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Pandemi Sürecinde Çevrimiçi Psikodrama Grup Terapisinin Depresyon, Anksiyete Ve Psikolojik Dayanıklılık Üzerine Etkisi / The Effect Of Online Psychodrama Group Therapy On Depression, Anxiety And Psychological Resilience During The Pandemic

Yıl 2021, Cilt 1, Sayı 2, 108 - 121, 30.12.2021

Öz

Bu araştırmanın amacı pandemi sürecinde uzaktan eğitim alan bir grup hazırlık sınıfı öğrencisi ile yapılan çevrimiçi psikodrama grup terapisinin bu öğrencilerin depresyon, anksiyete ve psikolojik dayanıklılık düzeylerine olan etkisini incelemektir. 13 gönüllü katılımcı ile haftada bir gün 3 saat süreyle toplam 16 oturum halinde gerçekleştirilen çalışma tek grup öntest sontest modeli olarak tasarlanmıştır. Beck Depresyon, Beck Anksiyete ve Yetişkinler için Psikolojik Dayanıklılık ölçeklerinden elde edilen öntest ve sontest puanları Wilcoxon işaretli sıralar testi ile analiz edilmiştir. Ayrıca psikodrama sürecinin değerlendirilmesi amacıyla açık uçlu soru ve grubun başlangıç, orta ve son aşamalarına ilişkin grubun öznel bildirimleri içerik analizi yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. İçerik analizi sürecinde her bir katılımcıya ilişkin kodlar oluşturulmuş, sonrasında ise bütün katılımcılardan elde edilen kodlar karşılaştırılmış ve temalara ulaşılmıştır. Wilcoxon işaretli sıralar testi ile analiz edilen Beck Depresyon Ölçeği (z=-1,78, ; p>.o5), Beck Anksiyete Ölçeği (z=-1,51; p>.o5) ve Yetişkinler için Psikolojik Dayanıklılık Ölçeği (z=-0,149 ; p>.o5) öntest ve sontest puanları arasında anlamlı bir farklılık gözlenmemekle beraber, içerik analizinde elde edilen empati, iyilik halinde artış, farkındalık ve evrensellik temaları, psikodrama grup terapisinin psikolojik dayanıklılığı geliştirme üzerindeki etkisini göstermiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Allemande, M., Steiger, A.E. ve Fend, H.A. (2015). Empathy development in adolescence predicts social competencies in adulthood. J Pers, 83: 229-241. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12098
  • American Psychological Association (2021, Aralık 15) https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/patients-and- families/length-treatment
  • Arslan-Dikme, Ş. (2008). Sınav kaygısı yaşayan ergenlerle psikodrama çalışması. [Yayınlanmamış psikodrama tezi]. Abdülkadir Özbek Psikodrama Enstitüsü.
  • Bartone P.T., Hystad S.W., Eid J. ve Brevik J. I. (2012). Psychological hardiness and coping style as risk/resilience factors for alcohol abuse. Military Medicine, 177 (5): 517-524. https://doi.org/10.7205/milmed-d-11-00200
  • Basım, H.N. ve Çetin, F. (2011). Yetişkinler için psikolojik dayanıklılık ölçeğinin güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik çalışması. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 22 (2), 104-114.
  • Cohen, L., Manion, L. ve Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6. Baskı). Routledge.
  • Cossa, M. A. (2003). “Taming Puberty: Using psychodrama, sociodrama and sociometry with adolescent groups,” in Psychodrama in the 21st Century: Clinical and Educational Applications, ed. J. Gershoni (New York: Springer), 135–150.
  • Cruz, A., Sales, C., Alves, P., ve Moita, G. (2018). The core techniques of Morenian psychodrama: a systematic review of literature. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1263. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01263
  • Eysenbach, G., ve Köhler, C. (2002). How do consumers search for and appraise health information on the world wide web? Qualitative study using focus groups, usability tests, and in-depth interviews. Bmj, 324(7337), 573-577. doi: 10.1136/bmj.324.7337.573.
  • Erbay, L. G., Reyhani, İ., Ünal, S., Özcan, C., Özgöçer, T., Uçar, C., ve Yıldız, S. (2018). Does psychodrama affect perceived stress, anxiety-depression scores and saliva cortisol in patients with depression? Psychiatry investigation. 15(10), (s. 970–975). doi: 10.1136/bmj.324.7337.573
  • Feniger-Schaal, R., & Orkibi, H. (2020). Integrative systematic review of drama therapy intervention research. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 14(1), 68– 80. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000257
  • Friborg O, Hjemdal O, Rosenvinge JH vd. (2003) A New Rating Scale for Adult Resilience: What are the Central Protective Resources behind Healthy Adjustment? Int J Methods Psychiatr Res, 12:65-76. doi: 10.1002/mpr.143.
  • Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., & Taubman, O. (1995). Does hardiness contribute to mental health during a stressful real-life situation? The roles of appraisal and coping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(4), 687–695. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.68.4.687
  • Fonseca, J. (2004). Contemporary Psychodrama: New Approaches To Theory And Technique. Brunner Routledge Giacomucci, Scott. (2021). Advanced Psychodrama Directing. In book: Social Work, Sociometry, and Psychodrama (pp.277-290).10.1007/978-981-33-6342-7_14.
  • Graber, R., Pichon, F. ve Carabine, E. (2015). Psychological resilience. Overseas Development Institute.
  • Gravetter, J. F. ve Forzano, L. B. (2012). Research methods for the behavioral sciences (4. Baskı). Linda Schreiber-Ganster.
  • Guli, L. A., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Lerner, M. D., ve Britton, N. (2013). Social Competence Intervention Program (SCIP): A pilot study of a creative drama program for youth with social difficulties. Arts in Psychotherapy. 40, (s. 37– 44). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2012.09.002
  • Hisli, N. (1989). Beck depresyon envanterinin üniversite öğrencileri için geçerliği, güvenirliği. Psikoloji Dergisi, 7(23), 3-13.
  • Hudgins, K. (2019). Psychodrama revisited: through the lens of the internal role map of the therapeutic spiral model to promote post-traumatic growth. Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie. 18. 1-16. 10.1007/s11620-019-00483-7.
  • Karataş, Z., ve Gökçakan, Z. (2011). Psikodrama teknikleri kullanılarak yapılan grup uygulamasının ergenlerin çatışma çözme becerilerine etkisinin incelenmesi. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri. 11(2), (s. 601-614).
  • Karataş, A., Karataş, A. & Gizir, C. A. (2013). Üniversite öğrencilerinin psikolojik danışma gereksinimlerinin çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 28 (28-3), 250-265 .
  • Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Personality and resistance to illness. American Journal of Psychology, 7(4), 413- 423.
  • Lenoir, F. (2020). Vivre! Dans un Monde Imprevisible. Librairie Artheme Fayard.
  • Li, Y., Scherer, N., Felix, L., ve Kuper, H. (2021). Prevalence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder in health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta- analysis. PLoS ONE 16:e0246454. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246454
  • Maddi, S. R. (2006). Hardiness: the courage to be resilient. In J. C. Thomas, D. L. Segal, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology, Vol. 1. Personality and Everyday Functioning (pp. 306–321). John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Maddi, S. R. (2013). Hardiness: Turning stressful circumstances into resilient growth. Springer
  • Martínez-Martí, M. L., ve Ruch, W. (2017). Character strengths predict resilience over and above positive affect, self-efficacy, optimism, social support, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(2), 110–119. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1163403
  • McCarthy, J. (2017). Enhancing feedback in higher education: Students’ attitudes towards online and in-class formative assessment feedback models. Active Learning in Higher Education, 18(2), 127- 141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787417707615
  • Miles, M, B., ve Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Morelli, S. A., Lieberman, M. D., ve Zaki, J. (2015). The emerging study of positive empathy. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 9 (2), 57–68, doi:10.1111/spc3.12157
  • Moreno, J. L. (1955). Theory of spontaneity-creativity. Sociometry. 18(4), (s. 105-118).
  • O’Conner, L. E., Berry, R. K., Stiver, J. W., Hanson, R., Ark, W., ve Toni Li, T. (2015). Empathy, compassionate altruism and psychological well-being in contemplative practitioners across five traditions. Psychology, 6 (8), 989-1000. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.68096.
  • Orkibi, H. ve Feniger-Schaal, R. (2019). Integrative systematic review of psychodrama psychotherapy research: Trends and methodological implications. PloS one, 14(2), e0212575. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212575 Özbek, A. ve Leutz, G.A. (2003). Psikodrama grup psikoterapisinde sahnesel etkileşim (Göz. geç. 2. bs.). Abdülkadir Özbek Psikodrama Enstitüsü Yayınları No:1.
  • Patias, N. D., Von Hohendorff, J., Cozzer, A. J., Flores, P. A., ve Scorsolini-Comin, F. (2021). Mental health and coping strategies in undergraduate and graduate students during covıd-19 pandemic. Trends in Psychology, 1–20. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43076-021-00069-z
  • Rutter, M. (2012). Resilience as a dynamic concept. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 335–344. Doi:10.1017/S0954579412000028
  • Sohrabi, C., Alsafi, Z., O'Neill, N., Khan, M., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., ve Agha, R. (2020). World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID- 19). International journal of surgery (London, England), 76, 71–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.02.034
  • Tusaie, K. ve Dyer, J. (2004). Resilience: A historical review of the construct. Holistic Nursing Practice, 18(1), 3-8. doi: 10.1097/00004650-200401000-00002.
  • Ulusoy M, Şahin N, Erkman H (1998). Turkish version of the beck anxiety inventor, psychometric properties. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly 12(2): 28-35.
  • Vinayak, S. ve Judge, J. (2018). Resilience and empathy as predictors of psychological wellbeing among adolescents. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 8(4), 192-200.
  • Yalom, I. (2002). Grup psikoterapisinin teori ve pratiği. (A.Tangör, Ö. Karaçam, Çev.) Kabalcı.

The Effect Of Online Psychodrama Group Therapy On Depression, Anxiety And Psychological Resilience During The Pandemic

Yıl 2021, Cilt 1, Sayı 2, 108 - 121, 30.12.2021

Öz

The aim of this study is to examine the effect of online psychodrama group therapy conducted during the pandemic with a group of university students, on their depression, anxiety and psychological resilience levels. The study carried out in 16 sessions for 3 hours, once a week, with 13 participants, was designed as a single-group pretest-posttest model. The pretest and posttest scores obtained from the Beck Depression, Beck Anxiety, and Adult Resilience scales were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Also, in order to evaluate the psychodrama process, open-ended questions and the group's subjective statements regarding the initial, middle and final stages of the group were analyzed by content analysis method. During the content analysis process, codes for each participant were created, and then the codes obtained from all participants were compared and themes were reached. No significant difference was observed between the pretest and posttest scores of Beck Depression Scale (z=-1.78, ; p>.o5), Beck Anxiety Inventory (z=-1.51; p>.o5) and Adult Resilience Scale (z=-1.51; p>.o5). However, empathy, increased well-being, awareness and universality themes obtained in the content analysis showed the effect of psychodrama group therapy on developing resilience.

Kaynakça

  • Allemande, M., Steiger, A.E. ve Fend, H.A. (2015). Empathy development in adolescence predicts social competencies in adulthood. J Pers, 83: 229-241. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12098
  • American Psychological Association (2021, Aralık 15) https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/patients-and- families/length-treatment
  • Arslan-Dikme, Ş. (2008). Sınav kaygısı yaşayan ergenlerle psikodrama çalışması. [Yayınlanmamış psikodrama tezi]. Abdülkadir Özbek Psikodrama Enstitüsü.
  • Bartone P.T., Hystad S.W., Eid J. ve Brevik J. I. (2012). Psychological hardiness and coping style as risk/resilience factors for alcohol abuse. Military Medicine, 177 (5): 517-524. https://doi.org/10.7205/milmed-d-11-00200
  • Basım, H.N. ve Çetin, F. (2011). Yetişkinler için psikolojik dayanıklılık ölçeğinin güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik çalışması. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 22 (2), 104-114.
  • Cohen, L., Manion, L. ve Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6. Baskı). Routledge.
  • Cossa, M. A. (2003). “Taming Puberty: Using psychodrama, sociodrama and sociometry with adolescent groups,” in Psychodrama in the 21st Century: Clinical and Educational Applications, ed. J. Gershoni (New York: Springer), 135–150.
  • Cruz, A., Sales, C., Alves, P., ve Moita, G. (2018). The core techniques of Morenian psychodrama: a systematic review of literature. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1263. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01263
  • Eysenbach, G., ve Köhler, C. (2002). How do consumers search for and appraise health information on the world wide web? Qualitative study using focus groups, usability tests, and in-depth interviews. Bmj, 324(7337), 573-577. doi: 10.1136/bmj.324.7337.573.
  • Erbay, L. G., Reyhani, İ., Ünal, S., Özcan, C., Özgöçer, T., Uçar, C., ve Yıldız, S. (2018). Does psychodrama affect perceived stress, anxiety-depression scores and saliva cortisol in patients with depression? Psychiatry investigation. 15(10), (s. 970–975). doi: 10.1136/bmj.324.7337.573
  • Feniger-Schaal, R., & Orkibi, H. (2020). Integrative systematic review of drama therapy intervention research. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 14(1), 68– 80. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000257
  • Friborg O, Hjemdal O, Rosenvinge JH vd. (2003) A New Rating Scale for Adult Resilience: What are the Central Protective Resources behind Healthy Adjustment? Int J Methods Psychiatr Res, 12:65-76. doi: 10.1002/mpr.143.
  • Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., & Taubman, O. (1995). Does hardiness contribute to mental health during a stressful real-life situation? The roles of appraisal and coping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(4), 687–695. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.68.4.687
  • Fonseca, J. (2004). Contemporary Psychodrama: New Approaches To Theory And Technique. Brunner Routledge Giacomucci, Scott. (2021). Advanced Psychodrama Directing. In book: Social Work, Sociometry, and Psychodrama (pp.277-290).10.1007/978-981-33-6342-7_14.
  • Graber, R., Pichon, F. ve Carabine, E. (2015). Psychological resilience. Overseas Development Institute.
  • Gravetter, J. F. ve Forzano, L. B. (2012). Research methods for the behavioral sciences (4. Baskı). Linda Schreiber-Ganster.
  • Guli, L. A., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Lerner, M. D., ve Britton, N. (2013). Social Competence Intervention Program (SCIP): A pilot study of a creative drama program for youth with social difficulties. Arts in Psychotherapy. 40, (s. 37– 44). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2012.09.002
  • Hisli, N. (1989). Beck depresyon envanterinin üniversite öğrencileri için geçerliği, güvenirliği. Psikoloji Dergisi, 7(23), 3-13.
  • Hudgins, K. (2019). Psychodrama revisited: through the lens of the internal role map of the therapeutic spiral model to promote post-traumatic growth. Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie. 18. 1-16. 10.1007/s11620-019-00483-7.
  • Karataş, Z., ve Gökçakan, Z. (2011). Psikodrama teknikleri kullanılarak yapılan grup uygulamasının ergenlerin çatışma çözme becerilerine etkisinin incelenmesi. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri. 11(2), (s. 601-614).
  • Karataş, A., Karataş, A. & Gizir, C. A. (2013). Üniversite öğrencilerinin psikolojik danışma gereksinimlerinin çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 28 (28-3), 250-265 .
  • Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Personality and resistance to illness. American Journal of Psychology, 7(4), 413- 423.
  • Lenoir, F. (2020). Vivre! Dans un Monde Imprevisible. Librairie Artheme Fayard.
  • Li, Y., Scherer, N., Felix, L., ve Kuper, H. (2021). Prevalence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder in health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta- analysis. PLoS ONE 16:e0246454. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246454
  • Maddi, S. R. (2006). Hardiness: the courage to be resilient. In J. C. Thomas, D. L. Segal, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology, Vol. 1. Personality and Everyday Functioning (pp. 306–321). John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Maddi, S. R. (2013). Hardiness: Turning stressful circumstances into resilient growth. Springer
  • Martínez-Martí, M. L., ve Ruch, W. (2017). Character strengths predict resilience over and above positive affect, self-efficacy, optimism, social support, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(2), 110–119. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1163403
  • McCarthy, J. (2017). Enhancing feedback in higher education: Students’ attitudes towards online and in-class formative assessment feedback models. Active Learning in Higher Education, 18(2), 127- 141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787417707615
  • Miles, M, B., ve Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Morelli, S. A., Lieberman, M. D., ve Zaki, J. (2015). The emerging study of positive empathy. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 9 (2), 57–68, doi:10.1111/spc3.12157
  • Moreno, J. L. (1955). Theory of spontaneity-creativity. Sociometry. 18(4), (s. 105-118).
  • O’Conner, L. E., Berry, R. K., Stiver, J. W., Hanson, R., Ark, W., ve Toni Li, T. (2015). Empathy, compassionate altruism and psychological well-being in contemplative practitioners across five traditions. Psychology, 6 (8), 989-1000. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.68096.
  • Orkibi, H. ve Feniger-Schaal, R. (2019). Integrative systematic review of psychodrama psychotherapy research: Trends and methodological implications. PloS one, 14(2), e0212575. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212575 Özbek, A. ve Leutz, G.A. (2003). Psikodrama grup psikoterapisinde sahnesel etkileşim (Göz. geç. 2. bs.). Abdülkadir Özbek Psikodrama Enstitüsü Yayınları No:1.
  • Patias, N. D., Von Hohendorff, J., Cozzer, A. J., Flores, P. A., ve Scorsolini-Comin, F. (2021). Mental health and coping strategies in undergraduate and graduate students during covıd-19 pandemic. Trends in Psychology, 1–20. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43076-021-00069-z
  • Rutter, M. (2012). Resilience as a dynamic concept. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 335–344. Doi:10.1017/S0954579412000028
  • Sohrabi, C., Alsafi, Z., O'Neill, N., Khan, M., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., ve Agha, R. (2020). World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID- 19). International journal of surgery (London, England), 76, 71–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.02.034
  • Tusaie, K. ve Dyer, J. (2004). Resilience: A historical review of the construct. Holistic Nursing Practice, 18(1), 3-8. doi: 10.1097/00004650-200401000-00002.
  • Ulusoy M, Şahin N, Erkman H (1998). Turkish version of the beck anxiety inventor, psychometric properties. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly 12(2): 28-35.
  • Vinayak, S. ve Judge, J. (2018). Resilience and empathy as predictors of psychological wellbeing among adolescents. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 8(4), 192-200.
  • Yalom, I. (2002). Grup psikoterapisinin teori ve pratiği. (A.Tangör, Ö. Karaçam, Çev.) Kabalcı.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Pınar KURT Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
İZMİR DEMOKRASİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8980-7414
Türkiye


Melike SARIOĞLU Bu kişi benim
BURSA ŞEHİR HASTANESİ
0000-0002-0296-6007
Türkiye


Simel PARLAK Bu kişi benim
İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8651-2693
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 20 Kasım 2021
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 1, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Kurt, P. , Sarıoğlu, M. & Parlak, S. (2021). Pandemi Sürecinde Çevrimiçi Psikodrama Grup Terapisinin Depresyon, Anksiyete Ve Psikolojik Dayanıklılık Üzerine Etkisi / The Effect Of Online Psychodrama Group Therapy On Depression, Anxiety And Psychological Resilience During The Pandemic . Education & Youth Research , 1 (2) , 108-121 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/eyor/issue/68053/1057005

24835  The content of the Education and Youth Research is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License