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Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 42, Sayı 2, 1573 - 1604, 29.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.982817

Öz

Bu çalışma ile zorbalığa seyirci müdahale psiko-eğitim programının ortaokul öğrencilerinin zorbalığa müdahale becerilerine etkisini incelemek amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada bu amacı gerçekleştirmek için öntest-sontest-izleme testi 1-2; deney ve kontrol gruplu deneysel desen kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada yer alan deney ve kontrol grupları Ankara ili Sincan ilçesinde bulunan bir ortaokulda eğitim gören 6. sınıf öğrencilerinden oluşturulmuştur. Deney ve kontrol gruplarına denek seçiminde Zorbalıkta Seyirci Müdahale Ölçeği (ZSMÖ) ve Katılımcı Rolü Ölçeği (KRÖ) kullanılmıştır. Denek seçerken KRÖ seyirci alt boyutundan akran bildirimine dayalı olarak ortalamadan daha yüksek puan almış olmak, ZSMÖ’den toplam puana göre ortalamanın altında puan almış olmak ve bu iki kriterin eşleştirilmesi sonucunda belirlenen öğrencilerden araştırmaya katılmaya gönüllü ve ailesinin izninin olması kriterleri dikkate alınmıştır. Bu kriterlere uyanlar arasından seçkisiz olarak belirlenen 12 deney ve 12 kontrol grubu olmak üzere 24 kişilik çalışma grubu oluşturulmuştur. Deney grubuna, 11 oturumluk zorbalığa seyirci müdahale becerilerini geliştirmeye yönelik psiko-eğitim programı uygulanmış, kontrol grubuna ise herhangi bir işlem yapılmamıştır. Bulguların sonuçlarına göre deney grubuna uygulanan psiko-eğitim programının, öğrencilerin zorbalığa seyirci müdahale düzeylerinde etkili olduğu ve programın etkisinin 5 haftalık ve 6 aylık izleme ölçümleri sonucunda da devam ettiği görülmüştür. Çalışmanın sonuçları zorbalığa seyirci müdahale psiko-eğitim programının ortaokul öğrencilerinin müdahale beceri düzeylerini geliştirmede etkili olduğunu göstermektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed, E. (2008). ‘Stop it, that’s enough’: Bystander intervention and its relationship to school connectedness and shame management. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 3(3), 203-213. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450120802002548
  • Bellmore, A., Ma, T., You, J., & Hughes, M. (2012). A two-method investigation of early adolescents’ responses upon witnessing peer victimization in school. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 1265-1276. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.04.012.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2010). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El Kitabı İstatistik, Araştırma Deseni SPSS Uygulamaları ve Yorum. Ankara: Pegem Yayıncılık.
  • Brown, N. W. (2018). Psikolojik Danışmanlar İçin Psiko-Eğitsel Gruplar Hazırlama ve Uygulama Rehberi. (Çev. Yorğun, V.). Anı yayıncılık. 2. Baskı.
  • Coloroso, B. (2003). The Bully, The Bullied and The Bystander. New York: Harper Resource.
  • Craig, W. M., Pepler, D., & Atlas, R. (2000). Observations of bullying in the playground and in the classroom. School Psychology International, 21(1), 22-36.https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034300211002
  • Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4. bs.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  • Darley, M. J., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8 (4), 377-383.
  • Endresen, I. M., & Olweus, D. (2001). Self-reported empathy in Norwegian adolescents: Sex differences, age trends and relationship to bullying. In: Bohart A. C., Arthur C., & Stipek D. J. (Eds.) Constructive and destructive behavior: Implications for family, school, and society, (147–165). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Ergül, A. (2009). Bir grup süreci olarak akran zorbalığı: Katılımcı rolü gruplarında tepkisel amaçlı saldırganlık ve toplumsal konum. Yayınlanmış yüksek lisans tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Espelage, D. L., Green, H., & Polanin, J. (2012). Willingness to intervene in bullying episodes among middle school students: Individual and peer-group influences. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 32(6), 776–801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431611423017
  • Fluke, S. M. (2016). Standing up or standing by: Examining the bystander effect in school bullying (Order No. 10139916). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1821965291?accountid=11054
  • Fredricka, S. S., Jenkins, L.N. & Rayc K.(2020). Dimensions of empathy and bystander intervention in bullying in elementary school. Journal of School Psychology. 79 (31-42).
  • Frey, K. S., Hirschtein, K. M., & Snell, J. L. (2009). Observed reductions in school bullying, nonbullying aggression, and destructive bystander behavior: A longitudinal evaluation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101 (2), 466–481.
  • Garrity, C., Jens, K., Porter, W., Sager, N., & Short-Camilli, C. (2004). Bully Proofing Your School: Working With Victims and Bullies in Elementary Schools (3rd ed.). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
  • Gini, G., Pozzoli, T., Borghi, F., & Franzoni, L. (2008). The role of bystanders in students’ perception of bullying and sense of safety. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 617-638. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2008.02.001.
  • Güçray, S. S., Çekici, F., ve Çolakkadıoğlu, O (2009). Psiko-eğitim gruplarının yapılandırılması ve genel ilkeleri. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(1), 134-153.
  • Harris, S., & Petrie, G. F. (2003). Bullying; The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.
  • Hawkins, D. L., Pepler, D. J., & Craig, W. M. (2001). Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying. Social Development, 10(4), 512–527. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00178
  • Heinrichs, R. R. (2003). A whole-school approach to pullying: Special considerations for children with exceptionalities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38(4), 195-204.
  • Huitsing, G., & Veenstra, R. (2012). Bullying in classrooms: Participant roles from a social network perspective. Aggressive Behavior, 38(6), 494–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21438
  • Jenkins, L. N., Demaray, M. K., Fredrick, S. S. & Summers, K. H. (2016) Associations among middle school students’ bullying roles and social skills. Journal of School Violence, 15(3), 259-278. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2014.986675
  • Jenkins, L. N., & Nickerson, A. B. (2017). Bullying participant roles and gender as predictors of bystander intervention. Aggressive Behavior, 43(3), 281-290. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21688
  • Jenkins, L.N., & Nickerson, A. B. (2019). Bystander intervention in bullying: Role of social skills and gender. Journal of Early Adolescence, 39(2), 141-166. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431617735652
  • Johnston, A. D., Midgett, A., Doumas, D. M., & Moody, S. (2018). A mixed methods evaluation of the “Aged-Up” STAC Bullying bystander intervention for high school students. The Professional Counselor, 8(1), 73-87.
  • Kingston, S. (2008). Bullying as a social process: Factors influencing bystander behaviour. Faculty of Child and Youth Studies, Master of Arts, Brock University St. Catharines, Ontario.
  • Kleinsasser, A., Jouriles, E. N., McDonald, R., & Rosenfield, D. (2015). An online bystander intervention program for the prevention of sexual violence. Psychol Violence, 5(3), 227–235.
  • Kurt Demirbaş, N., & Öztemel, K. (2019). Zorbalıkta Seyirci Müdahale Ölçeği’nin (ZSMÖ) Türkçe uyarlaması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi. 9 (54). 965-985.
  • Latané, B., & Darley, M. J. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10(3), 215-221.
  • Lee, C. H., & Song, J. (2012). Functions of parental involvement and effects of school climate on bullying behaviors among South Korean middle school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(12), 2437-2464. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260511433508
  • Levine, M., Cassidy, C., Razier, G., & Icher, S.( 2002). Self‐categorization and bystander non‐intervention: Two experimental studies. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32 (7), 1452-1463
  • Levine M., & Crowther, S. (2008). The responsive bystander, how social group membership and group size can encourage as well as inhibit bystander ıntervention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(6), 1429-1439. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012634
  • Lihnou, K., & Antonopoulou, E. (2016). Pupils’ participant roles in bullying situations and their relation to perceptions of empathy and self-efficacy. Preschool and Primary Education, 4(2), 291-304.
  • Midgett, A., Doumas, D., Sears, D., Lundquist, A., & Hausheer, R. (2015). A bystander bullying psychoeducation program with middle school students: A preliminary report. The Professional Counselor, 5(4). 486-500.
  • Midgett, A.,Doumas, D., & Trull, R. (2017). Evaluation of a brief, school-based bullying bystander intervention for elementary school students. Professional School Counseling, 20(1), 172-183.
  • Midgett, A., & Doumas, D. (2019). The impact of a brief bullying bystander intervention on depressive symptoms. Journal of Counseling & Development. 97, 270-280.
  • Musu, L., Zhang, A., Wang, K., Zhang, J., & Oudekerk, B.A. (2019). National Center for Education Statistics: Indicators of school crime and safety. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov
  • Nansel, T. R.,Overpeck, M., Pilla,R. S.,Ruan,W.J., Simons-Morton,B.,& Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of American Medical Association. 285, 2094–2100. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094
  • Nocentini, A. Menesini, E. & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Level and change of bullying behavior during high school: A multilevel growth curve analysis. Journal of Adolescence. 36(3), 495-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.10.001
  • Nickerson, A. B . , Aloe, A. M . , Livingston, J. A . , & Feeley, T. H. (2014) . Measurement of the bystander intervention model for bullying and sexual harassments . Journal of Adolescence. 37, 391-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.02.004
  • Nickerson, A. B, Feeley, T. H., & Tsay-Vogel, M. (2016). Applying mass communication theory to bystander intervention in Bullying. Adolescent Research Review. 2(1), 37-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-016-0030-3
  • Olweus, D. (1997). Bully/victim problems in school: Facts and interventions. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 12(4), 495-510.
  • Padgett, S., & Notar, C. E. (2013). Bystanders are the key to stopping bullying. Universal Journal of Educational Research. 1, 33-41. doi: 1 0.131 89/uj er.20 13.01020.
  • Parris, L., Jungert, T., Thornberg, R., Varjas, K., Meyers, J., Grunewald, S. ve Shriberg D. (2020). Bullying bystander behaviors: The role of coping effectiveness and themoderating effect of gender. Candinavian Journal of Psychology. 61. 38-46.
  • Pekel, N. (2004) Akran zorbalığı grupları arasında sosyometrik statü, yalnızlık ve akademik başarı durumlarının incelenmesi. (Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi.) Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Pişkin M. (2003). Okullarımızda yaygın bir sorun: okul zorbalığı. VII. Ulusal Psikolojik Danışma Ve Rehberlik Kongresi Kongre Kitabı: 125, 9-11 Temmuz 2003, Malatya.
  • Polanin, J. R, Espelage, D. R., & Pigott, D. T. (2012). A meta-analysis of school-based bullying prevention programs’ effects on bystander intervention behavior. School Psychology Review, 41(1), 47– 65.
  • Pozzoli, T., & Gini, G. (2012). Why do bystanders of bullying help or not? A multidimensional model. Journal of Early Adolescence, 33(3), 315-340.
  • Richard, J. F., Schneider, B. H., & Mallet, P. (2012). Revisiting the whole-school approach to bullying: Really looking at the whole school. School Psychology International, 33(3), 263-284. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034311415906
  • Sainio, M., Veenstra, R., Huitsing, G., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). Victims and their defenders: A dyadic approach. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 144-151. doi: 10.1177/0165025410378068.
  • Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status with in the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1-15.
  • Salmivalli, C., & Voeten, M. (2004). Connections between attitudes, group norms, and behaviour in bullying situations. International Journal of Behavioral Development. 28, 246–258.
  • Salmivalli, C. (2010). Bullying and the peer group: A review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15(2), 112-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2009.08.007
  • Sullivan, K., Cleary, M. & Sullivan, G. (2004). Bullying in Secondary Schools: What It Looks Like and How to Manage it. California: Paul Chapman Publishing & Corwin Pres.
  • Tsang, S. K. M., Hui, K. P. E., & Law B. C. M. (2011). Bystander position taking in school bullying: The role of positive identity, self-efficacy, and self-determination. The Scientific World Journal, 11, 2278-2286.
  • Yıldırım, S. (2001). The relationship of bullying, family environment and popularity. Unpublished master’s thesis. Middle East Technical University, Ankara.

The Effect of Bystanders Intervention In Bullying Psycho-Education Program on Intervention Skills of Middle School Students

Yıl 2022, Cilt 42, Sayı 2, 1573 - 1604, 29.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.982817

Öz

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of psycho-education program developed based on the bystander intervention model on middle school students' intervention skills in bullying. Experimental design with pretest-posttest- follow up test-1-2 and control group was used to achieve this aim in the study. Experimental and control groups in the research were composed of 6th grade students studying in a middle school in Ankara. Bystander Intervention Scale in Bullying (BISB) and Participant Role Scale (PRQ) were used in the selection of subjects for the experimental and control groups. In the determination of experimental and control groups three criteria were determined being having had a higher than average score based on peer reporting from the PRQ bystander sub-dimension; having had a below-average score from BISB with respect to total score and to involve volunteer students who meet these two criteria. Within the scope of the research, 11 sessions of psycho-education program was applied to the experimental group. The findings of the study revealed that the psycho-education program for developing the bystander middle school students' intervention skills in bullying provided an increase in the level of bystander intervention in bullying of the students in the experimental group.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed, E. (2008). ‘Stop it, that’s enough’: Bystander intervention and its relationship to school connectedness and shame management. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 3(3), 203-213. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450120802002548
  • Bellmore, A., Ma, T., You, J., & Hughes, M. (2012). A two-method investigation of early adolescents’ responses upon witnessing peer victimization in school. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 1265-1276. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.04.012.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2010). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El Kitabı İstatistik, Araştırma Deseni SPSS Uygulamaları ve Yorum. Ankara: Pegem Yayıncılık.
  • Brown, N. W. (2018). Psikolojik Danışmanlar İçin Psiko-Eğitsel Gruplar Hazırlama ve Uygulama Rehberi. (Çev. Yorğun, V.). Anı yayıncılık. 2. Baskı.
  • Coloroso, B. (2003). The Bully, The Bullied and The Bystander. New York: Harper Resource.
  • Craig, W. M., Pepler, D., & Atlas, R. (2000). Observations of bullying in the playground and in the classroom. School Psychology International, 21(1), 22-36.https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034300211002
  • Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4. bs.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  • Darley, M. J., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8 (4), 377-383.
  • Endresen, I. M., & Olweus, D. (2001). Self-reported empathy in Norwegian adolescents: Sex differences, age trends and relationship to bullying. In: Bohart A. C., Arthur C., & Stipek D. J. (Eds.) Constructive and destructive behavior: Implications for family, school, and society, (147–165). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Ergül, A. (2009). Bir grup süreci olarak akran zorbalığı: Katılımcı rolü gruplarında tepkisel amaçlı saldırganlık ve toplumsal konum. Yayınlanmış yüksek lisans tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Espelage, D. L., Green, H., & Polanin, J. (2012). Willingness to intervene in bullying episodes among middle school students: Individual and peer-group influences. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 32(6), 776–801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431611423017
  • Fluke, S. M. (2016). Standing up or standing by: Examining the bystander effect in school bullying (Order No. 10139916). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1821965291?accountid=11054
  • Fredricka, S. S., Jenkins, L.N. & Rayc K.(2020). Dimensions of empathy and bystander intervention in bullying in elementary school. Journal of School Psychology. 79 (31-42).
  • Frey, K. S., Hirschtein, K. M., & Snell, J. L. (2009). Observed reductions in school bullying, nonbullying aggression, and destructive bystander behavior: A longitudinal evaluation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101 (2), 466–481.
  • Garrity, C., Jens, K., Porter, W., Sager, N., & Short-Camilli, C. (2004). Bully Proofing Your School: Working With Victims and Bullies in Elementary Schools (3rd ed.). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
  • Gini, G., Pozzoli, T., Borghi, F., & Franzoni, L. (2008). The role of bystanders in students’ perception of bullying and sense of safety. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 617-638. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2008.02.001.
  • Güçray, S. S., Çekici, F., ve Çolakkadıoğlu, O (2009). Psiko-eğitim gruplarının yapılandırılması ve genel ilkeleri. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(1), 134-153.
  • Harris, S., & Petrie, G. F. (2003). Bullying; The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.
  • Hawkins, D. L., Pepler, D. J., & Craig, W. M. (2001). Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying. Social Development, 10(4), 512–527. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00178
  • Heinrichs, R. R. (2003). A whole-school approach to pullying: Special considerations for children with exceptionalities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38(4), 195-204.
  • Huitsing, G., & Veenstra, R. (2012). Bullying in classrooms: Participant roles from a social network perspective. Aggressive Behavior, 38(6), 494–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21438
  • Jenkins, L. N., Demaray, M. K., Fredrick, S. S. & Summers, K. H. (2016) Associations among middle school students’ bullying roles and social skills. Journal of School Violence, 15(3), 259-278. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2014.986675
  • Jenkins, L. N., & Nickerson, A. B. (2017). Bullying participant roles and gender as predictors of bystander intervention. Aggressive Behavior, 43(3), 281-290. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21688
  • Jenkins, L.N., & Nickerson, A. B. (2019). Bystander intervention in bullying: Role of social skills and gender. Journal of Early Adolescence, 39(2), 141-166. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431617735652
  • Johnston, A. D., Midgett, A., Doumas, D. M., & Moody, S. (2018). A mixed methods evaluation of the “Aged-Up” STAC Bullying bystander intervention for high school students. The Professional Counselor, 8(1), 73-87.
  • Kingston, S. (2008). Bullying as a social process: Factors influencing bystander behaviour. Faculty of Child and Youth Studies, Master of Arts, Brock University St. Catharines, Ontario.
  • Kleinsasser, A., Jouriles, E. N., McDonald, R., & Rosenfield, D. (2015). An online bystander intervention program for the prevention of sexual violence. Psychol Violence, 5(3), 227–235.
  • Kurt Demirbaş, N., & Öztemel, K. (2019). Zorbalıkta Seyirci Müdahale Ölçeği’nin (ZSMÖ) Türkçe uyarlaması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi. 9 (54). 965-985.
  • Latané, B., & Darley, M. J. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10(3), 215-221.
  • Lee, C. H., & Song, J. (2012). Functions of parental involvement and effects of school climate on bullying behaviors among South Korean middle school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(12), 2437-2464. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260511433508
  • Levine, M., Cassidy, C., Razier, G., & Icher, S.( 2002). Self‐categorization and bystander non‐intervention: Two experimental studies. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32 (7), 1452-1463
  • Levine M., & Crowther, S. (2008). The responsive bystander, how social group membership and group size can encourage as well as inhibit bystander ıntervention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(6), 1429-1439. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012634
  • Lihnou, K., & Antonopoulou, E. (2016). Pupils’ participant roles in bullying situations and their relation to perceptions of empathy and self-efficacy. Preschool and Primary Education, 4(2), 291-304.
  • Midgett, A., Doumas, D., Sears, D., Lundquist, A., & Hausheer, R. (2015). A bystander bullying psychoeducation program with middle school students: A preliminary report. The Professional Counselor, 5(4). 486-500.
  • Midgett, A.,Doumas, D., & Trull, R. (2017). Evaluation of a brief, school-based bullying bystander intervention for elementary school students. Professional School Counseling, 20(1), 172-183.
  • Midgett, A., & Doumas, D. (2019). The impact of a brief bullying bystander intervention on depressive symptoms. Journal of Counseling & Development. 97, 270-280.
  • Musu, L., Zhang, A., Wang, K., Zhang, J., & Oudekerk, B.A. (2019). National Center for Education Statistics: Indicators of school crime and safety. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov
  • Nansel, T. R.,Overpeck, M., Pilla,R. S.,Ruan,W.J., Simons-Morton,B.,& Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of American Medical Association. 285, 2094–2100. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094
  • Nocentini, A. Menesini, E. & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Level and change of bullying behavior during high school: A multilevel growth curve analysis. Journal of Adolescence. 36(3), 495-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.10.001
  • Nickerson, A. B . , Aloe, A. M . , Livingston, J. A . , & Feeley, T. H. (2014) . Measurement of the bystander intervention model for bullying and sexual harassments . Journal of Adolescence. 37, 391-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.02.004
  • Nickerson, A. B, Feeley, T. H., & Tsay-Vogel, M. (2016). Applying mass communication theory to bystander intervention in Bullying. Adolescent Research Review. 2(1), 37-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-016-0030-3
  • Olweus, D. (1997). Bully/victim problems in school: Facts and interventions. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 12(4), 495-510.
  • Padgett, S., & Notar, C. E. (2013). Bystanders are the key to stopping bullying. Universal Journal of Educational Research. 1, 33-41. doi: 1 0.131 89/uj er.20 13.01020.
  • Parris, L., Jungert, T., Thornberg, R., Varjas, K., Meyers, J., Grunewald, S. ve Shriberg D. (2020). Bullying bystander behaviors: The role of coping effectiveness and themoderating effect of gender. Candinavian Journal of Psychology. 61. 38-46.
  • Pekel, N. (2004) Akran zorbalığı grupları arasında sosyometrik statü, yalnızlık ve akademik başarı durumlarının incelenmesi. (Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi.) Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Pişkin M. (2003). Okullarımızda yaygın bir sorun: okul zorbalığı. VII. Ulusal Psikolojik Danışma Ve Rehberlik Kongresi Kongre Kitabı: 125, 9-11 Temmuz 2003, Malatya.
  • Polanin, J. R, Espelage, D. R., & Pigott, D. T. (2012). A meta-analysis of school-based bullying prevention programs’ effects on bystander intervention behavior. School Psychology Review, 41(1), 47– 65.
  • Pozzoli, T., & Gini, G. (2012). Why do bystanders of bullying help or not? A multidimensional model. Journal of Early Adolescence, 33(3), 315-340.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Neşe KURT DEMİRBAŞ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
MEB
0000-0002-8923-9813
Türkiye


Kemal ÖZTEMEL>
GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, GAZİ EĞİTİM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-8068-3897
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Ağustos 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 42, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { gefad982817, journal = {Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1301-9058}, address = {}, publisher = {Gazi Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {42}, number = {2}, pages = {1573 - 1604}, doi = {10.17152/gefad.982817}, title = {Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi}, key = {cite}, author = {Kurt Demirbaş, Neşe and Öztemel, Kemal} }
APA Kurt Demirbaş, N. & Öztemel, K. (2022). Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi . Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi , 42 (2) , 1573-1604 . DOI: 10.17152/gefad.982817
MLA Kurt Demirbaş, N. , Öztemel, K. "Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi" . Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 42 (2022 ): 1573-1604 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gefad/issue/72357/982817>
Chicago Kurt Demirbaş, N. , Öztemel, K. "Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi". Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 42 (2022 ): 1573-1604
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi AU - NeşeKurt Demirbaş, KemalÖztemel Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.17152/gefad.982817 DO - 10.17152/gefad.982817 T2 - Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1573 EP - 1604 VL - 42 IS - 2 SN - 1301-9058- M3 - doi: 10.17152/gefad.982817 UR - https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.982817 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi %A Neşe Kurt Demirbaş , Kemal Öztemel %T Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi %D 2022 %J Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1301-9058- %V 42 %N 2 %R doi: 10.17152/gefad.982817 %U 10.17152/gefad.982817
ISNAD Kurt Demirbaş, Neşe , Öztemel, Kemal . "Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi". Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 42 / 2 (Ağustos 2022): 1573-1604 . https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.982817
AMA Kurt Demirbaş N. , Öztemel K. Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi. GEFAD. 2022; 42(2): 1573-1604.
Vancouver Kurt Demirbaş N. , Öztemel K. Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2022; 42(2): 1573-1604.
IEEE N. Kurt Demirbaş ve K. Öztemel , "Zorbalığa Seyirci Müdahale Psiko-Eğitim Programının Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Zorbalığa Müdahale Becerilerine Etkisi", Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 42, sayı. 2, ss. 1573-1604, Ağu. 2022, doi:10.17152/gefad.982817