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EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF FEAR LEVEL OF COVID-19 DISEASE ON THE X, Y AND Z GENERATIONS

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, 351 - 360, 04.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.35232/estudamhsd.1062262

Öz

It is stated that the COVID-19 epidemic affects mental health apart from its physical effects on people, and especially raises health-related concerns. This effect may differ between age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fear of disease on X, Y, and Z generations in the COVID-19 epidemic. Among our data collection tools in our study; There is a sociodemographic data form consisting of 21 questions including sociodemographic, occupational, educational level, habits, and taking precautions against diseases of individuals created by researchers, COVID-19 Fear Scale (C19F Scale) and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DAS-21). Of the 1131 participants in the study group, 62.2% (n: 703) were female, with a mean age of 35.07±10.88 (18-74 years between values). When the relationship between the scores of the study group from the C19F Scale and the generations is examined it was observed that the Y generation experienced higher fear than the X and Z generation. In addition, it was determined that the Z and Y generation had higher depression than the X generation, the Y generation had higher anxiety than the Z generation, and the Z and Y generation had higher stress scores than the X generation. In the COVID-19 epidemic, the effects of fear of illness and feelings of depression and anxiety on X, Y, and Z generations show differences. This situation can be useful in predicting the reaction and fear of individuals in different age groups of the society to epidemics and other catastrophic events that will develop in the future, and in the planning of preventive practices on behalf of public health.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Huang Y, Zhao N. Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112954.
  • 2. Chen Q, Liang M, Li Y, Guo J, Fei D, Wang L, et al. Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(4):e15-e6.
  • 3. Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. Gen Psychiatr. 2020 Mar 6;33(2):e100213. doi:10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213. Erratum in: Gen Psychiatr. 2020 Apr 27;33(2):e100213corr1.
  • 4. Tian F, Li H, Tian S, Yang J, Shao J, Tian C. Psychological symptoms of ordinary Chinese citizens based on SCL-90 during the level I emergency response to COVID-19. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112992.
  • 5. Holmes EA, O'Connor RC, Perry VH, Tracey I, Wessely S, Arseneault L, et al. Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(6):547-60.
  • 6. Wiedmer T. Generations do differ: Best practices in leading traditionalists, boomers, and generations X, Y, and Z. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin. 2015;82(1):51.
  • 7. Kolnhofer-Derecskei A, Reicher RZ, Szeghegyi A. The X and Y generations’ characteristics comparison. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica. 2017;14(8):107-25.
  • 8. Singh AP, Dangmei J. Understanding the generation Z: the future workforce. Asian J Multidiscip Stud. 2016;3(3):1-5.
  • 9. Mertens G, Gerritsen L, Duijndam S, Salemink E, Engelhard IM. Fear of the coronavirus (COVID-19): Predictors in an online study conducted in March 2020. J Anxiety Disord. 2020;74:102258.
  • 10. Hossain MA, Jahid MIK, Hossain KMA, Walton LM, Uddin Z, Haque MO, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and fear of COVID-19 during the Rapid Rise Period in Bangladesh. PloS One. 2020;15(9):e0239646.
  • 11. Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Imani V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and initial validation. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2020:1-9.
  • 12. Ladikli N, Bahadır E, Yumuşak Fn, Akkuzu H, Karaman G, Türkkan Z. Kovid-19 Korkusu Ölçeği’nin Türkçe Güvenirlik Ve Geçerlik Çalışması. Int J Soc Sci. 2020;3(2):71-80.
  • 13. Lovibond S, Lovibond P. Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. 2nd edn. Sydney: Psychology Foundation, 1995. Google Scholar. 1995:4-42.
  • 14. Sarıçam H. The psychometric properties of Turkish version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in health control and clinical samples. 2018.
  • 15. Bakioğlu F, Korkmaz O, Ercan H. Fear of COVID-19 and positivity: Mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty, depression, anxiety, and stress. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2021;19(6):2369-82.
  • 16. Harper CA, Satchell LP, Fido D, Latzman RD. Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2021;19(5):1875-88.
  • 17. Lebel RD. Moving beyond fight and flight: A contingent model of how the emotional regulation of anger and fear sparks proactivity. Acad Manage Rev. 2017;42(2):190-206.
  • 18. Santini ZI, Jose PE, Cornwell EY, Koyanagi A, Nielsen L, Hinrichsen C, et al. Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and symptoms of depression and anxiety among older Americans (NSHAP): a longitudinal mediation analysis. Lancet Public Health. 2020;5(1):e62-e70.
  • 19. Rossi A, Panzeri A, Pietrabissa G, Manzoni GM, Castelnuovo G, Mannarini S. The anxiety-buffer hypothesis in the time of COVID-19: when self-esteem protects from the impact of loneliness and fear on anxiety and depression. Front Psychol. 2020;11:2177.
  • 20. Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int J Environ Res. 2020;17(5):1729.
  • 21. Yu HC, Miller P. Leadership style: The X Generation and Baby Boomers compared in different cultural contexts. Leadersh Organ Dev J. 2005.
  • 22. Kassim MAM, Pang NTP, Mohamed NH, Kamu A, Ho CM, Ayu F, et al. Relationship between fear of COVID-19, psychopathology and sociodemographic variables in Malaysian population. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2021:1-8.
  • 23. Alkhamees AA, Aljohani MS, Alghesen MA, Alhabib AT. Psychological Distress in Quarantine Designated Facility During COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2020;13:3103.
  • 24. Adhikari SP, Meng S, Wu Y-J, Mao Y-P, Ye R-X, Wang Q-Z, et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020;9(1):1-12.
  • 25. Velikonja NK, Erjavec K, Verdenik I, Hussein M, Velikonja VG. Association between preventive behaviour and anxiety at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in Slovenia. Sloven J Public Health. 2020;60(1):17.
  • 26. De Coninck D, d'Haenens L, Matthijs K. Perceived vulnerability to disease and attitudes towards public health measures: COVID-19 in Flanders, Belgium. Personality and Individual Differences. 2020;166:110220.
  • 27. Díaz A, Beleña Á, Zueco J. The role of age and gender in perceived vulnerability to infectious diseases. Int J Environ Res. 2020;17(2):485.
  • 28. Wong LP, Hung C-C, Alias H, Lee TS-H. Anxiety symptoms and preventive measures during the COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan. BMC Psychiatry. 2020;20(1):1-9.
  • 29. Makhanova A, Shepherd MA. Behavioral immune system linked to responses to the threat of COVID-19. Personality and Individual Differences. 2020;167:110221.

COVID-19 SALGININDA HASTALIK KORKU DURUMLARININ X, Y VE Z NESİLLERİ ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİNİN İNCELENMESİ

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, 351 - 360, 04.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.35232/estudamhsd.1062262

Öz

COVID-19 salgınının fiziksel etkileri dışında ruh sağlığını etkilediği ve özellikle sağlık ile ilgili kaygıları ortaya çıkardığı belirtilmektedir. Bu etki yaş grupları arasında farklılıklar gösterebilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı da COVID-19 salgınında hastalık korkusunun X, Y, Z nesilleri üzerindeki etkilerini araştırmak olarak belirlenmiştir. Çalışmamızdaki veri toplama araçlarımız arasında; araştırmacılar tarafından oluşturulan bireylerin sosyodemografik, mesleki, eğitim düzeyi, alışkanlıklar ve hastalıklara karşı önlem alma davranışlarını içeren 21 sorudan oluşan sosyodemografik veri formu, Kovid-19 Korku Ölçeği (K19K Ölçeği) ve Depresyon, Anksiyete ve Stres Ölçeği-21 (DAS-21) bulunmaktadır. Çalışma grubunda yer alan 1131 katılımcının %62,2’si (n: 703) kadın olup yaşları ortalama 35,07±10,88 (değerleri arasında 18-74) yıl idi. Çalışma grubunun K19K Ölçeğinden aldıkları puanlar ile nesillerin ilişkisi incelendiğinde Y neslinin X ve Z nesline göre daha yüksek korku yaşadığı görüldü. Ayrıca Z ve Y neslinin X nesline göre daha yüksek depresyon, Y neslinin Z nesline göre daha yüksek anksiyete ve Z ve Y neslinin X nesline göre daha yüksek stres puanı aldığı tespit edildi. COVID-19 salgınında hastalık korkusunun ve depresyon, anksiyete duygularının X, Y, Z nesilleri üzerindeki etkileri farklılıklar göstermektedir. Bu durum ileriki dönemlerde gelişecek salgınlar ve diğer katastrofik olaylara toplumun farklı yaş gruplarında yer alan bireylerin tepki ve korku durumlarını kestirebilmek ve halk sağlığı adına koruyucu uygulamaların planlaması adına yararlı olabilir.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Huang Y, Zhao N. Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112954.
  • 2. Chen Q, Liang M, Li Y, Guo J, Fei D, Wang L, et al. Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(4):e15-e6.
  • 3. Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. Gen Psychiatr. 2020 Mar 6;33(2):e100213. doi:10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213. Erratum in: Gen Psychiatr. 2020 Apr 27;33(2):e100213corr1.
  • 4. Tian F, Li H, Tian S, Yang J, Shao J, Tian C. Psychological symptoms of ordinary Chinese citizens based on SCL-90 during the level I emergency response to COVID-19. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112992.
  • 5. Holmes EA, O'Connor RC, Perry VH, Tracey I, Wessely S, Arseneault L, et al. Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(6):547-60.
  • 6. Wiedmer T. Generations do differ: Best practices in leading traditionalists, boomers, and generations X, Y, and Z. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin. 2015;82(1):51.
  • 7. Kolnhofer-Derecskei A, Reicher RZ, Szeghegyi A. The X and Y generations’ characteristics comparison. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica. 2017;14(8):107-25.
  • 8. Singh AP, Dangmei J. Understanding the generation Z: the future workforce. Asian J Multidiscip Stud. 2016;3(3):1-5.
  • 9. Mertens G, Gerritsen L, Duijndam S, Salemink E, Engelhard IM. Fear of the coronavirus (COVID-19): Predictors in an online study conducted in March 2020. J Anxiety Disord. 2020;74:102258.
  • 10. Hossain MA, Jahid MIK, Hossain KMA, Walton LM, Uddin Z, Haque MO, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and fear of COVID-19 during the Rapid Rise Period in Bangladesh. PloS One. 2020;15(9):e0239646.
  • 11. Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Imani V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and initial validation. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2020:1-9.
  • 12. Ladikli N, Bahadır E, Yumuşak Fn, Akkuzu H, Karaman G, Türkkan Z. Kovid-19 Korkusu Ölçeği’nin Türkçe Güvenirlik Ve Geçerlik Çalışması. Int J Soc Sci. 2020;3(2):71-80.
  • 13. Lovibond S, Lovibond P. Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. 2nd edn. Sydney: Psychology Foundation, 1995. Google Scholar. 1995:4-42.
  • 14. Sarıçam H. The psychometric properties of Turkish version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in health control and clinical samples. 2018.
  • 15. Bakioğlu F, Korkmaz O, Ercan H. Fear of COVID-19 and positivity: Mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty, depression, anxiety, and stress. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2021;19(6):2369-82.
  • 16. Harper CA, Satchell LP, Fido D, Latzman RD. Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2021;19(5):1875-88.
  • 17. Lebel RD. Moving beyond fight and flight: A contingent model of how the emotional regulation of anger and fear sparks proactivity. Acad Manage Rev. 2017;42(2):190-206.
  • 18. Santini ZI, Jose PE, Cornwell EY, Koyanagi A, Nielsen L, Hinrichsen C, et al. Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and symptoms of depression and anxiety among older Americans (NSHAP): a longitudinal mediation analysis. Lancet Public Health. 2020;5(1):e62-e70.
  • 19. Rossi A, Panzeri A, Pietrabissa G, Manzoni GM, Castelnuovo G, Mannarini S. The anxiety-buffer hypothesis in the time of COVID-19: when self-esteem protects from the impact of loneliness and fear on anxiety and depression. Front Psychol. 2020;11:2177.
  • 20. Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int J Environ Res. 2020;17(5):1729.
  • 21. Yu HC, Miller P. Leadership style: The X Generation and Baby Boomers compared in different cultural contexts. Leadersh Organ Dev J. 2005.
  • 22. Kassim MAM, Pang NTP, Mohamed NH, Kamu A, Ho CM, Ayu F, et al. Relationship between fear of COVID-19, psychopathology and sociodemographic variables in Malaysian population. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2021:1-8.
  • 23. Alkhamees AA, Aljohani MS, Alghesen MA, Alhabib AT. Psychological Distress in Quarantine Designated Facility During COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2020;13:3103.
  • 24. Adhikari SP, Meng S, Wu Y-J, Mao Y-P, Ye R-X, Wang Q-Z, et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020;9(1):1-12.
  • 25. Velikonja NK, Erjavec K, Verdenik I, Hussein M, Velikonja VG. Association between preventive behaviour and anxiety at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in Slovenia. Sloven J Public Health. 2020;60(1):17.
  • 26. De Coninck D, d'Haenens L, Matthijs K. Perceived vulnerability to disease and attitudes towards public health measures: COVID-19 in Flanders, Belgium. Personality and Individual Differences. 2020;166:110220.
  • 27. Díaz A, Beleña Á, Zueco J. The role of age and gender in perceived vulnerability to infectious diseases. Int J Environ Res. 2020;17(2):485.
  • 28. Wong LP, Hung C-C, Alias H, Lee TS-H. Anxiety symptoms and preventive measures during the COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan. BMC Psychiatry. 2020;20(1):1-9.
  • 29. Makhanova A, Shepherd MA. Behavioral immune system linked to responses to the threat of COVID-19. Personality and Individual Differences. 2020;167:110221.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Halk ve Çevre Sağlığı
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Egemen ÜNAL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Halk Sağlığı Ana Bilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye
0000-0002-9939-9191
Türkiye


Mehmet Enes GÖKLER>
Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Halk Sağlığı Ana Bilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye
0000-0002-1524-8565
Türkiye


Dilek TUNC UGUR>
Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Halk Sağlığı Ana Bilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye
0000-0003-3333-3955
Türkiye


Salih MOLLAHALİLOĞLU>
Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Halk Sağlığı Ana Bilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye
0000-0001-7384-4106
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 4 Haziran 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 24 Ocak 2022
Kabul Tarihi 26 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Ünal E. , Gökler M. E. , Tunc Ugur D. , Mollahaliloğlu S. COVID-19 SALGININDA HASTALIK KORKU DURUMLARININ X, Y VE Z NESİLLERİ ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİNİN İNCELENMESİ. ESTÜDAM Halk Sağlığı Dergisi. 2022; 7(2): 351-360.

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