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Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi

Yıl 2014, Cilt 11, Sayı 3, 149 - 155, 01.12.2014

Öz

Bu çalışmada, Afyon’da süpermarket ve kasaplarda satışa sunulan tavuk ve sığır eti kıymalarında Clostridium

perfringens’in (Cl. perfringens) prevalansı ve kontaminasyon düzeyininin belirlenmesi amaçlandı. Kontaminasyon düzeyi

EMS (En Muhtemel Sayı) yöntemi ile belirlendi. Farklı kasap ve satış yerlerinden toplam 100 örnek (50 tavuk kıyma;

50 sığır kıyma) toplandı. Çalışmanın sonuçları 100 örneğin 61’inin (%61) 3.0-20.0 EMS/g düzeyleri arasında kontamine

olduğunu gösterdi. Sığır kıyma örneklerinin 34’ü (%68), tavuk kıyma örneklerinin ise 27’si (%54) Cl. perfringens ile

kontamine bulundu. Sığır kıyma ve tavuk kıyma örneklerinin sırasıyla ortalama 4.9 EMS/g ve 3.5 EMS/g düzeylerinde

kontamine olduğu belirlendi. Artan hava sıcaklığına bağlı olarak prevalansın ve kontaminasyon düzeyininde arttığı,

kasaplardan toplanan örneklerin, süpermarketlerden toplananlara göre daha kontamine olduğu belirlendi.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Adak GK, Long SM, O’Brien SJ. Trends in indigenous foodborne disease and deaths, England and Wales: 1992 to 2000. Gut 2002; 51: 832-41.
  • 2. Atasever M. Besin işyerlerinde hijyen, besinlerin hazırlanması ve muhafazası. YYÜ Vet Fak Derg 2001; 11: 117-22.
  • 3. Atwa EI, Abou EI-Roos NA. Incidence of Clostridium perfringens in meat products at some Egyptian governorates. Int J Microbiol Res 2011; 2: 196-203.
  • 4. Baumgart J, Baum O, Lippert S. Schneller und direkter Nachweis von Clostridium perfringens. Fleisch 1990; 70: 1010-4.
  • 5. Brynestad S, Granum PE. Clostridium perfringens and foodborne infections. Int J Food Microbiol 2002; 74: 195-202.
  • 6. Byrne B, Scannell AG M, Lyng J, Bolton DJ. An evaluation of Clostridium perfringens media. Food Control 2008; 19: 1091-5.
  • 7. Carman RJ, Sayeed S, Li J, Genheimer CW. Clostridium perfringens toxin genotypes in the feces of healthy North Americans. Anaerobe 2008; 14: 102-8.
  • 8. Cohen N, Fillio I, Karraouan B, Badri S, Carle I, Ennaji H, Bouchrif B, Hassar M, Karib H. Microbial quality control of raw ground beef and fresh sausage in Casablanca. J Environ Health 2008; 71: 51-5.
  • 9. Costa MC, Reid-Smith R, Gow S, Hannon SJ, Booker C, Rousseau J, Benedict KM, Morley PS, Weese JS. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Clostridium difficile isolated from feedlot beef cattle upon arrival and mid-feeding period. BMC Veterinary Res 2012; 8: 1-7.
  • 10. Craven SE. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in the broiler chicken processing plant as determined by recovery in iron milk medium. J Food Protect 2001; 64: 1956-60.
  • 11. Craven SE, Stern NJ, Bailey JS, Cox NA. Incidence of Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens and their environment during production and processing. Avian Disease 2001; 45: 887-96.
  • 12. Craven SE, Cox NA, Bailey, JS, Cosby DE. Incidence and tracking of Clostridium perfringens through an integrated broiler chicken operation. Avian Dis 2003; 47: 707-1.
  • 13. De Man JC. MPN tables, corrected. J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1983; 17: 301-5.
  • 14. Doyle ME. Survival and growth of Clostridium perfringens during the cooling step of thermal processing of meat products. Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison. 2002.
  • 15. Garcia S, Heredia N. Clostridium perfringens a dynamic foodborne pathogen. Food Bioproces Technol 2011; 4: 624-30.
  • 16. Guang-Hua W, Xiao-Ling Q. Fleisch und fleisch produkte aus dem einzelhandel in beijing. vorkommen von Cl. perfringens, S. aureus, Salmonellen und L. monocytogenes. Fleisch 1994; 74: 326-8.
  • 17. Hathaway CL. Toxigenic Clostridia. J Clin Microbiol 1990; 3: 66-98.
  • 18. Hayes PR. Food Microbiology and Hygiene. Second Edition. New York: Elsevier Applied Science, 1992.
  • 19. Heikinheimo A, Lindstrom AM, Granum PE, Korkeala H. Human as reservoir for enterotoxin gene-carrying Clostridium perfringens type A. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12: 1724-9.
  • 20. Juneja VK, Marks H, Thippareddi H. Predictive model for growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of cooked ground chicken. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2009; 10: 260-6.
  • 21. Knox R, MacDonald EK. Outbreaks of food poisoning in certain Leicester institutions. Medical Officer 1943; 69: 21-2.
  • 22. Labbe RG. Clostridium perfringens. Doyle MP. eds. In: Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. New York: New York and Basel Marcel Decker Inc, 1989, pp. 191-227.
  • 23. Li J, Sayeed S, McClane BA. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens isolates in Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) area soil and home kitchens. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007; 73: 7218-24.
  • 24. Linch M, Painter J, Woodruff R, Braden C. Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks inUnited States, 1998–2002. Morb Mort Weekly Report 2006; 55: 1-34.
  • 25. Lindblad M, Lindmark H, Lambertz ST, Lindqvist R. Microbiological baseline study of broiler chickens at Swedish slaughterhouses. J Food Protect 2006; 69: 2875-82.
  • 26. Lin Y, Labbe R. Enterotoxigenicity and genetic relatedness of Clostridium perfringens isolates from retail foods in the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003; 69: 1642-6.
  • 27. Kobayashi S, Wada A, Shibasaki S, Annaka M, Higuchi H, Adachi K, Mori N, Ishikawa T, Masuda Y, Watanabe H, Yamamoto N, Yamaoka S, Inamatsu T. Spread of a large plasmid carrying the cpe gene and the tcp locus amongst Clostridium perfringens isolates from nosocomial outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis in a geriatric hospital. Epidemiol Infect 2009; 137: 108-13.
  • 28. McClane BA. Clostridium perfringens. Doyle MP, Beuchat LR, Montville TJ. eds. In: Food microbiology Fundamentals and Frontiers. Washington DC: ASM Press, 2001, pp. 351-72.
  • 29. McClane BA, Rood JI. Clostridial toxins involved in human enteric and histotoxic infection. Bahl H, Dürre P. eds. In: Clostridia: Biotechnology and Medical Applications. Wiley-VHC Weinheim, 2001, pp. 169–220.
  • 30. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffen PM, Tauxe RV. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 1999; 5: 607-25.
  • 31. Miki Y, Miyamoto K, Kaneko-Hirano I, Fujiuchi K, Akimoto S. Prevalence and characterization of enterotoxin gene-carrying Clostridium perfringens isolates from retail meat products in Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008; 74: 5366–72.
  • 32. Miwa N, Nishina T, Kubo S, Atsumi M, Honda H. Amount of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meat detected by nested PCR. Intl J Food Microbiol 1998; 42: 195-200.
  • 33. Nowell VJ, Poppe C, Parreira VR, Jiang YF, Reid-Smith R, Prescott JF. Clostridium perfringens in retail chicken. Anaerobe 2010; 16: 314-5.
  • 34. Pillai SD, Vega E. Molecular detection and characterization tools. Santo Domingo JW, M. Sadowsky J. eds. In: Microbial source tracking. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 2007, pp. 65-91.
  • 35. Satio M. Production of enterotoxin by C. perfringens derived from humans, animals, foods and the natural environment in Japan. J Food Protect 1990; 53: 115-8.
  • 36. Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy, SL, Jones JL, Griffin PM. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States- major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17: 7-15.
  • 37. Schalch B, Eisgruber H, Geppert P, Stolle A. Vergleich von vier Routineverfahren zur Bestaetigung von Clostridium perfringens aus. Arch Lebensmittel 1996; 47: 27-30.
  • 38. Setlow P, Johnson EA. Spores and their significance. Doyle MP, Beuchat LR, Montville TJ. eds. In: Food microbiology Fundamentals and Frontiers. Washington DC: ASM Press, 2001, pp. 33-70.
  • 39. Singh RV, Bhilegaonkar KN, Agarwal RK. Studies on occurrence and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from select meats. J Food Safety 2005; 25: 146-56.
  • 40. Stagnitta PV, Micalizzi B, Guzman AMS. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meats in San Luis, Argentina. Anaerobe 2002; 8: 253-8.
  • 41. Tschirdewahn B, Notermans S, Wernars K, Untermann F. The presence of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens strains in faeces of various animals. Int J Food Microbiol 1991; 14: 175-8.
  • 42. Wen Q, McClane BA. Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A isolates in American retail food. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70: 2685-91.

Detection of Clostridium perfringens Contamination in Retail Minced Beef and Poultry Meat Retailed in Afyon*

Yıl 2014, Cilt 11, Sayı 3, 149 - 155, 01.12.2014

Öz

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and contamination level of Clostridium

perfringens (Cl.perfringens) in minced poultry and beef sold at retail in Afyon. The contamination level of Cl.

perfringens was detected by Most Probable Number (MPN) method. A total of 100 samples, consisting of 50 raw

minced poultry meat, and 50 minced beef were collected from various retail stores and butchers. Our results

demonstrated that 61 of 100 saples (61%) were contaminated with between 3.0 and 20.0 MPN/g Cl. perfringens. Thirty

four of 50 minced beef samples (68%) and 27 out of 50 minced poultry meat samples (54%) were found to be

contaminated with Cl. perfringens. Mean contamination level for minced beef and poltry meat samples were 4.9 MPN/g

and 3.5 MPN/g, respectively. In our study, it was determined that the increase in air temperature results in increase in

Cl. perfringens prevalenceand contamination level of the samples collected from were higher than those collected from

supermarket.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Adak GK, Long SM, O’Brien SJ. Trends in indigenous foodborne disease and deaths, England and Wales: 1992 to 2000. Gut 2002; 51: 832-41.
  • 2. Atasever M. Besin işyerlerinde hijyen, besinlerin hazırlanması ve muhafazası. YYÜ Vet Fak Derg 2001; 11: 117-22.
  • 3. Atwa EI, Abou EI-Roos NA. Incidence of Clostridium perfringens in meat products at some Egyptian governorates. Int J Microbiol Res 2011; 2: 196-203.
  • 4. Baumgart J, Baum O, Lippert S. Schneller und direkter Nachweis von Clostridium perfringens. Fleisch 1990; 70: 1010-4.
  • 5. Brynestad S, Granum PE. Clostridium perfringens and foodborne infections. Int J Food Microbiol 2002; 74: 195-202.
  • 6. Byrne B, Scannell AG M, Lyng J, Bolton DJ. An evaluation of Clostridium perfringens media. Food Control 2008; 19: 1091-5.
  • 7. Carman RJ, Sayeed S, Li J, Genheimer CW. Clostridium perfringens toxin genotypes in the feces of healthy North Americans. Anaerobe 2008; 14: 102-8.
  • 8. Cohen N, Fillio I, Karraouan B, Badri S, Carle I, Ennaji H, Bouchrif B, Hassar M, Karib H. Microbial quality control of raw ground beef and fresh sausage in Casablanca. J Environ Health 2008; 71: 51-5.
  • 9. Costa MC, Reid-Smith R, Gow S, Hannon SJ, Booker C, Rousseau J, Benedict KM, Morley PS, Weese JS. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Clostridium difficile isolated from feedlot beef cattle upon arrival and mid-feeding period. BMC Veterinary Res 2012; 8: 1-7.
  • 10. Craven SE. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in the broiler chicken processing plant as determined by recovery in iron milk medium. J Food Protect 2001; 64: 1956-60.
  • 11. Craven SE, Stern NJ, Bailey JS, Cox NA. Incidence of Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens and their environment during production and processing. Avian Disease 2001; 45: 887-96.
  • 12. Craven SE, Cox NA, Bailey, JS, Cosby DE. Incidence and tracking of Clostridium perfringens through an integrated broiler chicken operation. Avian Dis 2003; 47: 707-1.
  • 13. De Man JC. MPN tables, corrected. J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1983; 17: 301-5.
  • 14. Doyle ME. Survival and growth of Clostridium perfringens during the cooling step of thermal processing of meat products. Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison. 2002.
  • 15. Garcia S, Heredia N. Clostridium perfringens a dynamic foodborne pathogen. Food Bioproces Technol 2011; 4: 624-30.
  • 16. Guang-Hua W, Xiao-Ling Q. Fleisch und fleisch produkte aus dem einzelhandel in beijing. vorkommen von Cl. perfringens, S. aureus, Salmonellen und L. monocytogenes. Fleisch 1994; 74: 326-8.
  • 17. Hathaway CL. Toxigenic Clostridia. J Clin Microbiol 1990; 3: 66-98.
  • 18. Hayes PR. Food Microbiology and Hygiene. Second Edition. New York: Elsevier Applied Science, 1992.
  • 19. Heikinheimo A, Lindstrom AM, Granum PE, Korkeala H. Human as reservoir for enterotoxin gene-carrying Clostridium perfringens type A. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12: 1724-9.
  • 20. Juneja VK, Marks H, Thippareddi H. Predictive model for growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of cooked ground chicken. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2009; 10: 260-6.
  • 21. Knox R, MacDonald EK. Outbreaks of food poisoning in certain Leicester institutions. Medical Officer 1943; 69: 21-2.
  • 22. Labbe RG. Clostridium perfringens. Doyle MP. eds. In: Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. New York: New York and Basel Marcel Decker Inc, 1989, pp. 191-227.
  • 23. Li J, Sayeed S, McClane BA. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens isolates in Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) area soil and home kitchens. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007; 73: 7218-24.
  • 24. Linch M, Painter J, Woodruff R, Braden C. Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks inUnited States, 1998–2002. Morb Mort Weekly Report 2006; 55: 1-34.
  • 25. Lindblad M, Lindmark H, Lambertz ST, Lindqvist R. Microbiological baseline study of broiler chickens at Swedish slaughterhouses. J Food Protect 2006; 69: 2875-82.
  • 26. Lin Y, Labbe R. Enterotoxigenicity and genetic relatedness of Clostridium perfringens isolates from retail foods in the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003; 69: 1642-6.
  • 27. Kobayashi S, Wada A, Shibasaki S, Annaka M, Higuchi H, Adachi K, Mori N, Ishikawa T, Masuda Y, Watanabe H, Yamamoto N, Yamaoka S, Inamatsu T. Spread of a large plasmid carrying the cpe gene and the tcp locus amongst Clostridium perfringens isolates from nosocomial outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis in a geriatric hospital. Epidemiol Infect 2009; 137: 108-13.
  • 28. McClane BA. Clostridium perfringens. Doyle MP, Beuchat LR, Montville TJ. eds. In: Food microbiology Fundamentals and Frontiers. Washington DC: ASM Press, 2001, pp. 351-72.
  • 29. McClane BA, Rood JI. Clostridial toxins involved in human enteric and histotoxic infection. Bahl H, Dürre P. eds. In: Clostridia: Biotechnology and Medical Applications. Wiley-VHC Weinheim, 2001, pp. 169–220.
  • 30. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffen PM, Tauxe RV. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 1999; 5: 607-25.
  • 31. Miki Y, Miyamoto K, Kaneko-Hirano I, Fujiuchi K, Akimoto S. Prevalence and characterization of enterotoxin gene-carrying Clostridium perfringens isolates from retail meat products in Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008; 74: 5366–72.
  • 32. Miwa N, Nishina T, Kubo S, Atsumi M, Honda H. Amount of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meat detected by nested PCR. Intl J Food Microbiol 1998; 42: 195-200.
  • 33. Nowell VJ, Poppe C, Parreira VR, Jiang YF, Reid-Smith R, Prescott JF. Clostridium perfringens in retail chicken. Anaerobe 2010; 16: 314-5.
  • 34. Pillai SD, Vega E. Molecular detection and characterization tools. Santo Domingo JW, M. Sadowsky J. eds. In: Microbial source tracking. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 2007, pp. 65-91.
  • 35. Satio M. Production of enterotoxin by C. perfringens derived from humans, animals, foods and the natural environment in Japan. J Food Protect 1990; 53: 115-8.
  • 36. Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy, SL, Jones JL, Griffin PM. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States- major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17: 7-15.
  • 37. Schalch B, Eisgruber H, Geppert P, Stolle A. Vergleich von vier Routineverfahren zur Bestaetigung von Clostridium perfringens aus. Arch Lebensmittel 1996; 47: 27-30.
  • 38. Setlow P, Johnson EA. Spores and their significance. Doyle MP, Beuchat LR, Montville TJ. eds. In: Food microbiology Fundamentals and Frontiers. Washington DC: ASM Press, 2001, pp. 33-70.
  • 39. Singh RV, Bhilegaonkar KN, Agarwal RK. Studies on occurrence and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from select meats. J Food Safety 2005; 25: 146-56.
  • 40. Stagnitta PV, Micalizzi B, Guzman AMS. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meats in San Luis, Argentina. Anaerobe 2002; 8: 253-8.
  • 41. Tschirdewahn B, Notermans S, Wernars K, Untermann F. The presence of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens strains in faeces of various animals. Int J Food Microbiol 1991; 14: 175-8.
  • 42. Wen Q, McClane BA. Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A isolates in American retail food. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70: 2685-91.

Ayrıntılar

Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Şebnem PAMUK
Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar
Türkiye


Gözde ÇELİKELOĞLU Bu kişi benim
Food Engineer in a Private Company, Afyonkarahisar
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Aralık 2014
Başvuru Tarihi 15 Ocak 2017
Kabul Tarihi 1 Kasım 2014
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2014, Cilt 11, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ercivet285957, journal = {Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1304-7280}, eissn = {2667-5498}, address = {}, publisher = {Erciyes Üniversitesi}, year = {2014}, volume = {11}, number = {3}, pages = {149 - 155}, title = {Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Pamuk, Şebnem and Çelikeloğlu, Gözde} }
APA Pamuk, Ş. & Çelikeloğlu, G. (2014). Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi . Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi , 11 (3) , 149-155 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ercivet/issue/27051/285957
MLA Pamuk, Ş. , Çelikeloğlu, G. "Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi" . Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 11 (2014 ): 149-155 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ercivet/issue/27051/285957>
Chicago Pamuk, Ş. , Çelikeloğlu, G. "Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi". Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 11 (2014 ): 149-155
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi AU - Şebnem Pamuk , Gözde Çelikeloğlu Y1 - 2014 PY - 2014 N1 - DO - T2 - Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 149 EP - 155 VL - 11 IS - 3 SN - 1304-7280-2667-5498 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2014 ER -
EndNote %0 Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi %A Şebnem Pamuk , Gözde Çelikeloğlu %T Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi %D 2014 %J Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1304-7280-2667-5498 %V 11 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Pamuk, Şebnem , Çelikeloğlu, Gözde . "Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi". Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 11 / 3 (Aralık 2014): 149-155 .
AMA Pamuk Ş. , Çelikeloğlu G. Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi. Erciyes Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2014; 11(3): 149-155.
Vancouver Pamuk Ş. , Çelikeloğlu G. Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi. Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2014; 11(3): 149-155.
IEEE Ş. Pamuk ve G. Çelikeloğlu , "Afyon’da Satışa Sunulan Sığır ve Tavuk Kıymalarında Clostridium perfringens Kontaminasyon Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi", Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 11, sayı. 3, ss. 149-155, Ara. 2014