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A NEW CONCEPT AFTER SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: COMMERCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH

Yıl 2023, Cilt 8, Sayı 1, 87 - 96, 17.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.35232/estudamhsd.1097943

Öz

In this review, it is aimed to examine and evaluate the commercial determinants of health, which have become a popular term in recent years, based on the definition and determinants of health. Private sector activities that affect human health positively or negatively are called commercial determinants of health. Commercial determinants of health produce a wide range of health outcomes. Obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, traffic accidents, mental health issues and malaria are some of these health consequences. Commercial determinants of health are a relatively new understanding and content. It seems important to be aware of, monitor and struggle with these determinants. Studies with high levels of evidence are needed to determine how multinational companies and the private sector affect public health and to reveal effective control strategies.

Kaynakça

  • 1. WHO. Constution-Definition of Health. 1948. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/ about/governance/constitution (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022)
  • 2. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. 1986. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/ot tawa-charter-for-health-promotion (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022)
  • 3. Nobile M. The WHO definition of health: A critical reading. Med Law. 2014; 33(2): 33-40.
  • 4. Leonardi F. The definition of health: Towards new perspectives. Int J Health Serv. 2018; 48(4): 735-48. DOI: 10.1177/0020731418782653.
  • 5. CDC. Social Determinants of Health Frequently Asked Questions. Erişim adresi: https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/ socialdeterminants/faq.html (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022)
  • 6. WHO. Determinants of Health. 2017. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/newsroom/ questions-and-answers/item/deter minants-of-health (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022)
  • 7. WHO. Social Determinants of Health. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/ health-topics/social-determinants-of-hea lth#tab=tab_1 (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022).
  • 8. UNDP. Human Development Report 2021-2022. Erişim adresi: https://hdr. undp.org/system/files/documents/globalreport- document/hdr2021-22pdf_1.pdf (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022).
  • 9. WHO. Health Equity Monitor. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/data/gho/ health-equity (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022).
  • 10. Thornton RLJ, Glover CM, Cené CW, Glik DC, Henderson JA, Williams DR. Evaluating strategies for reducing health disparities by addressing the social determinants of health. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016; 35(8): 1416-23. DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1357.
  • 11. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States; Baciu A, Negussie Y, Geller A, et al., editors. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2017 Jan 11. 3, The Root Causes of Health Inequity. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ books/NBK425845/
  • 12. WHO. Commercial Determinants of Health. Erişim adresi: https://www.who. int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/comme rcial-determinants-of-health#:~:text=Co mmercial%20determinants%20of%20he alth%20are%20the%20conditions%2C %20actions%20and%20omissions,in%2 0which%20commerce%20takes%20pla ce. (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022).
  • 13. Millar JS. The corporate determinants of health: How big business affects our health, and the need for government action! Can J Public Health. 2013;104(4): e327-9. DOI: 10.17269/cjph.104.3849.
  • 14. West R, Marteau T. Commentary on Casswell: The commercial determinants of health. Addiction. 2013;108(4):686-7. DOI: 10.1111/add.12118.
  • 15. Kickbusch I, Allen L, Franz C. The commercial determinants of health. Lancet Glob Health. 2016; 4(12): e895-e896. DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X (16)30217-0.
  • 16. Mialon M. An overview of the commercial determinants of health. Global Health. 2020; 16(1): 74.
  • 17. Moodie AR. Big alcohol: The vector of an industrial epidemic. Addiction. 2014; 109(4): 525-6. DOI: 10.1111/add. 12415.
  • 18. Bond LD, Chikritzhs T. Selling addictions: Similarities in approaches between big tobacco and big booze. Australasian Med J. 2010;3: 325-32.
  • 19. Stuckler D, Nestle M. Big food, food systems, and global health. . PLoS Med. 2012; 9(6): e1001242. https://doi.org/10. 1371/journal.pmed.1001242.
  • 20. Brezis M. Big pharma and health care: Unsolvable conflict of interests between private enterprise and public health. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2008;45(2): 83-9.
  • 21. Douglas MJ, Watkins SJ, Gorman DR, Higgins M. Are cars the new tobacco? J Public Health. 2011; 33(2): 160-169. DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdr032.
  • 22. Monforton C. Weight of the evidence or wait for the evidence? Protecting underground miners from diesel particulate matter. Am J Public Health. 2006; 96(2): 271-6. DOI: 10.2105/ AJPH.2005.064410.
  • 23. de Lacy-Vawdon C, Livingstone C. Defining the commercial determinants of health: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1): 1022.
  • 24. Hill SE, Friel S. 'As long as it comes off as a cigarette ad, not a civil rights message': Gender, inequality and the commercial determinants of health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(21): 7902. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17217902.
  • 25. Ireland R, Bunn C, Reith G, Philpott M, Capewell S, Boyland E, Chambers S. Commercial determinants of health: Advertising of alcohol and unhealthy foods during sporting events. Bull World Health Organ. 2019;97(4):290-5. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.18.220087.
  • 26. Chavez-Ugalde Y, Jago R, Toumpakari Z, Egan M, Cummins S, White M, Hulls P, De Vocht F. Conceptualizing the commercial determinants of dietary behaviors associated with obesity: A systematic review using principles from critical interpretative synthesis. Obes Sci Pract. 2021;7(4): 473-86. DOI: 10.1002/osp4.507.
  • 27. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Franz C and Kickbusch I. The capital-NCD-nexus: The commercial determinants of health and global capital flows. Eurohealth. 2018;24( 3):21-5. World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe.
  • 28. Knai C, Petticrew M, Mays N, Capewell S, Cassidy R, Cummins S, Eastmure E, Fafard P, Hawkins B, Jensen JD, Katikireddi SV, Mwatsama M, Orford J, Weishaar H. Systems thinking as a framework for analyzing commercial determinants of health. Milbank Q. 2018;96(3): 472-98. DOI: 10.1111/ 1468-0009.12339.
  • 29. Maani N, Collin J, Friel S, Gilmore AB, McCambridge J, Robertson L, Petticrew MP. Bringing the commercial determinants of health out of the shadows: A review of how the commercial determinants are represented in conceptual frameworks. European Journal of Public Health. 2020;30 (4): 660-4. https://doi.org/ 10.1093/eurpub/ckz197.
  • 30. de Lacy-Vawdon C, Vandenberg B, Livingstone CH. Recognizing the elephant in the room: the commercial determinants of health. BMJ Global Health. 2022;7: e007156. DOI:10.1136/bmjgh-2021- 007156.
  • 31. Lee K, Freudenberg N, Zenone M, Smith J, Mialon M, Marten R, Lima JM, Friel S, Klein DE, Crosbie E, Buse K. Measuring the commercial determinants of health and disease: A proposed framework. Int J Health Serv. 2022;52(1):115-28. https://doi.org/10.1177/00207314211044 992.
  • 32. Freudenberg N, Lee K, Buse K, Collin J, Crosbie E, Friel S, Klein DE, Lima JM, Marten R, Mialon M, Zenone M. Defining priorities for action and research on the commercial determinants of health: A conceptual review. Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12): 2202-11. DOI: 10.2105/ AJPH.2021.306491.
  • 33. Ndebele P, Shaikh H, Paichadze N, Bari I, Michaels D, Santos Burgoa C, Hyder AA. Commercial determinants of health: An ethical exploration. Int J Public Health. 2020; 65(7): 1123-32. DOI: 10.1007/s00038-020-01427-x.
  • 34. Lee K, Freudenberg N. Public health roles in addressing commercial commercial determinants of health. Annual Review of Public Health. 2022;43:25.1-21. https://doi.org/10.1146/ annurev-publhealth-052220-020447
  • 35. Buse K, Tanaka S, Hawkes S. Healthy people and healthy profits? Elaborating a conceptual framework for governing the commercial determinants of non-communicable diseases and identifying options for reducing risk exposure. Global Health. 2017;13(1): 34. DOI: 10.1186/s12992-017-0255-3.
  • 36. McHardy J. The WHO FCTC’s lessons for addressing the commercial determinants of health. Health Promotion International. 2021;36(1):i39–i52. DOI: 10.1093/heapro/daab143.
  • 37. WHO. Report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2021: addressing new and emerging products: executive summary. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/ publications/i/item/9789240032842 Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022.
  • 38. Çalışkan S, Metintaş S. Dünyada Tütün Kontrol Uygulamalarının Küresel Ölçekte Değerlendirilmesi. ESTÜDAM Halk Sağlığı Dergisi. 2018; 3(1),32-41.

SAĞLIĞIN SOSYAL BELİRLEYİCİLERİNDEN SONRA YENİ BİR KONSEPT: SAĞLIĞIN TİCARİ BELİRLEYİCİLERİ

Yıl 2023, Cilt 8, Sayı 1, 87 - 96, 17.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.35232/estudamhsd.1097943

Öz

Bu derlemede sağlığın tanımından ve belirleyicilerinden yola çıkılarak son yıllarda popüler bir terim olmaya başlayan sağlığın ticari belirleyicilerinin incelenmesi ve değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. İnsan sağlığını olumlu veya olumsuz olarak etkileyen özel sektör aktiviteleri sağlığın ticari belirleyicileri olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Sağlığın ticari belirleyicileri geniş bir yelpazede pek çok sağlık sonucu meydana getirmektedir. Obezite, diyabet, kardiyovasküler hastalıklar, kanser, trafik kazaları, ruh sağlığı sorunları ve sıtma bu sağlık sonuçlarından bazıları olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Sağlığın ticari belirleyicileri nispeten yeni bir anlayış ve içeriktir. Bu belirleyicilerin farkında olunması, izlenmesi ve bu belirleyicilerle mücadele edilmesi önemli görünmektedir. Çok uluslu şirketlerin ve özel sektörün toplum sağlığını nasıl etkilediğinin belirlenebilmesi ve etkili mücadele stratejileri ortaya konabilmesi için kanıt düzeyi yüksek araştırmalara ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • 1. WHO. Constution-Definition of Health. 1948. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/ about/governance/constitution (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022)
  • 2. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. 1986. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/ot tawa-charter-for-health-promotion (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022)
  • 3. Nobile M. The WHO definition of health: A critical reading. Med Law. 2014; 33(2): 33-40.
  • 4. Leonardi F. The definition of health: Towards new perspectives. Int J Health Serv. 2018; 48(4): 735-48. DOI: 10.1177/0020731418782653.
  • 5. CDC. Social Determinants of Health Frequently Asked Questions. Erişim adresi: https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/ socialdeterminants/faq.html (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022)
  • 6. WHO. Determinants of Health. 2017. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/newsroom/ questions-and-answers/item/deter minants-of-health (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022)
  • 7. WHO. Social Determinants of Health. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/ health-topics/social-determinants-of-hea lth#tab=tab_1 (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022).
  • 8. UNDP. Human Development Report 2021-2022. Erişim adresi: https://hdr. undp.org/system/files/documents/globalreport- document/hdr2021-22pdf_1.pdf (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022).
  • 9. WHO. Health Equity Monitor. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/data/gho/ health-equity (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022).
  • 10. Thornton RLJ, Glover CM, Cené CW, Glik DC, Henderson JA, Williams DR. Evaluating strategies for reducing health disparities by addressing the social determinants of health. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016; 35(8): 1416-23. DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1357.
  • 11. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States; Baciu A, Negussie Y, Geller A, et al., editors. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2017 Jan 11. 3, The Root Causes of Health Inequity. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ books/NBK425845/
  • 12. WHO. Commercial Determinants of Health. Erişim adresi: https://www.who. int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/comme rcial-determinants-of-health#:~:text=Co mmercial%20determinants%20of%20he alth%20are%20the%20conditions%2C %20actions%20and%20omissions,in%2 0which%20commerce%20takes%20pla ce. (Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022).
  • 13. Millar JS. The corporate determinants of health: How big business affects our health, and the need for government action! Can J Public Health. 2013;104(4): e327-9. DOI: 10.17269/cjph.104.3849.
  • 14. West R, Marteau T. Commentary on Casswell: The commercial determinants of health. Addiction. 2013;108(4):686-7. DOI: 10.1111/add.12118.
  • 15. Kickbusch I, Allen L, Franz C. The commercial determinants of health. Lancet Glob Health. 2016; 4(12): e895-e896. DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X (16)30217-0.
  • 16. Mialon M. An overview of the commercial determinants of health. Global Health. 2020; 16(1): 74.
  • 17. Moodie AR. Big alcohol: The vector of an industrial epidemic. Addiction. 2014; 109(4): 525-6. DOI: 10.1111/add. 12415.
  • 18. Bond LD, Chikritzhs T. Selling addictions: Similarities in approaches between big tobacco and big booze. Australasian Med J. 2010;3: 325-32.
  • 19. Stuckler D, Nestle M. Big food, food systems, and global health. . PLoS Med. 2012; 9(6): e1001242. https://doi.org/10. 1371/journal.pmed.1001242.
  • 20. Brezis M. Big pharma and health care: Unsolvable conflict of interests between private enterprise and public health. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2008;45(2): 83-9.
  • 21. Douglas MJ, Watkins SJ, Gorman DR, Higgins M. Are cars the new tobacco? J Public Health. 2011; 33(2): 160-169. DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdr032.
  • 22. Monforton C. Weight of the evidence or wait for the evidence? Protecting underground miners from diesel particulate matter. Am J Public Health. 2006; 96(2): 271-6. DOI: 10.2105/ AJPH.2005.064410.
  • 23. de Lacy-Vawdon C, Livingstone C. Defining the commercial determinants of health: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1): 1022.
  • 24. Hill SE, Friel S. 'As long as it comes off as a cigarette ad, not a civil rights message': Gender, inequality and the commercial determinants of health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(21): 7902. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17217902.
  • 25. Ireland R, Bunn C, Reith G, Philpott M, Capewell S, Boyland E, Chambers S. Commercial determinants of health: Advertising of alcohol and unhealthy foods during sporting events. Bull World Health Organ. 2019;97(4):290-5. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.18.220087.
  • 26. Chavez-Ugalde Y, Jago R, Toumpakari Z, Egan M, Cummins S, White M, Hulls P, De Vocht F. Conceptualizing the commercial determinants of dietary behaviors associated with obesity: A systematic review using principles from critical interpretative synthesis. Obes Sci Pract. 2021;7(4): 473-86. DOI: 10.1002/osp4.507.
  • 27. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Franz C and Kickbusch I. The capital-NCD-nexus: The commercial determinants of health and global capital flows. Eurohealth. 2018;24( 3):21-5. World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe.
  • 28. Knai C, Petticrew M, Mays N, Capewell S, Cassidy R, Cummins S, Eastmure E, Fafard P, Hawkins B, Jensen JD, Katikireddi SV, Mwatsama M, Orford J, Weishaar H. Systems thinking as a framework for analyzing commercial determinants of health. Milbank Q. 2018;96(3): 472-98. DOI: 10.1111/ 1468-0009.12339.
  • 29. Maani N, Collin J, Friel S, Gilmore AB, McCambridge J, Robertson L, Petticrew MP. Bringing the commercial determinants of health out of the shadows: A review of how the commercial determinants are represented in conceptual frameworks. European Journal of Public Health. 2020;30 (4): 660-4. https://doi.org/ 10.1093/eurpub/ckz197.
  • 30. de Lacy-Vawdon C, Vandenberg B, Livingstone CH. Recognizing the elephant in the room: the commercial determinants of health. BMJ Global Health. 2022;7: e007156. DOI:10.1136/bmjgh-2021- 007156.
  • 31. Lee K, Freudenberg N, Zenone M, Smith J, Mialon M, Marten R, Lima JM, Friel S, Klein DE, Crosbie E, Buse K. Measuring the commercial determinants of health and disease: A proposed framework. Int J Health Serv. 2022;52(1):115-28. https://doi.org/10.1177/00207314211044 992.
  • 32. Freudenberg N, Lee K, Buse K, Collin J, Crosbie E, Friel S, Klein DE, Lima JM, Marten R, Mialon M, Zenone M. Defining priorities for action and research on the commercial determinants of health: A conceptual review. Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12): 2202-11. DOI: 10.2105/ AJPH.2021.306491.
  • 33. Ndebele P, Shaikh H, Paichadze N, Bari I, Michaels D, Santos Burgoa C, Hyder AA. Commercial determinants of health: An ethical exploration. Int J Public Health. 2020; 65(7): 1123-32. DOI: 10.1007/s00038-020-01427-x.
  • 34. Lee K, Freudenberg N. Public health roles in addressing commercial commercial determinants of health. Annual Review of Public Health. 2022;43:25.1-21. https://doi.org/10.1146/ annurev-publhealth-052220-020447
  • 35. Buse K, Tanaka S, Hawkes S. Healthy people and healthy profits? Elaborating a conceptual framework for governing the commercial determinants of non-communicable diseases and identifying options for reducing risk exposure. Global Health. 2017;13(1): 34. DOI: 10.1186/s12992-017-0255-3.
  • 36. McHardy J. The WHO FCTC’s lessons for addressing the commercial determinants of health. Health Promotion International. 2021;36(1):i39–i52. DOI: 10.1093/heapro/daab143.
  • 37. WHO. Report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2021: addressing new and emerging products: executive summary. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/ publications/i/item/9789240032842 Erişim tarihi: 05.12.2022.
  • 38. Çalışkan S, Metintaş S. Dünyada Tütün Kontrol Uygulamalarının Küresel Ölçekte Değerlendirilmesi. ESTÜDAM Halk Sağlığı Dergisi. 2018; 3(1),32-41.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Halk ve Çevre Sağlığı
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Elif Nur YILDIRIM ÖZTÜRK> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANKARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ANKARA TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-1447-9756
Türkiye


Mehmet UYAR>
NECMETTİN ERBAKAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MERAM TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-3954-7471
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum yok
Proje Numarası yok
Teşekkür yok
Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Ocak 2023
Gönderilme Tarihi 3 Nisan 2022
Kabul Tarihi 19 Aralık 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023, Cilt 8, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Yıldırım Öztürk E. N. , Uyar M. SAĞLIĞIN SOSYAL BELİRLEYİCİLERİNDEN SONRA YENİ BİR KONSEPT: SAĞLIĞIN TİCARİ BELİRLEYİCİLERİ. ESTÜDAM Halk Sağlığı Dergisi. 2023; 8(1): 87-96.

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