2020). Küreselleşmenin ekolojik ayak izi üzerindeki etkileri: Türkiye örneği. Ekonomi, Politika & Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(1), 23-42. https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.695836
  • Apaydın, Ş. ve Taşdoğan, C. (2019a). Türkiye'de iktisadi büyüme ve birincil enerji tüketiminin karbon salınımı üzerindeki etkisi: Yapısal VAR yaklaşımı. Akademi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 6(16), 19-35. Erişim adresi: https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/asbider
  • Apaydın, Ş. ve Taşdoğan, C. (201b). Türkiye'de yenilenebilir ve birincil enerji talebinin büyüme üzerindeki uzun dönem etkileri. 3. Sektör Sosyal Ekonomi Dergisi, 54(1), 431-445. https://doi.org/10.15659/3.sektor-sosyal-ekonomi.19.03.1109
  • Apergis, N. and Payne, J. E. (2010). Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries. Energy Policy, 38, 656–660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.09.002
  • Apergis , N. and Payne, J. E. (2011). The renewable energy consumption–growth nexus in Central America. Applied Energy, 88(1), 343-347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.07.013
  • Apergis, N., Payne, J. E., Menyah, K. and Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2010). On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth. Ecological Economics, 69(11), 2255-2260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.06.014
  • Arrow, K., Bolin, B., Costanza, R., Dasgupta, P., Folke, C., Holling, C. S., … Pimentel, D. (1995). Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment. Ecological Economics, 15(2), 91-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-8009(95)00059-3
  • Asafu-Adjaye, J. (2000). The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: Time series evidence from Asian developing countries. Energy Economics, 22(6), 615-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-9883(00)00050-5
  • Atkeson, A. and Kehoe, P. J. (1999). Models of energy use: Putty-Putty versus Putty-Clay. American Economic Review, 89(4), 1028-1043. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.89.4.1028
  • Bailey, S., Brinker, D., Curtis, H., Jenkins, P. and Scheiman, D. (1997). Solar cell calibration and measurement techniques. NASA Technical Memorandum, 113155. Retrieved from https://ntrs.nasa.gov/
  • Baltagi, H. (2021). Econometric analysis for panel data (Sixth edition). Sweden: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53953-5
  • Belloumi, M. (2009). Energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia: Co-integration and causality analysis. Energy Policy, 37(7), 2745-2753. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.03.027
  • Ben-Salha, O., Hkiri, B. and Aloui, C. (2018). Sectoral energy consumption by source and output in the U.S.: New evidence from wavelet-based approach. Energy Economics, 72, 75–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2018.03.029
  • Bhattacharya, M., Paramati, S. R., Öztürk, İ. and Bhattacharya, S. (2016). The effect of renewable energy consumption on economic growth: Evidence from top 38 countries. Applied Energy, 162, 733-741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.104
  • Bilgili, F. and Öztürk, İ. (2015). Biomass energy and economic growth nexus in G7 countries: Evidence from dynamic panel data. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 49, 132–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.098
  • Blundell, R. and Bond, S. (1998). Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models. Journal of Econometrics, 87(1), 115–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4076(98)00009-8
  • Bowden, N. and Payne, J. E. (2009). The causal relationship between US energy consumption and real output: A disaggregated analysis. Journal of Policy Modelling, 31(2), 180-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2008.09.001
  • BP Energy Outlook. (2020). Statistical review of world energy. Retrieved from https://www.bp.com/
  • Dawson, T. P., Rounsevell, M. D., Kluvanková-Oravska, T., Chobotova, V. and Stirling, A. (2010). Dynamic properties of complex adaptive ecosystems: Implications for the sustainability of service provision. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19, 2843-2853. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9892-z
  • Devezas, T., LePoire, D., Matias, J. O. and Silva, A. M. (2008). Energy scenarios: Toward a new energy paradigm. Futures, 40(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2007.06.005
  • Diaz, A., Marrero, G. A., Puch, L. A. and Rodriguez, J. (2019). Economic growth, energy intensity and the energy mix. Energy Economics, 81, 1056–1077. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2019.05.022
  • Diaz, A., Puch, L. A. and Guilló, M. D. (2004). Costly capital reallocation and energy use. Review of Economic Dynamics, 7(2), 494-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.red.2003.09.005
  • Farhidi, F. (2017). Solar impacts on the sustainability of economic growth. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 77, 440–450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.04.033
  • Fischer, C. and Heutel, G. (2013). Environmental macroeconomics: Environmental policy, business cycles, and directed technical change. Annual Review of Resource Economics, 5(1), 197-210. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-resource-091912-151819
  • Groba, F. (2014). Determinants of trade with solar energy technology components: Evidence on the porter hypothesis? Applied Economics, 46(5), 503–526. https://doi.org /10.1080/00036846.2013. 857005
  • Inglesi-Lotz, R. (2016). The impact of renewable energy consumption to economic growth: A panel data application. Energy Economics, 53, 58-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2015.01.003
  • Jamar, A., Majid, Z. A., Azmi, W. H., Norhafana, M. and Razak, A. A. (2016). A review of water heating system for solar energy applications. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 76, 178-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2016.05.028
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İktisat
Yayınlanma Tarihi Ağustos 2021
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ümit KOÇ (Sorumlu Yazar)
tcmb
0000-0002-1853-5156
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Koç, Ü. (2021). Güneş Enerjisi ve Ekonomik Büyüme . Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (2) , 515-533 . DOI: 10.30784/epfad.890910

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