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INTER-SECTORAL COMPETITION FOR WATER AND A RESEARCH ON IRRIGATION PERCEPTION OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES IN HARRAN PLAIN

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 83, 1343 - 1357, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.1073491

Öz

While the world population has increased by 4.4 times in the last century, water consumption has increased by about 7.3 times. The agricultural sector consumes approximately 70% of the world's water resources. The water demand of sectors such as industry, energy and municipal services is also increasing. The resulting competition means that other sectors demand a share of the water used by the agricultural sector. It is expected that the agricultural sector will be negatively affected by these developments, which contain new risks. Agriculture is also blamed for negative externalities such as excessive water use, water scarcity and environmental pollution. The main factors affecting the excessive and inefficient use of water in agriculture; producers do not have to pay the real cost of water and their misconceptions about irrigation. In this context, the perceptions of agricultural enterprises in the Harran Plain about irrigation were investigated. One-way analysis of variance was applied to the data obtained through face-to-face survey. The most striking result obtained from the research; 31.1% of producers have the perception that using more water will increase efficiency. Education and income independent variables are statistically significant (p<5%) in terms of the dependent variable "more water use increases efficiency". The results strengthen the opinion that agricultural enterprises tend to use excessive water and use water inefficiently. To the extent that water can be used efficiently in agriculture, the risks of other sectors regarding water supply will also decrease. Along with the training and extension activities for agricultural enterprises, the products that provide the highest added value from the unit water amount and the water-saving technologies should be extended.

Kaynakça

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  • Aydoğdu, M.H., Cançelik, M., Sevinç, M.R., Çullu, M.A., Yenigün, K., Küçük, N., Karlı, B., Ökten, Ş., Beyazgül, U., Doğan, H.P., Sevinç, G., Şahin, Z., Mutlu, N., Kaya, C., Yenikale, A., ve Yenikale, A. (2021(b)). Are You Happy to Be a Farmer? Understanding Indicators Related to Agricultural Production and Influencing Factors: GAP-Şanlıurfa, Turkey. Sustainability, 13, 12663. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212663
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SEKTÖRLER ARASI SU REKABETİ VE HARRAN OVASI TARIM İŞLETMELERİNİN SULAMA ALGISI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 83, 1343 - 1357, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.1073491

Öz

Son yüzyılda dünya nüfusu yaklaşık 4,4 kat artarken, su tüketimi ise yaklaşık 7,3 kat artmıştır. Tarım sektörü, dünyadaki su kaynaklarının yaklaşık %70’ini tüketmektedir. Sanayi, enerji ve belediye hizmetleri gibi sektörlerin de su talebi artmaktadır. Ortaya çıkan rekabet, diğer sektörlerin, tarım sektörünün kullandığı sudan pay talep etmeleri anlamına gelmektedir. Tarım sektörünün, yeni riskler barındıran bu gelişmelerden olumsuz yönde etkileneceği öngörülmektedir. Tarım, aşırı su kullanımı, su kıtlığı ve çevre kirliliği gibi negatif dışsallıklardan da sorumlu tutulmaktadır. Tarımda suyun aşırı ve verimsiz kullanılmasını etkileyen başlıca faktörler, üreticilerin suyun gerçek maliyetini ödememesi ve sulama konusundaki yanlış algılardır. Bu bağlamda, Harran Ovasındaki tarım işletmelerinin sulama algıları araştırılmıştır. Yüz yüze anket yoluyla elde edilen verilere tek yönlü varyans analizi uygulanmıştır. Araştırmadan çıkan en çarpıcı sonuç; üreticilerin %31,1’inin fazla su kullanmanın verimi arttıracağı algısı taşımalarıdır. Eğitim ve gelir bağımsız değişkenleri, “fazla su kullanımı verimi arttırır” bağımlı değişkeni açısından istatistiki olarak anlamlıdır (p<%5). Sonuçlar, tarım işletmelerinin aşırı su kullanma eğilimi taşıdıkları ve suyu verimsiz kullandıkları kanaatini güçlendirmektedir. Tarımda suyun verimli kullanılabilmesi ölçüsünde, diğer sektörlerin su tedarikine dair riskleri de azalacaktır. Tarım işletmelerine yönelik eğitim ve yayım faaliyetleriyle birlikte, birim su miktarından en yüksek katma değeri sağlayan ürünlerin ve su tasarrufu sağlayan teknolojilerin yaygınlaştırılması gerekmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Adarsh, S., ve Priya, K.L. (2021). Multifractal Description of Droughts in Western India Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. Chapter 9,. In: Pandey A., Mishra S., Kansal M., Singh R., Singh V.P. (Eds)., Hydrological Extremes. Water Science and Technology Library, vol 97, (p.133-142). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59148-9_9
  • Amara, A., ve Kansal, M.L. (2021). Challenges of Water Supply Management in Harbour City of Freetown in Western Sierra Leone. Chapter 27. In: Pandey A., Mishra S., Kansal M., Singh R., Singh V.P. (eds)., Hydrological Extremes. Water Science and Technology Library, vol 97, (p391-403). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59148-9_27
  • Aydoğdu, M.H, Cançelik, M., Sevinç, M.R., Çullu, M.A., Yenigün, K., Küçük, N., Karlı, B., Ökten, Ş., Beyazgül, U., Doğan, H.P., Şahin, Z., Mutlu, N., Kaya, C., Yenikale, A., ve Yenikale, A. (2021(a)). Is Drought Caused by Fate? Analysis of Farmers’ Perception and Its Influencing Factors in the Irrigation Areas of GAP-Şanlıurfa, Turkey. Water, 13(18), 2519. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182519
  • Aydoğdu, M.H., Cançelik, M., Sevinç, M.R., Çullu, M.A., Yenigün, K., Küçük, N., Karlı, B., Ökten, Ş., Beyazgül, U., Doğan, H.P., Sevinç, G., Şahin, Z., Mutlu, N., Kaya, C., Yenikale, A., ve Yenikale, A. (2021(b)). Are You Happy to Be a Farmer? Understanding Indicators Related to Agricultural Production and Influencing Factors: GAP-Şanlıurfa, Turkey. Sustainability, 13, 12663. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212663
  • Aydoğdu, M.H., Sevinç, M.R., Cançelik, M., Doğan, H.P., ve Şahin, Z. (2020). Determination of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Sustainable Agricultural Land Use in the GAP-Harran Plain of Turkey. Land, 9(8), 261: 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9080261
  • Aydoğdu, M.H., ve Bilgiç, A. (2016). An evaluation of farmers’ willingness to pay for efficient irrigation for sustainable usage of resources: The GAP-Harran Plain case, Turkey. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 13(2-4), 175–186. https://doi.org/10.1080/1943815X.2016.1241808
  • Başol, K., Durman, K., ve Önder, H. (2007). Doğal Kaynakların ve Çevrenin Ekonomik Analizi. Bursa, Alfa Akademi.
  • Biber, Ç., ve Kara, T. (2006). Mısır Bitkisinin Bitki Su Tüketimi ve Kısıtlı Sulama Uygulamaları, OMÜ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 21(1), 140-146
  • Bilgic, A., ve Yen, S. T. (2013). Household food demand in Turkey: A two-step demand system approach. Food Policy, 43(1), 267-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2013.09.004
  • Burek, P., Satoh, Y., Fischer, G., Kahil, M. T., Scherzer, A., Tramberend, S., Nava, L. F., Wada, Y., Eisner, S., Flörke, M., Hanasaki, N., Magnuszewski, P., Cosgrove, B., ve Wiberg, D. (2016). Water Futures and Solution Fast Track Initiative – Final Report ADA Project Number 2725-00/2014. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/id/eprint/13008/ 1/WP-16-006.pdf
  • Connor, R., ve Coates, D. (2021). The state of water resources, The United Nations World Water Development Report 2021: Valuing Water, pp11-16, . United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Paris, France
  • Delgado, A., Rodriguez, D.J., Amadei, C.A., ve Makino, M. (2021). Water in Circular Economy and Resilience (WICER). World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • El-Sadek, A. (2011). Virtual water: an effective mechanism for integrated water resources management, Agricultural Sciences, 2(3), 248-261. https://doi:10.4236/as.2011.23033
  • FAO (2003). World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030 An FAO Perspective, Edited by Jelle Bruinsma, Food and Agriculture Organization, London, Earthscan Publications Ltd.
  • FAO (2017) Water for Sustainable Food and Agriculture: A Report Produced for the G20 Presidency of Germany. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2017 Rome.
  • FAO-AQUASTAT (2016). “Water withdrawal by sector, around 2010, AQUASTAT November 2016”, FAO's Global Information System on Water and Agriculture, Erişim Adresi (26.01.2022). https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fao-aquastat.appspot.com/o/ PDF%2FTABLES%2FWorldData-Withdrawal
  • FAO-AQUASTAT (2022). “Water use, FAO's Global Information System on Water and Agriculture”, Erişim asdresi: https://www.fao.org/aquastat/en/overview/ methodology/ water-use/
  • Fischer, G., Tubiello, F.N., van Velthuizen, H., ve Wiberg, D.A. (2007). Climate change impacts on irrigation water requirements: effects of mitigation, 1990–2080. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(7), 1083–1107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2006.05.021
  • Fuglie, K., Dhehibi, B., El Shahat, A.A.I., ve Aw-Hassan, A. (2021), Water, Policy, and Productivity in Egyptian Agriculture. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 103(4), 1378-1397. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajae.12148
  • Geman, H. (2015). Agricultural Finance: From Crops to Land, Water and Infrastructure. The Wiley finance series, United Kingdom, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Gomez-Limon, J.A., Gutierrez-Martin, C. ve Montilla-Lopez, N.M. (2021). Priority water rights. Are they useful for improving water-use efficiency at the irrigation district level?. Agricultural Water Management, 257, 107145: 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2021.107145
  • Griffin, R.C. (2006). Water Resource Economics: The Analysis of Scarcity, Policies, and Projects. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The MIT Press.
  • Hanemann, W.M. (2006). The economic conception of water, pp.61–91. In: Roegers, P.P., Llamas, M. R., Martinez-Cortina, L. (Eds.), Water Crisis: Myth or Reality. London, Taylor & Francis,
  • He, B., Wang, Y., Takase, K., Mouri, G, ve Razafindrabe, B.H. (2009). Estimating Land Use Impacts on Regional Scale Urban Water Balance and Groundwater Recharge. Water Resources Management, 23, 1863–1873 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-008-9357-2
  • Hellegers, P., Davidson, B., Russ, J., ve Waalewijn, P. (2022). Irrigation subsidies and their externalities, Agricultural Water Management, 260, 107284: 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2021.107284.1-6.
  • Kansal, M.L., ve Nyamsha, D. (2021). Challenges of Food Security in Tanzania: Need for Precise Irrigation, Chapter 25, p363-380. In: Pandey A., Mishra S., Kansal M., Singh R., Singh V.P. (Eds), Hydrological Extremes. Water Science and Technology Library, vol 97, Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59148-9_25
  • Knox, J.W., Kay, M.G., and Weatherhead, E.K. (2012). Water regulation, crop production, and agricultural water management - Understanding farmer perspectives on irrigation efficiency, Agricultural Water Management, 108, 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.06.007.
  • Knox, J.W., Morris, J., Weatherhead, E.K. ve Turner, A.P. (2000). Mapping the financial benefits of spray irrigation and potential financial impact of restrictions on abstraction: a case study in Anglian Region. Journal of Environmental Management, 58(1), 45–59. https://doi.org/10.1006/jema. 1999.0307
  • Küçük, N. (2021). Su Kaynakları Yönetimi ve Şanlıurfa GAP Sulamalarının Sosyoekonomik Etkileri, Bölüm 8, s139-158. Ed: Ahmet Niyazi Özker, İşletme ve İktisadî Bilimler Araştırma ve Teori, Lyon, France, Livre de Lyon.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İktisat
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Nihat KÜÇÜK> (Sorumlu Yazar)
HARRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-1483-0422
Türkiye


Hatice PARLAKÇI DOĞAN>
GAP Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü
0000-0002-2186-3505
Türkiye


Mustafa Hakkı AYDOĞDU>
HARRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-4945-5239
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Temmuz 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 14 Şubat 2022
Kabul Tarihi 27 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 83

Kaynak Göster

APA Küçük, N. , Parlakçı Doğan, H. & Aydoğdu, M. H. (2022). SEKTÖRLER ARASI SU REKABETİ VE HARRAN OVASI TARIM İŞLETMELERİNİN SULAMA ALGISI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA . Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 21 (83) , 1343-1357 . DOI: 10.17755/esosder.1073491

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                                                   Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Electronic Journal of Social Sciences),  Creative Commons Atıf-GayriTicari 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.

                                              ESBD Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Electronic Journal of Social Sciences), Türk Patent ve Marka Kurumu tarafından tescil edilmiştir. Marka No:2011 119849.