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Investigation of Relationship with COVID-19 and Acute Pancreatitis

Yıl 2021, Sayı: 13, 130 - 143, 29.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.815768

Öz

More than 2 million people worldwide have died due to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The severity of the disease ranges from subclinical infections to severe illnesses requiring hospitalization. SARS-CoV-2, which is the causative agent of COVID-19 disease, mainly affects the respiratory tract, but gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may also occur. Abdominal pain is one of the known symptoms associated with COVID-19 disease. There are a few data on the development of acute pancreatitis as a complication of severe COVID-19 infection. Some patients with COVID-19 may develop an elevated pancreatic enzyme and rarely acute pancreatitis. This situation is associated with a particularly serious clinical picture. The mechanism of pancreatic involvement in COVID-19 is not clearly understood. In this review, it was aimed to evaluate COVID-19 associated pancreatitis.

Kaynakça

  • Kutlu O, Bilgiç Y, Bahri E, Atayan Y, Çağın YF. Alkolik olmayan yağlı karaciğer hastalığı rekürren akut pankreatit için bir risk faktörü müdür? Fırat Tıp Derg. 2020;25(3):135-139.
  • Mazrouei SSA, Saeed GA, Al Helali AA. COVID-19-associated acute pancreatitis: a rare cause of acute abdomen. Radiol Case Rep. 2020;15(9):1601-1603. doi: 10.1016/j.radcr.2020.06.019.
  • Kottanattu L, Lava SAG, Helbling R, Simonetti GD, Bianchetti MG, Milani GP. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection - systematic review of the literature. J Clin Virol. 2016;82:51-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2016.06.017.
  • Agzarian AE. Agzarian AY. Influenza A as a cause of acute pancreatitis: a case report. Proceedings of UCLA Healthcare. 2016;20:1-2.
  • Sullivan SJ, Jacobson RM, Dowdle WR, Poland GA. 2009 H1N1 influenza. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85(1):64-76. doi: 10.4065/mcp.2009.0588.
  • https://covid19.who.int/who –Corona virüs disease (COVID-19) dashboard. Erişim tarihi 25 Ocak 2021.
  • Li LQ, Huang T, Wang YQ, et al. COVID-19 patients' clinical characteristics, discharge rate, and fatality rate of meta-analysis. J Med Virol. 2020;92(6):577-583. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25757.
  • Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, et al. Washington State 2019-nCoV Case Investigation Team. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(10):929-936. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191.
  • Yang JK, Lin SS, Ji XJ, Guo LM. Binding of SARS coronavirus to its receptor damages islets and causes acute diabetes. Acta Diabetol. 2010;47(3):193-9. doi: 10.1007/s00592-009-0109-4.
  • Wang F, Wang H, Fan J, Zhang Y, Wang H, Zhao Q. Pancreatic ınjury patterns in patients with coronavirus disease 19 pneumonia. Gastroenterology. 2020;159(1):367-370. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.03.055
  • McNabb-Baltar J, Jin DX, Grover AS, et al. Lipase Elevation in Patients with COVID-19. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020;115(8):1286-1288. doi:10.14309/ajg.0000000000000732.
  • Liu F, Long X, Zhang B, Zhang W, Chen X, Zhang Z. ACE2 expression in pancreas may cause pancreatic damage after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;18(9):2128-2130.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2020.04.040
  • Banks PA, Bollen TL, Dervenis C, et al. Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Classification of acute pancreatitis--2012: revision of the Atlanta classification and definitions by international consensus. Gut. 2013;62(1):102-11. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2012-302779.
  • Hadi A, Werge M, Kristiansen KT, et al. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) associated with severe acute pancreatitis: case report on three family members. Pancreatology. 2020;20(4):665-667. doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2020.04.021.
  • İnkaya AÇ, Taş Z, Akova M. COVID-19’un güncel tedavisi. Yalçın Ş, Özet A, editörler. Kanser ve COVID-19 Pandemisi. 1. Baskı. Ankara: Türkiye Klinikleri; 2020. p.27-37.
  • Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
  • Wong EC, Butch AW, Rosenblum JL. The clinical chemistry laboratory and acute pancreatitis. Clinical chemistry. 1993;39:234–43.
  • https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-acute-pancreatitis. Erişim tarihi 11 Ekim 2020.
  • Biberoğlu S, Koyuncu M, Öztürk D, et al. Role of computed tomography severity index in acute diagnosis and follow-up of acute pancreatitis. J Clin Anal Med. 2017;8(2):106-110.
  • Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Green CA, et al. Features of 20 133 UK patients in hospital with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study. BMJ. 2020;369:m1985.
  • Zhang H, Kang Z, Gong H, et al. Digestive system is a potential route of COVID19: an analysis of single-cell coexpression pattern of key proteins in viral entry process. Gut. 2020;69:1010–8.
  • Ullah AZDM, Sivapalan L, Chelala C, Kocher HM. COVID-19 in patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases in East London: a single-centre cohort study. medRxiv. 2020.09.07.20189621; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.07.20189621
  • Del Hoyo J, López-Muñoz P, Fernández-de la Varga M, et al. Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic: A fatal case of extensive splanchnic vein thrombosis in a patient with COVID-19. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;10.1111/jgh.15174. doi: 10.1111/jgh.15174.
  • Singla V, Arora A. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019. Journal of Digestive Endoscopy. 2020;11(1):21–3. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1712079.
  • Gubatan J, Levitte S, Patel A, et al. Prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with a history of pancreatitis in Northern California. Gut. 2021;70(2):440-441. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321772.
  • Barlass U, Wiliams B, Dhana K, et al. Marked elevation of lipase in COVID-19 Disease: a cohort study. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2020;11(7):e00215. doi: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000215.
  • Ding Y, He L, Zhang Q, et al. Organ distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in SARS patients: implications for pathogenesis and virus transmission pathways. J Pathol. 2004;203(2):622-30. doi: 10.1002/path.1560.
  • Hussain A, Bhowmik B, do Vale Moreira NC. COVID-19 and diabetes: Knowledge in progress. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020;162:108142. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108142.
  • Qian DH, Zhu GJ, Wu LZ, Hua GX. Isolation and characterization of a coronavirus from pigeons with pancreatitis. Am J Vet Res. 2006;67(9):1575-9. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.67.9.1575.
  • Wills SE, Beaufrère HH, Brisson BA, Fraser RS, Smith DA. Pancreatitis and systemic coronavirus infection in a Ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Comp Med. 2018;68(3):208-211. doi: 10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000109.
  • Aloysius MM, Thatti A, Gupta A, Sharma N, Bansal P, Goyal H. COVID-19 presenting as acutepancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2020;20(5):1026-1027. doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2020.05.003.
  • Cheung S, Delgado Fuentes A, Fetterman AD. Recurrent acute pancreatitis in a patient with COVID-19 Infection. Am J Case Rep. 2020;21:e927076. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.927076.
  • Lakshmanan S, Malik A. Acute pancreatitis in mild COVID-19 infection. Cureus. 2020;12(8):e9886. doi: 10.7759/cureus.9886.
  • Nikhil Kumar Patnaik R, Gogia A, Kakar A. Acute pancreatic injury induced by COVID-19. IDCases. 2020;10:e00959. doi: 10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00959.
  • Meireles PA, Bessa F, Gaspar P, et al. Acalculous acute pancreatitis in a COVID-19 patient. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med. 2020;7(6):001710. doi: 10.12890/2020_001710.
  • Miao Y, Lidove O, Mauhin W. First case of acute pancreatitis related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Br J Surg. 2020;107(8):e270. doi: 10.1002/bjs.11741
  • Mukherjee R, Smith A, Sutton R. Covid‐19‐related pancreatic injury. Br J Surg. 2020;10.1002/bjs.11645 [Epub ahead of print]
  • Szatmary P, Arora A, Thomas Raraty MG, Joseph Dunne DF, Baron RD, Halloran CM. Emerging Phenotype of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2-associated Pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2020;S0016-5085(20)34741-7. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.069.
  • Suchman K, Raphael KL, Liu Y, Wee D, Trindade AJ. Northwell COVID-19 Research Consortium. Acute pancreatitis in children hospitalized with COVID-19. Pancreatology. 2021;21(1):31-33. doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2020.12.005.
  • De-Madaria E, Siau K, Cárdenas-Jaén K. Increased amylase and lipase in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: don´t blame the pancreas just yet! Gastroenterology. 2020;S0016-5085(20)30561-8. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.044.
  • Medpage Today. https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/covid19/88328. Erişim tarihi 10 Ekim 2020.
  • Türk Cerrahi. Akut Pankreatit Tanısı. https://www.turkcerrahi.com/makaleler/pankreas/akut-pankreatit/pankreatit-tanisi/. Erişim tarihi 10 Ekim 2020.
  • Zhang C, Wu Z, Li JW, Zhao H, Wang GQ. Cytokine release syndrome in severe COVID-19: interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab may be the key to reduce mortality. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55(5):105954. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105954.
  • Guaraldi G, Meschiari M, Cozzi-Lepri A, et al. Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Rheumatol. 2020;2(8):e474-e484. doi: 10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30173-9.
  • Zielecki P, Kaniewska M, Furmanek M, Bulski T, Rydzewska G. Effective treatment of severe acute pancreatitis and COVID-19 pneumonia with tocilizumab. Prz Gastroenterol. 2020;15(3):267-272. doi: 10.5114/pg.2020.99042.
  • Chen KL, Lv ZY, Yang HW, et al. Effects of tocilizumab on experimental severe acute pancreatitis and associated acute lung ınjury. Crit Care Med. 2016;44(8):e664-77. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001639.
  • Hançerli Y, Kaplan M, Tanoğlu A, Yeşilbaş S, Küçükodacı Z, Yıldırım M. Efficacy of tocilizumab treatment in cerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2017;28(6):485-491. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2017.16738.
  • Clinical Trials. A Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients With Severe COVID-19 Pneumoni (COVACTA). https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04320615. Erişim tarihi 5 Ekim 2020.

COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi

Yıl 2021, Sayı: 13, 130 - 143, 29.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.815768

Öz

Koronavirüs hastalığı-19 (COVID-19) pandemisi şu an için dünya çapında iki milyondan fazla insanın ölümüne neden olmuştur. Hastalığın ciddiyeti subklinik infeksiyonlardan hastaneye yatmayı gerektiren ağır hastalığa kadar değişmektedir. COVID-19 hastalık etkeni olan SARS-CoV-2 esas olarak solunum yolunu etkiler, ancak mide bulantısı, kusma ve ishal gibi gastrointestinal semptomlar da ortaya çıkabilmektedir. Karın ağrısı, COVID-19 hastalığı ile ilişkili bilinen semptomlardan biridir. Şiddetli COVID-19 infeksiyonunun bir komplikasyonu olarak akut pankreatit gelişimi hakkında çok az veri bulunmaktadır. COVID-19 hastalarının bazılarında pankreas enzim yüksekliği ve nadir de olsa akut pankreatit gelişebilmektedir. Bu durum özellikle ciddi klinik tablo ile ilişkilidir. COVID-19’da pankreas tutulum mekanizması net anlaşılamamıştır. Bu derlemede COVID-19 ilişkili pankreatitin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Kutlu O, Bilgiç Y, Bahri E, Atayan Y, Çağın YF. Alkolik olmayan yağlı karaciğer hastalığı rekürren akut pankreatit için bir risk faktörü müdür? Fırat Tıp Derg. 2020;25(3):135-139.
  • Mazrouei SSA, Saeed GA, Al Helali AA. COVID-19-associated acute pancreatitis: a rare cause of acute abdomen. Radiol Case Rep. 2020;15(9):1601-1603. doi: 10.1016/j.radcr.2020.06.019.
  • Kottanattu L, Lava SAG, Helbling R, Simonetti GD, Bianchetti MG, Milani GP. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection - systematic review of the literature. J Clin Virol. 2016;82:51-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2016.06.017.
  • Agzarian AE. Agzarian AY. Influenza A as a cause of acute pancreatitis: a case report. Proceedings of UCLA Healthcare. 2016;20:1-2.
  • Sullivan SJ, Jacobson RM, Dowdle WR, Poland GA. 2009 H1N1 influenza. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85(1):64-76. doi: 10.4065/mcp.2009.0588.
  • https://covid19.who.int/who –Corona virüs disease (COVID-19) dashboard. Erişim tarihi 25 Ocak 2021.
  • Li LQ, Huang T, Wang YQ, et al. COVID-19 patients' clinical characteristics, discharge rate, and fatality rate of meta-analysis. J Med Virol. 2020;92(6):577-583. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25757.
  • Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, et al. Washington State 2019-nCoV Case Investigation Team. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(10):929-936. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191.
  • Yang JK, Lin SS, Ji XJ, Guo LM. Binding of SARS coronavirus to its receptor damages islets and causes acute diabetes. Acta Diabetol. 2010;47(3):193-9. doi: 10.1007/s00592-009-0109-4.
  • Wang F, Wang H, Fan J, Zhang Y, Wang H, Zhao Q. Pancreatic ınjury patterns in patients with coronavirus disease 19 pneumonia. Gastroenterology. 2020;159(1):367-370. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.03.055
  • McNabb-Baltar J, Jin DX, Grover AS, et al. Lipase Elevation in Patients with COVID-19. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020;115(8):1286-1288. doi:10.14309/ajg.0000000000000732.
  • Liu F, Long X, Zhang B, Zhang W, Chen X, Zhang Z. ACE2 expression in pancreas may cause pancreatic damage after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;18(9):2128-2130.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2020.04.040
  • Banks PA, Bollen TL, Dervenis C, et al. Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Classification of acute pancreatitis--2012: revision of the Atlanta classification and definitions by international consensus. Gut. 2013;62(1):102-11. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2012-302779.
  • Hadi A, Werge M, Kristiansen KT, et al. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) associated with severe acute pancreatitis: case report on three family members. Pancreatology. 2020;20(4):665-667. doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2020.04.021.
  • İnkaya AÇ, Taş Z, Akova M. COVID-19’un güncel tedavisi. Yalçın Ş, Özet A, editörler. Kanser ve COVID-19 Pandemisi. 1. Baskı. Ankara: Türkiye Klinikleri; 2020. p.27-37.
  • Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
  • Wong EC, Butch AW, Rosenblum JL. The clinical chemistry laboratory and acute pancreatitis. Clinical chemistry. 1993;39:234–43.
  • https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-acute-pancreatitis. Erişim tarihi 11 Ekim 2020.
  • Biberoğlu S, Koyuncu M, Öztürk D, et al. Role of computed tomography severity index in acute diagnosis and follow-up of acute pancreatitis. J Clin Anal Med. 2017;8(2):106-110.
  • Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Green CA, et al. Features of 20 133 UK patients in hospital with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study. BMJ. 2020;369:m1985.
  • Zhang H, Kang Z, Gong H, et al. Digestive system is a potential route of COVID19: an analysis of single-cell coexpression pattern of key proteins in viral entry process. Gut. 2020;69:1010–8.
  • Ullah AZDM, Sivapalan L, Chelala C, Kocher HM. COVID-19 in patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases in East London: a single-centre cohort study. medRxiv. 2020.09.07.20189621; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.07.20189621
  • Del Hoyo J, López-Muñoz P, Fernández-de la Varga M, et al. Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic: A fatal case of extensive splanchnic vein thrombosis in a patient with COVID-19. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;10.1111/jgh.15174. doi: 10.1111/jgh.15174.
  • Singla V, Arora A. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019. Journal of Digestive Endoscopy. 2020;11(1):21–3. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1712079.
  • Gubatan J, Levitte S, Patel A, et al. Prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with a history of pancreatitis in Northern California. Gut. 2021;70(2):440-441. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321772.
  • Barlass U, Wiliams B, Dhana K, et al. Marked elevation of lipase in COVID-19 Disease: a cohort study. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2020;11(7):e00215. doi: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000215.
  • Ding Y, He L, Zhang Q, et al. Organ distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in SARS patients: implications for pathogenesis and virus transmission pathways. J Pathol. 2004;203(2):622-30. doi: 10.1002/path.1560.
  • Hussain A, Bhowmik B, do Vale Moreira NC. COVID-19 and diabetes: Knowledge in progress. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020;162:108142. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108142.
  • Qian DH, Zhu GJ, Wu LZ, Hua GX. Isolation and characterization of a coronavirus from pigeons with pancreatitis. Am J Vet Res. 2006;67(9):1575-9. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.67.9.1575.
  • Wills SE, Beaufrère HH, Brisson BA, Fraser RS, Smith DA. Pancreatitis and systemic coronavirus infection in a Ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Comp Med. 2018;68(3):208-211. doi: 10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000109.
  • Aloysius MM, Thatti A, Gupta A, Sharma N, Bansal P, Goyal H. COVID-19 presenting as acutepancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2020;20(5):1026-1027. doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2020.05.003.
  • Cheung S, Delgado Fuentes A, Fetterman AD. Recurrent acute pancreatitis in a patient with COVID-19 Infection. Am J Case Rep. 2020;21:e927076. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.927076.
  • Lakshmanan S, Malik A. Acute pancreatitis in mild COVID-19 infection. Cureus. 2020;12(8):e9886. doi: 10.7759/cureus.9886.
  • Nikhil Kumar Patnaik R, Gogia A, Kakar A. Acute pancreatic injury induced by COVID-19. IDCases. 2020;10:e00959. doi: 10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00959.
  • Meireles PA, Bessa F, Gaspar P, et al. Acalculous acute pancreatitis in a COVID-19 patient. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med. 2020;7(6):001710. doi: 10.12890/2020_001710.
  • Miao Y, Lidove O, Mauhin W. First case of acute pancreatitis related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Br J Surg. 2020;107(8):e270. doi: 10.1002/bjs.11741
  • Mukherjee R, Smith A, Sutton R. Covid‐19‐related pancreatic injury. Br J Surg. 2020;10.1002/bjs.11645 [Epub ahead of print]
  • Szatmary P, Arora A, Thomas Raraty MG, Joseph Dunne DF, Baron RD, Halloran CM. Emerging Phenotype of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2-associated Pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2020;S0016-5085(20)34741-7. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.069.
  • Suchman K, Raphael KL, Liu Y, Wee D, Trindade AJ. Northwell COVID-19 Research Consortium. Acute pancreatitis in children hospitalized with COVID-19. Pancreatology. 2021;21(1):31-33. doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2020.12.005.
  • De-Madaria E, Siau K, Cárdenas-Jaén K. Increased amylase and lipase in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: don´t blame the pancreas just yet! Gastroenterology. 2020;S0016-5085(20)30561-8. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.044.
  • Medpage Today. https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/covid19/88328. Erişim tarihi 10 Ekim 2020.
  • Türk Cerrahi. Akut Pankreatit Tanısı. https://www.turkcerrahi.com/makaleler/pankreas/akut-pankreatit/pankreatit-tanisi/. Erişim tarihi 10 Ekim 2020.
  • Zhang C, Wu Z, Li JW, Zhao H, Wang GQ. Cytokine release syndrome in severe COVID-19: interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab may be the key to reduce mortality. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55(5):105954. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105954.
  • Guaraldi G, Meschiari M, Cozzi-Lepri A, et al. Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Rheumatol. 2020;2(8):e474-e484. doi: 10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30173-9.
  • Zielecki P, Kaniewska M, Furmanek M, Bulski T, Rydzewska G. Effective treatment of severe acute pancreatitis and COVID-19 pneumonia with tocilizumab. Prz Gastroenterol. 2020;15(3):267-272. doi: 10.5114/pg.2020.99042.
  • Chen KL, Lv ZY, Yang HW, et al. Effects of tocilizumab on experimental severe acute pancreatitis and associated acute lung ınjury. Crit Care Med. 2016;44(8):e664-77. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001639.
  • Hançerli Y, Kaplan M, Tanoğlu A, Yeşilbaş S, Küçükodacı Z, Yıldırım M. Efficacy of tocilizumab treatment in cerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2017;28(6):485-491. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2017.16738.
  • Clinical Trials. A Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients With Severe COVID-19 Pneumoni (COVACTA). https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04320615. Erişim tarihi 5 Ekim 2020.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Klinik Tıp Bilimleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Emine Kübra DİNDAR DEMİRAY
Bitlis Devlet Hastanesi, Enfeksiyon Hastalıkları ve Klinik Mikrobiyoloji Bölümü
0000-0001-6459-7182
Türkiye


Mustafa YILMAZ
Kütahya Sağlık Bilimleri Üniversitesi, Evliya Çelebi Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi, Enfeksiyon Hastalıkları ve Klinik Mikrobiyoloji Bölümü
Türkiye


Işıl Deniz ALIRAVCI
Manavgat Devlet Hastanesi, Enfeksiyon Hastalıkları ve Klinik Mikrobiyoloji Bölümü
0000-0002-4740-1579
Türkiye


Sevil ALKAN
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Enfeksiyon Hastalıkları ve Klinik Mikrobiyoloji Anabilim Dalı
0000-0003-1944-2477
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Nisan 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021 Sayı: 13

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { igusabder815768, journal = {İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {2536-4499}, eissn = {2602-2605}, address = {İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Yüksekokulu - Cihangir Mah. Şehit Jandarma Komando Er Hakan Öner Sk. No: 1 Avcılar / İstanbul / Türkiye}, publisher = {İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, number = {13}, pages = {130 - 143}, doi = {10.38079/igusabder.815768}, title = {COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Dindar Demiray, Emine Kübra and Yılmaz, Mustafa and Alıravcı, Işıl Deniz and Alkan, Sevil} }
APA Dindar Demiray, E. K. , Yılmaz, M. , Alıravcı, I. D. & Alkan, S. (2021). COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi , (13) , 130-143 . DOI: 10.38079/igusabder.815768
MLA Dindar Demiray, E. K. , Yılmaz, M. , Alıravcı, I. D. , Alkan, S. "COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi" . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi (2021 ): 130-143 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/igusabder/issue/61945/815768>
Chicago Dindar Demiray, E. K. , Yılmaz, M. , Alıravcı, I. D. , Alkan, S. "COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi". İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi (2021 ): 130-143
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi AU - Emine KübraDindar Demiray, MustafaYılmaz, Işıl DenizAlıravcı, SevilAlkan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.38079/igusabder.815768 DO - 10.38079/igusabder.815768 T2 - İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 130 EP - 143 VL - IS - 13 SN - 2536-4499-2602-2605 M3 - doi: 10.38079/igusabder.815768 UR - https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.815768 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi %A Emine Kübra Dindar Demiray , Mustafa Yılmaz , Işıl Deniz Alıravcı , Sevil Alkan %T COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi %D 2021 %J İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P 2536-4499-2602-2605 %V %N 13 %R doi: 10.38079/igusabder.815768 %U 10.38079/igusabder.815768
ISNAD Dindar Demiray, Emine Kübra , Yılmaz, Mustafa , Alıravcı, Işıl Deniz , Alkan, Sevil . "COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi". İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / 13 (Nisan 2021): 130-143 . https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.815768
AMA Dindar Demiray E. K. , Yılmaz M. , Alıravcı I. D. , Alkan S. COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi. IGUSABDER. 2021; (13): 130-143.
Vancouver Dindar Demiray E. K. , Yılmaz M. , Alıravcı I. D. , Alkan S. COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2021; (13): 130-143.
IEEE E. K. Dindar Demiray , M. Yılmaz , I. D. Alıravcı ve S. Alkan , "COVID-19-Akut Pankreatit İlişkisinin İncelenmesi", İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, sayı. 13, ss. 130-143, Nis. 2021, doi:10.38079/igusabder.815768

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