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Achilles Tendon Injuries and Early Functional Rehabilitation Practices

Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 2, 825 - 831, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.870376

Öz

Achilles is the tendon of our body that is the most powerful and capable of resisting great forces. Achilles tendon injuries observed during daily life and sports activities occur in the relatively avascular area 2-6 cm proximal to the calcaneus, the sticking point of the tendon Surgical or conservative treatment preferences in injury are affected by conditions such as the age of the patient, the type and localization of the tear, the profession of the patient, chronic disease. Especially immobilization performed with a long-term splint or plaster should not be preferred after surgery and long-leg plaster should be avoided. The fact that immobilization causes atrophy of muscles, adhesion, joint stiffness, shortening of tendons has increased the interest in functional rehabilitation. Early functional rehabilitation with early surgical or weight transfer, controlled range of motion, and a combination of both rehabilitation and the process involves dynamic mobilization exercises. In contrast to immobilization practices, early mobilization trainings (ankle exercises, early weight bearing activities, etc.) provide a rapid functional improvement and positively affect return to work, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Correctly planned and structured rehabilitation programs are important for maintaining and maintaining health and preventing diseases. Early functional rehabilitation practices that will be carried out with multidisciplinary approaches under the supervision of physiotherapists who demonstrate their clinical skills in accordance with the needs of the patient and closely follow the literature are very important in the return of the patient to quality of life and activities. Keywords: Achilles Tendon, Rupture, Functional Rehabilitation

Kaynakça

  • 1. Liu, W, Zhuang, H, Shao, D, Wang, L. and Shi, M. (2017). ‘’High-Frequency Color Doppler Ultrasound in Diagnosis, Treatment, and Rehabilitation of Achilles Tendon Injury’’. Medical Science Monitor, 23, 5752-5759.
  • 2. Chiodo, C.P. and Wilson, M.G. (2006).’’ Current concepts review: acute ruptures of the achilles tendon’’. Foot Ankle International, 27, 305-313. 3. Pajala, A, Kangas, J, Siira, P, Ohtonen, P. and Leppilahti, J. (2009). ‘’Augmented compared with nonaugmented surgical repair of a fresh total achilles tendon rupture: A prospective randomized study’’. The Journal Bone& Joint Surgery American, 91, 1092-1100.
  • 4. Frankewycz, B, Krutsch, W, Weber, J, Ernstberger, A, Nerlich, M. and Pfeifer, C.G. (2017). ‘’Rehabilitation of Achilles tendon ruptures: is early functional rehabilitation daily routine?’’. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 137(3), 333-340.
  • 5. Barford, K.F. (2014). ‘’Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment’’. Danish Medical Jorunal, 61(4), B4837.
  • 6. Holm, C, Kjaer, M and Eliasson P. (2015). ‘’Achilles tendon rupture-treatment and complications: A systematic review’’. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 25(1), e1–e10.
  • 7. Brumann, M, Baumbach, S.F, Mutscher, W and Polzer, H. (2014). “Accelerated rehabilitation following Achilles tendon repair after acute rupture – Development of an evidence-based treatment protocol”. Injury, 45(11), 1782-1790.
  • 8. Can, F. ve Ateş Numanoğlu, E. (2018). ‘’Aşil tendon rüptür cerrahisi sonrası fonksiyonel rehabilitasyon’’. TOTBİD Dergisi, 17, 66-75.
  • 9. Strom, A.C. and Casillas, M.M. (2009). ‘’Achilles tendon rehabilitation’’. Foot and Ankle Clinics, 14(4), 773-782.
  • 10. Park, S.H, Lee, H.S, Young, K.W. and Seo, S.G. (2020). ‘’Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture’’. Climics in Orthopedic Surgery, 12(1), 1-8.
  • 11. Willits, K, Amendola A, Bryant D. et al. (2010). ‘’Operative versus nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures: a multicenter randomized trial using accelerated functional rehabilitation’’. The Journal of Bone Joint Surgery American, 92(17), 2767-2775.
  • 12. Manent, A, Lopez, L, Coromina, H, Santamaria, A, Dominguez, A, Llorens, N, Sales, M. and Videla, S. (2019). ‘’Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures: Efficacy of Conservative and Surgical (Percutaneous, Open) Treatment-A Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial’’. The Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery, 58(6), 1229-1234.
  • 13. Khan, R.J, Fick, D, Keogh, A, Crawford, J, Brammar, T. and Parker, M. (2005). ‘’Treatment of acute achilles tendon ruptures: a metaanalysis of randomized, controlled trials’’.The Journal of Bone Joint Surgery American, 87(10), 2202-2210.
  • 14. Nam, I.H, Park, Y.U, Cho, J.H, Lee, D.H. and Min, K.J. (2019). ‘’Comparison Between Early Functional Rehabilitation and Cast Immobilization After Minimally Invasive Repair for an Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture’’. The Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery, 58(4), 628-631.
  • 15. Lantto, L, Heikkinen, J, Flinkkila, T, Ohtonen, P, Siira, P, Laine, V. and Leppilahti, J. (2016). ‘’A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatments of Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures’’. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(9), 2406-2414.
  • 16. Olsson, N, Silbernagel, K.G, Eriksson, B.I, Sansone, M, Brorsson, A, Nilsson Helander, K. and Karlsson, J. (2013). ‘’Stable surgical repair with accelerated rehabilitation versus nonsurgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon ruptures: a randomized controlled study’’. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(12), 2867-2876.
  • 17. Barfod, K.W, Nielsen, F, Helander, K.N. et al. (2013). ‘’Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture in Scandinavia Does Not Adhere to Evidence-based Guidelines: A Cross-sectional Questionnaire-based Study of 138 Departments’’. The Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery, 52(5), 629-633.
  • 18. Möller, M, Movin, T, Granhed, H, Lind, K, Faxén, E. and Karlsson J. (2001). “Acute rupture of tendo Achillis. A prospective, randomized study of comparision between surgical and non-surgical treatment”. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 83(6), 843-848.
  • 19. Ryu, C.H, Lee, H.S, Seo, S.G. and Kim, H.Y. (2018). ‘’Results of tenorrhaphy with early rehabilitation for acute tear of Achilles tendon’’. Journal of Orthopedic Surgery (Hong Kong), 26(3), 2309499018802483.
  • 20. Costa, M.L, MacMillan, K, Halliday, D, Chester, R, Shepstone, L, Robinson, A.H. and Donell, S.T. (2006). ‘’Randomised controlled trials of immediate weight-bearing mobilisation for rupture of the tendo Achillis’’. The Journal of Bone Joint Surgery British, 88(1), 69-77.
  • 21. Andersson, T, Eliasson, P. and Aspenberg, P. (2009). “Tissue memory in healing tendons: short loading episodes stimulate healing”. Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(2), 417-421.
  • 22. Bring, D, Reno, C, Renstrom, P, Salo, P, Hart, D. and Ackermann, P. (2010). ‘’Prolonged immobilization compromises up-regulation of repair genes after tendon rupture in a rat model’’. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine& Science in Sports, 20(3), 411-417.
  • 23. Marti, R. and Weber, B. (1974). ‘’Rupture of the achilles tendon- functional after care’’. Helvetica Chirurgica Acta, 41(1–2), 293-296.
  • 24. Nilsson-Helander, K, Silbernagel, K.G, Thomee´, R. et al. (2010). ‘’Acute achilles tendon rupture: a randomized, controlled study comparing surgical and nonsurgical treatments using validated outcome measures’’.The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(11), 2186-2193.
  • 25. Huang, J, Wang, C, Ma, X, Wang, X, Zhang, C. and Chen, L. (2015). ‘’Rehabilitation regimen after surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures: a systematic review with meta-analysis’’. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(4), 1008-1116.
  • 26. Valkering, K.P, Aufwerber, S, Ranuccio, F, Lunini, E, Edman, G. and Ackermann, P.W. (2017). ‘’Functional weight-bearing mobilization after Achilles tendon rupture enhances early healing response: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial’’. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 25(6), 1807–1816.
  • 27. Kangas, J, Pajala, A, Ohtonen, P. and Leppilahti, J. (2007). ‘’Achilles tendon elongation after rupture repair: a randomized comparison of 2 postoperative regimens’’. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(1), 59- 64.
  • 28. Suchak, A.A, Spooner, C, Reid, D.C. and Jomha, N.M. (2006). ‘’Postoperative rehabilitation protocols for Achilles tendon ruptures: a metaanalysis’’. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, 445, 216-221.
  • 29. Lu, J, Liang, X. and Ma, Q. (2019). ‘’Early Functional Rehabilitation for Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures: An Update Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials’’. The Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery, 58(5), 938-945.
  • 30. Kerkhoffs, G.M, Struijs, P.A, Raaymakers, E.L. and Marti, R.K. (2002). ‘’Functional treatment after surgical repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture: wrap vs walking cast’’. Archives of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, 122(2), 102–105.
  • 31. Jacob, K. and Paterson, R. (2007). ‘’Surgical repair followed by functional rehabilitation for acute and chronic Achilles tendon injuries: excellent functional results, patient satisfaction and no reruptures’’. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 77(4), 287–291.
  • 32. Deng, S, Sun, Z, Zhang, C, Chen, G, and Li, J. (2017). ‘’Surgical Treatment Versus Conservative Management for Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials’’. The Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery, 56(6), 1236-1243.
  • 33. Eliasson, P, Agergaard, A.S, Couppe, C, Svensson, R, Hoeffner, R. and Warming S. (2018). “The Ruptured Achilles Tendon Elongates for 6 Months After Surgical Repair Regardless of Early or Late Weightbearing in Combination With Ankle Mobilization: A Randomized Clinical Trial’’. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(10), 2492-2502.
  • 34. Gould, H.P, Bano, J.M, Akman, J.L. and Fillar, A.S. (2021). ‘’Postoperative Rehabilitation Following Achilles Tendon Repair: A Systematic Review’’. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, 29 (2), 130-145.
  • 35. Dai, W, Leng, X, Wang, J, Hu, X. and Ao, Y. (2021). “Rehabilitation regimen for non-surgical treatment of Achilles tendon rupture: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials”. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 24(6), 536-543.

Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları

Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 2, 825 - 831, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.870376

Öz

Aşil, vücudumuzun en güçlü ve büyük kuvvetlere karşı koyabilen tendonudur. Günlük yaşam ve spor aktiviteleri sırasında görülen aşil tendon yaralanmaları, tendonun yapışma noktası olan kalkeneusun 2-6 cm proksimalindeki nispeten avasküler bölgesinde gerçekleşmektedir. Yaralanmada cerrahi veya konservatif tedavi tercihleri hastanın yaşı, yırtığın tipi ve lokalizasyonu, hastanın mesleği, kronik hastalık gibi durumlardan etkilenmektedir. Özellikle uzun süreli atel veya alçı ile gerçekleştirilen immobilizasyonun cerrahi sonrası tercih edilmemesi ve uzun bacak alçılamasından kaçınılması gerekmektedir. İmmobilizasyonun kaslarda atrofi, adhezyon, eklem sertliği, tendonda kısalıklara neden olması fonksiyonel rehabilitasyona olan ilgiyi artırmıştır. Erken fonksiyonel rehabilitasyon cerrahi olsun veya olmasın erken dönemde ağırlık aktarma, kontrollü eklem hareket açıklığı ve her ikisinin kombinasyonu egzersizlerle dinamik bir rehabilitasyonu ve mobilizasyon sürecini içermektedir. İmmobilizasyon uygulamalarının aksine erken dönemde verilecek mobilizasyon eğitimleri (ayak bileği egzersizler, erken ağırlık taşıma aktiviteleri vb) hızlı bir fonksiyonel iyileşme sağlamakta, işe dönüşü, yaşam kalitesini ve hasta memnuniyetini olumlu etkilemektedir. Doğru planlanıp yapılandırılan rehabilitasyon programlarının sağlığın korunması ve devam ettirilmesi ile hastalıkların önlenmesinde önem arz etmektedir. Hastanın ihtiyaçları doğrultusunda klinik becerilerini ortaya koyan ve literatürü yakından takip eden fizyoterapistlerin gözetiminde multidisipliner yaklaşımlarla gerçekleştirilecek erken dönem fonksiyonel rehabilitasyon uygulamalarının hastanın yaşam kalitesi ve aktivitelere dönüşünde oldukça önemlidir.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Liu, W, Zhuang, H, Shao, D, Wang, L. and Shi, M. (2017). ‘’High-Frequency Color Doppler Ultrasound in Diagnosis, Treatment, and Rehabilitation of Achilles Tendon Injury’’. Medical Science Monitor, 23, 5752-5759.
  • 2. Chiodo, C.P. and Wilson, M.G. (2006).’’ Current concepts review: acute ruptures of the achilles tendon’’. Foot Ankle International, 27, 305-313. 3. Pajala, A, Kangas, J, Siira, P, Ohtonen, P. and Leppilahti, J. (2009). ‘’Augmented compared with nonaugmented surgical repair of a fresh total achilles tendon rupture: A prospective randomized study’’. The Journal Bone& Joint Surgery American, 91, 1092-1100.
  • 4. Frankewycz, B, Krutsch, W, Weber, J, Ernstberger, A, Nerlich, M. and Pfeifer, C.G. (2017). ‘’Rehabilitation of Achilles tendon ruptures: is early functional rehabilitation daily routine?’’. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 137(3), 333-340.
  • 5. Barford, K.F. (2014). ‘’Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment’’. Danish Medical Jorunal, 61(4), B4837.
  • 6. Holm, C, Kjaer, M and Eliasson P. (2015). ‘’Achilles tendon rupture-treatment and complications: A systematic review’’. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 25(1), e1–e10.
  • 7. Brumann, M, Baumbach, S.F, Mutscher, W and Polzer, H. (2014). “Accelerated rehabilitation following Achilles tendon repair after acute rupture – Development of an evidence-based treatment protocol”. Injury, 45(11), 1782-1790.
  • 8. Can, F. ve Ateş Numanoğlu, E. (2018). ‘’Aşil tendon rüptür cerrahisi sonrası fonksiyonel rehabilitasyon’’. TOTBİD Dergisi, 17, 66-75.
  • 9. Strom, A.C. and Casillas, M.M. (2009). ‘’Achilles tendon rehabilitation’’. Foot and Ankle Clinics, 14(4), 773-782.
  • 10. Park, S.H, Lee, H.S, Young, K.W. and Seo, S.G. (2020). ‘’Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture’’. Climics in Orthopedic Surgery, 12(1), 1-8.
  • 11. Willits, K, Amendola A, Bryant D. et al. (2010). ‘’Operative versus nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures: a multicenter randomized trial using accelerated functional rehabilitation’’. The Journal of Bone Joint Surgery American, 92(17), 2767-2775.
  • 12. Manent, A, Lopez, L, Coromina, H, Santamaria, A, Dominguez, A, Llorens, N, Sales, M. and Videla, S. (2019). ‘’Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures: Efficacy of Conservative and Surgical (Percutaneous, Open) Treatment-A Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial’’. The Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery, 58(6), 1229-1234.
  • 13. Khan, R.J, Fick, D, Keogh, A, Crawford, J, Brammar, T. and Parker, M. (2005). ‘’Treatment of acute achilles tendon ruptures: a metaanalysis of randomized, controlled trials’’.The Journal of Bone Joint Surgery American, 87(10), 2202-2210.
  • 14. Nam, I.H, Park, Y.U, Cho, J.H, Lee, D.H. and Min, K.J. (2019). ‘’Comparison Between Early Functional Rehabilitation and Cast Immobilization After Minimally Invasive Repair for an Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture’’. The Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery, 58(4), 628-631.
  • 15. Lantto, L, Heikkinen, J, Flinkkila, T, Ohtonen, P, Siira, P, Laine, V. and Leppilahti, J. (2016). ‘’A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatments of Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures’’. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(9), 2406-2414.
  • 16. Olsson, N, Silbernagel, K.G, Eriksson, B.I, Sansone, M, Brorsson, A, Nilsson Helander, K. and Karlsson, J. (2013). ‘’Stable surgical repair with accelerated rehabilitation versus nonsurgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon ruptures: a randomized controlled study’’. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(12), 2867-2876.
  • 17. Barfod, K.W, Nielsen, F, Helander, K.N. et al. (2013). ‘’Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture in Scandinavia Does Not Adhere to Evidence-based Guidelines: A Cross-sectional Questionnaire-based Study of 138 Departments’’. The Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery, 52(5), 629-633.
  • 18. Möller, M, Movin, T, Granhed, H, Lind, K, Faxén, E. and Karlsson J. (2001). “Acute rupture of tendo Achillis. A prospective, randomized study of comparision between surgical and non-surgical treatment”. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 83(6), 843-848.
  • 19. Ryu, C.H, Lee, H.S, Seo, S.G. and Kim, H.Y. (2018). ‘’Results of tenorrhaphy with early rehabilitation for acute tear of Achilles tendon’’. Journal of Orthopedic Surgery (Hong Kong), 26(3), 2309499018802483.
  • 20. Costa, M.L, MacMillan, K, Halliday, D, Chester, R, Shepstone, L, Robinson, A.H. and Donell, S.T. (2006). ‘’Randomised controlled trials of immediate weight-bearing mobilisation for rupture of the tendo Achillis’’. The Journal of Bone Joint Surgery British, 88(1), 69-77.
  • 21. Andersson, T, Eliasson, P. and Aspenberg, P. (2009). “Tissue memory in healing tendons: short loading episodes stimulate healing”. Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(2), 417-421.
  • 22. Bring, D, Reno, C, Renstrom, P, Salo, P, Hart, D. and Ackermann, P. (2010). ‘’Prolonged immobilization compromises up-regulation of repair genes after tendon rupture in a rat model’’. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine& Science in Sports, 20(3), 411-417.
  • 23. Marti, R. and Weber, B. (1974). ‘’Rupture of the achilles tendon- functional after care’’. Helvetica Chirurgica Acta, 41(1–2), 293-296.
  • 24. Nilsson-Helander, K, Silbernagel, K.G, Thomee´, R. et al. (2010). ‘’Acute achilles tendon rupture: a randomized, controlled study comparing surgical and nonsurgical treatments using validated outcome measures’’.The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(11), 2186-2193.
  • 25. Huang, J, Wang, C, Ma, X, Wang, X, Zhang, C. and Chen, L. (2015). ‘’Rehabilitation regimen after surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures: a systematic review with meta-analysis’’. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(4), 1008-1116.
  • 26. Valkering, K.P, Aufwerber, S, Ranuccio, F, Lunini, E, Edman, G. and Ackermann, P.W. (2017). ‘’Functional weight-bearing mobilization after Achilles tendon rupture enhances early healing response: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial’’. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 25(6), 1807–1816.
  • 27. Kangas, J, Pajala, A, Ohtonen, P. and Leppilahti, J. (2007). ‘’Achilles tendon elongation after rupture repair: a randomized comparison of 2 postoperative regimens’’. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(1), 59- 64.
  • 28. Suchak, A.A, Spooner, C, Reid, D.C. and Jomha, N.M. (2006). ‘’Postoperative rehabilitation protocols for Achilles tendon ruptures: a metaanalysis’’. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, 445, 216-221.
  • 29. Lu, J, Liang, X. and Ma, Q. (2019). ‘’Early Functional Rehabilitation for Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures: An Update Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials’’. The Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery, 58(5), 938-945.
  • 30. Kerkhoffs, G.M, Struijs, P.A, Raaymakers, E.L. and Marti, R.K. (2002). ‘’Functional treatment after surgical repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture: wrap vs walking cast’’. Archives of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, 122(2), 102–105.
  • 31. Jacob, K. and Paterson, R. (2007). ‘’Surgical repair followed by functional rehabilitation for acute and chronic Achilles tendon injuries: excellent functional results, patient satisfaction and no reruptures’’. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 77(4), 287–291.
  • 32. Deng, S, Sun, Z, Zhang, C, Chen, G, and Li, J. (2017). ‘’Surgical Treatment Versus Conservative Management for Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials’’. The Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery, 56(6), 1236-1243.
  • 33. Eliasson, P, Agergaard, A.S, Couppe, C, Svensson, R, Hoeffner, R. and Warming S. (2018). “The Ruptured Achilles Tendon Elongates for 6 Months After Surgical Repair Regardless of Early or Late Weightbearing in Combination With Ankle Mobilization: A Randomized Clinical Trial’’. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(10), 2492-2502.
  • 34. Gould, H.P, Bano, J.M, Akman, J.L. and Fillar, A.S. (2021). ‘’Postoperative Rehabilitation Following Achilles Tendon Repair: A Systematic Review’’. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, 29 (2), 130-145.
  • 35. Dai, W, Leng, X, Wang, J, Hu, X. and Ao, Y. (2021). “Rehabilitation regimen for non-surgical treatment of Achilles tendon rupture: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials”. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 24(6), 536-543.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Ali CEYLAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
KARAMANOGLU MEHMETBEY UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-7440-6714
Türkiye


Ertuğrul DEMİRDEL>
ANKARA YILDIRIM BEYAZIT UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-7139-0523
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Yok
Proje Numarası Yok
Teşekkür Yapmış olduğunuz eleştiri, öneri ve tavsiyeler için teşekkür eder, iyi çalışmalar dilerim
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { gumussagbil870376, journal = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi}, eissn = {2146-9954}, address = {}, publisher = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {11}, number = {2}, pages = {825 - 831}, doi = {10.37989/gumussagbil.870376}, title = {Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları}, key = {cite}, author = {Ceylan, Ali and Demirdel, Ertuğrul} }
APA Ceylan, A. & Demirdel, E. (2022). Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi , 11 (2) , 825-831 . DOI: 10.37989/gumussagbil.870376
MLA Ceylan, A. , Demirdel, E. "Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları" . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 (2022 ): 825-831 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gumussagbil/issue/70821/870376>
Chicago Ceylan, A. , Demirdel, E. "Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 (2022 ): 825-831
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları AU - Ali Ceylan , Ertuğrul Demirdel Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.870376 DO - 10.37989/gumussagbil.870376 T2 - Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 825 EP - 831 VL - 11 IS - 2 SN - -2146-9954 M3 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.870376 UR - https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.870376 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları %A Ali Ceylan , Ertuğrul Demirdel %T Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları %D 2022 %J Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P -2146-9954 %V 11 %N 2 %R doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.870376 %U 10.37989/gumussagbil.870376
ISNAD Ceylan, Ali , Demirdel, Ertuğrul . "Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 / 2 (Haziran 2022): 825-831 . https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.870376
AMA Ceylan A. , Demirdel E. Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 11(2): 825-831.
Vancouver Ceylan A. , Demirdel E. Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 11(2): 825-831.
IEEE A. Ceylan ve E. Demirdel , "Aşil Tendon Yaralanmaları ve Erken Dönem Fonksiyonel Rehabilitasyon Uygulamaları", Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, c. 11, sayı. 2, ss. 825-831, Haz. 2022, doi:10.37989/gumussagbil.870376